The management of women at high risk for the development of breast cancer: risk estimation and preventative strategies.


:Despite recent progress in the diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to the management of women with breast cancer, at least one third of these women will ultimately die from their disease. This resulted in a new focus on breast cancer prevention, especially for the woman designed as "high-risk". The continuing challenge is to identify reliable markers to accurately recognize this group of women, who are more likely to develop breast cancer. This will allow a targeted specific counseling and the application of preventative measures. Management options in high-risk women include intensive cancer surveillance, chemoprevention (mainly using tamoxifen), and prophylactic surgery (preferentially total mastectomy). Cancer surveillance is the most preferred management option. Currently, no data exists comparing prophylactic mastectomy vs. surveillance vs. chemoprevention. Thus, despite significant advances in our understanding of the biology of breast cancer, many questions remain unanswered concerning the optimal management of the high-risk woman. Patient counseling has a central role in the decision-making process and should be based on a multidisciplinary approach. The individual woman will make the final decision based on the amount of risk she is willing to accept. It is hoped that other preventative methods, such as gene therapy based on an accurate identification of specific genetic changes, will be developed in the future.


Cancer Treat Rev


Cancer treatment reviews


Sakorafas GH





Has Abstract


2003-04-01 00:00:00














  • Management of a novel immune deficiency with IL-2 therapy.

    abstract::The present study describes a female child, who had a primary defect in the ability of her T-cells to secrete interleukin-2. Numbers of B- and T-cells were normal, but their functions were severely deficient. The patient had decreased immunoglobulins and poor ability to mount antibody responses. Phytohemagglutinin (PH...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pahwa R,Paradise C,Good RA

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • Consolidation systemic treatment after radiochemotherapy for unresectable stage III non-small cell lung cancer.

    abstract::The majority of stage III NSCLC patients managed with a combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy will develop a locoregional or distant relapse. Concomitant radiochemotherapy allows for improved local control but has no impact on extrathoracic recurrences. To ameliorate this inefficiency the concept of consolidati...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Skrzypski M,Jassem J

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Electrochemotherapy of chest wall breast cancer recurrence.

    abstract::Chest wall breast cancer recurrence after mastectomy is a disease difficult to treat. Its incidence varies between 5% and 30% in different subset of patients. When possible, radical surgical therapy represents the main treatment approach, however when the disease progresses and/or treatments are not successful, ulcera...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sersa G,Cufer T,Paulin SM,Cemazar M,Snoj M

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of outcomes and toxicities among radiation therapy treatment options for prostate cancer.

    abstract::We review radiation therapy (RT) options available for prostate cancer, including external beam (EBRT; with conventional fractionation, hypofractionation, stereotactic body RT [SBRT]) and brachytherapy (BT), with an emphasis on the outcomes, toxicities, and contraindications for therapies. PICOS/PRISMA methods were us...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zaorsky NG,Shaikh T,Murphy CT,Hallman MA,Hayes SB,Sobczak ML,Horwitz EM

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Radiotherapy-induced ear toxicity.

    abstract::Despite their particular functional consequences, radiotherapy-induced ear injuries remain under-evaluated and under-reported. These reactions may have acute or late character, may affect all structures of the hearing organ, and result in conductive, sensorineural or mixed hearing loss. Up to 40% of patients have acut...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jereczek-Fossa BA,Zarowski A,Milani F,Orecchia R

    更新日期:2003-10-01 00:00:00

  • RAF signaling in neuroendocrine neoplasms: from bench to bedside.

    abstract::Neuroendocrine neoplasms are a low-incidence and heterogeneous group of malignancies. In the advanced stage, several therapeutic options can be discussed, including molecular-targeted agents, but biological predicting factors are lacking. A number of molecular targets have been studied over the last decade leading to ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fazio N,Abdel-Rahman O,Spada F,Galdy S,De Dosso S,Capdevila J,Scarpa A

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of hormonal treatment on lipids in patients with cancer.

    abstract::Patients with malignant disease may need hormonal therapy as primary or adjuvant treatment or for palliation. Oestrogens usually decrease serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), increase high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration, but induce an elevation ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Filippatos TD,Liberopoulos EN,Pavlidis N,Elisaf MS,Mikhailidis DP

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • Oxaliplatin for the treatment of cisplatin-resistant cancer: a systematic review.

    abstract::Oxaliplatin is widely regarded as being active in cisplatin-resistant cancer. We undertook a systematic review of the literature to identify, describe and critique the clinical and pre-clinical evidence for the use of oxaliplatin in patients with "cisplatin-resistant" cancer. We identified 25 pre-clinical cell models ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stordal B,Pavlakis N,Davey R

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of targeted therapy: Implications for response and impact of genetic polymorphisms.

