The PD-1/PD-L1 pathway: biological background and clinical relevance of an emerging treatment target in immunotherapy.


INTRODUCTION:The co-inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands are key regulators in a wide spectrum of immune responses and play a critical role in autoimmunity and self-tolerance as well as in cancer immunology. Emerging evidence suggests that cancer cells might use the PD-1/PD-ligand (PD-L) pathway to escape anti-tumor immunity. Based on this evidence, early phase human clinical trials targeting the PD-1/PD-L pathway are currently underway for multiple human cancers. AREAS COVERED:The role of the PD-1/PD-L pathway in autoimmune disease, viral infections as well as in malignant neoplasms is discussed and an overview of the existing therapeutics as well as the results of clinical trials targeting this pathway in cancer is given. EXPERT OPINION:The PD-1/PD-L pathway represents an important mechanism of immune evasion for malignant neoplasms. Early clinical trials indicate effectiveness of PD-1/PD-L pathway blockade in several solid cancers. However, greater insight into the exact mechanisms by which tumors are able to evade anti-tumor immunity is needed to increase clinical effectiveness, for example by combination blockade of diverse co-inhibitory receptors.


Muenst S,Soysal SD,Tzankov A,Hoeller S




Has Abstract


2015-02-01 00:00:00












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    authors: Kumar S,Attrish D,Srivastava A,Banerjee J,Tripathi M,Chandra PS,Dixit AB

    更新日期:2021-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pro-resolving lipid mediators as therapeutic leads for cardiovascular diseases.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of human death globally. Lipid mediators contribute to the initiation and resolution of inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. These resolving lipid mediators antagonize the effects of pro-inflammatory prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes...

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    authors: Cheng Y,Rong J

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  • Targeting RhoA/ROCK pathway in pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease with a complex pathogenesis. It is often associated with an increased vascular resistance, whilst in the more advanced stages there is a remodelling of the vascular walls. PAH has an intricate involvement of various signaling pathways, including the r...

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    authors: Antoniu SA

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  • Inflammatory mediators modulating the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor: therapeutic targets to treat inflammatory and neuropathic pain.

    abstract::The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor (TRPV1) plays an important role in inflammatory heat hyperalgesia. TRPV1 is a non-selective cation channel gated by noxious heat, protons and capsaicin, thus being regarded as a polymodal molecular integrator in nociception. Abundant evidence has demonstrated that ...

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    authors: Ma W,Quirion R

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    authors: Hu Y,Wang X,Yu S,Hou Y,Ma D,Hou M

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    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wiesner J,Seeber F

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    authors: Halapas A,Armakolas A,Koutsilieris M

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    authors: Tziomalos K,Athyros VG,Karagiannis A,Mikhailidis DP

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    authors: Kiselyov AS,Tkachenko SE,Balakin KV,Ivachtchenko AV

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    authors: Jones E,Pu H,Kyprianou N

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    authors: Musumeci M,Vadalà G,Russo F,Pelacchi F,Lanotte A,Denaro V

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    authors: Colini Baldeschi A,Vanni S,Zattoni M,Legname G

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    journal_title:Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sharma S,Odunsi K

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    journal_title:Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Cho WC

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    journal_title:Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stieber D,Abdul Rahim SA,Niclou SP

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yang W,Ma J,Zhou W,Cao B,Zhou X,Yang Z,Zhang H,Zhao Q,Fan D,Hong L

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Xie SC,Dick LR,Gould A,Brand S,Tilley L

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Expert opinion on therapeutic targets

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhang Z,Xie M,Ye K

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00