    abstract::Targeted therapies have unique toxicity profiles. Common adverse events include rash, diarrhea, hypertension, hypothyroidism, proteinuria, depigmentation, and hepatotoxicity. Some of these toxicities are caused by on-target, mechanism-associated effects, which can be stratified as to whether or not the targets are rel...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liu S,Kurzrock R

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00

  • Can stereotactic fractionated radiation therapy become the standard of care for early stage non-small cell lung carcinoma.

    abstract::Management of early stages non-small cell lung carcinoma has traditionally been surgery with radiation selected for medically inoperable patients. Recent emergence of stereotactic body radiation therapy allows for delivery of high radiation dose to the tumor while sparing normal lungs. This reviews compares loco-regio...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nguyen NP,Garland L,Welsh J,Hamilton R,Cohen D,Vinh-Hung V

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Using aromatase inhibitors in the neoadjuvant setting: evolution or revolution?

    abstract::Despite improvements in the management of patients with early breast cancer, the prognosis for women with locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) remains poor. The potential goals of neoadjuvant treatment for this disease include down-sizing tumours to allow breast conservation as well as the possibility of improving su...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Freedman OC,Verma S,Clemons MJ

    更新日期:2005-02-01 00:00:00

  • PD-1 and PD-L1 blockade in gastrointestinal malignancies.

    abstract::Immunotherapy represents a major breakthrough in cancer therapy in recent years. Immune-checkpoint blockade using PD-1 and PD-L1 antibodies appears to be one of the most promising immunotherapy approaches. Immunotherapy differs from conventional cancer treatment because of its ability to produce durable responses in s...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lote H,Cafferkey C,Chau I

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Current questions for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer remains a major health problem worldwide. Treatment of advanced gastric cancer is controversial and there is no standard regimen for first- or second-line chemotherapy (CT). This review aims to give an overview of the hot topics concerning treatment, prognostic factors and new strategies in ad...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cervantes A,Roda D,Tarazona N,Roselló S,Pérez-Fidalgo JA

    更新日期:2013-02-01 00:00:00

  • Immunomodulation therapy in colorectal carcinoma.

    abstract::There has been much progress in the understanding of the relationship between the immune system and colorectal cancer. This has led to the use of immunomodulatory therapy in the adjuvant and palliative treatment of the condition. Although attempts at the use of non-specific immunomodulation with agents such as levamis...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yip D,Strickland AH,Karapetis CS,Hawkins CA,Harper PG

    更新日期:2000-06-01 00:00:00

  • Locoregional radiological treatment for hepatocellular carcinoma; Which, when and how?

    abstract::Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most frequent and deadliest cancers worldwide. Liver transplantation, surgical resection or local ablation offer the best survival advantages but most patients either present when the tumor is in an advanced stage or the degree of underlying liver disease precludes these op...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meza-Junco J,Montano-Loza AJ,Liu DM,Sawyer MB,Bain VG,Ma M,Owen R

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy in breast cancer.

    abstract::The use of endocrine therapy is well established as a primary treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. However, despite the current popularity of neoadjuvant chemotherapy for operable tumours, there is relatively little published evidence for pre-operative endocrine therapy in operable disease, particularly outsi...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Beresford MJ,Ravichandran D,Makris A

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • Chemo-immunotherapy and chemo-adoptive immunotherapy of cancer.

    abstract::The chemo-immunotherapy (CIT) and chemo-adoptive immunotherapy (CAIT) regimens tested in the past decade are summarized. From them we have learned a great deal about the interactions between various chemotherapeutic agents, immune modulating agents and effector cells. The most commonly reported result in multi-modalit...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gomez GG,Hutchison RB,Kruse CA

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac toxicity in breast cancer patients: from a fractional point of view to a global assessment.

    abstract::When focusing on heart disease, most available studies split the two different parts of the adjuvant treatment, i.e., systemic therapies and radiation therapy, making it difficult to implement efficient strategies for preventing treatment-induced cardiac toxicity. This paper reviews the current understanding of treatm...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chargari C,Kirov KM,Bollet MA,Magné N,Védrine L,Cremades S,Beuzeboc P,Fourquet A,Kirova YM

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Discordances in ER, PR and HER2 receptors after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer.

    abstract::Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) for breast cancer is evolving and subsequent adjuvant systemic treatment is mainly based on the presence of the Estrogen (ER) receptor, Progesterone (PR) receptor and Human Epidermal growth factor Receptor 2 (HER2) status on the core needle biopsy prior to treatment. It is not well known...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van de Ven S,Smit VT,Dekker TJ,Nortier JW,Kroep JR

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Neck lymph node metastases from unknown primary.

    abstract::Metastatic cervical carcinoma from unknown primary is a metastatic disease in the lymph nodes of the neck without any evidence of a primary tumour after appropriate investigation. The condition is rare and definite evidence is lacking for both diagnosis and treatment. In this review of the literature, we tried to draw...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Arosio AD,Pignataro L,Gaini RM,Garavello W

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Alternative formulations of paclitaxel.

    abstract::Paclitaxel, a novel antitumour agent, is active clinically against advanced ovarian and breast cancer and under investigation for various other cancers. One of the problems associated with the intravenous administration of paclitaxel is its low solubility in water. The current pharmaceutical formulation consists of a ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Terwogt JM,Nuijen B,Huinink WW,Beijnen JH

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Second-line therapy for advanced pancreatic cancer: a review of the literature and future directions.

    abstract::Whereas first-line chemotherapy (CT) with single-agent gemcitabine or gemcitabine-based combinations provides a proven benefit in patients with locally advanced or metastatic pancreatic cancer (PC), the role of salvage CT after gemcitabine-failure is not well-established and to date no regimen has emerged as preferred...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Custodio A,Puente J,Sastre J,Díaz-Rubio E

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the tumor-microenvironment in lung cancer-metastasis and its relationship to potential therapeutic targets.

    abstract::Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for >80% of lung cancer cases and currently has an overall five-year survival rate of only 15%. Patients presenting with advanced stage NSCLC die within 18-months of diagnosis. Metastatic spread accounts for >70% of these deaths. Thus elucidation of the mechanistic basis of ...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wood SL,Pernemalm M,Crosbie PA,Whetton AD

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

  • The Notch-1 receptor in prostate tumorigenesis.

    abstract::The Notch signalling pathway plays a fundamental role in tissue development due to its involvement in cell fate determination and postnatal tissue differentiation. Its capacity to regulate cell growth and development has been linked to the occurrence of several cancers including that of the prostate. The transmembrane...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: O'Brien R,Marignol L

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular immunotherapy in breast cancer: The quest for consistent biomarkers.

    abstract::Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women worldwide, with a relatively high proportion of patients experiencing resistance to standard treatments. Cellular immunotherapy (CI), which is based on the extraction, modification, and re-infusion of the patient's immune cells, is showing promising results in these...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Venetis K,Invernizzi M,Sajjadi E,Curigliano G,Fusco N

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • A literature review of the association between diffusion-weighted MRI derived apparent diffusion coefficient and tumour aggressiveness in pelvic cancer.

    abstract::Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) is used extensively to improve tumour detection and localization because it offers excellent soft tissue contrast between malignant and non-malignant tissues. It also provides a quantitative biomarker; the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) can be derived from D...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bollineni VR,Kramer G,Liu Y,Melidis C,deSouza NM

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00

  • Targeted therapies and complete responses in first line treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A meta-analysis of published trials.

    abstract::Antiangiogenic agents (AAs) have reported grater efficacy compared to interferon. Despite these advances, radiological complete response to therapy is rare. We meta-analyzed the incidence of complete response in patients treated with AAs and in controls in main randomized clinical trials for first-line therapy in meta...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Iacovelli R,Alesini D,Palazzo A,Trenta P,Santoni M,De Marchis L,Cascinu S,Naso G,Cortesi E

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of ifosfamide in refractory malignant diseases and uroprotection by mesna: results of a clinical phase II-study with 151 patients.

    abstract::In a clinical phase II study 151 patients with refractory malignant diseases were treated with ifosfamide (60 mg/kg/day i.v. days 1-5, q 21-28 days). Altogether, 490 courses of treatment were given, 92 with conventional prophylactic measures (continuous infusion of 3-4 litre physiological saline plus alkalinization of...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheulen ME,Niederle N,Bremer K,Schütte J,Seeber S

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • p53 as a target for the treatment of cancer.

    abstract::TP53 (p53) is the most frequently mutated gene in cancer, being altered in approximately 50% of human malignancies. In most, if not all, cancers lacking mutation, wild-type (WT) p53 is inactivated by interaction with cellular (MDM2/MDM4) or viral proteins, leading to its degradation. Because of its near universal alte...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Duffy MJ,Synnott NC,McGowan PM,Crown J,O'Connor D,Gallagher WM

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11/CXCR3 axis for immune activation - A target for novel cancer therapy.

    abstract::Chemokines are proteins which induce chemotaxis, promote differentiation of immune cells, and cause tissue extravasation. Given these properties, their role in anti-tumor immune response in the cancer environment is of great interest. Although immunotherapy has shown clinical benefit for some cancer patients, other pa...

    journal_title:Cancer treatment reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tokunaga R,Zhang W,Naseem M,Puccini A,Berger MD,Soni S,McSkane M,Baba H,Lenz HJ

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00