Generation and entrainment of circadian rhythms.


:1. The present brief review examines some of the new developments in the area of circadian rhythm research. 2. The discovery of the mouse clock and m-per genes and their similarity to other clock genes like per and tim has provided new insight into the control of rhythms in vertebrates. In mice, these genes are expressed in the site of the biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), and so will now become a focus of research into the generation of rhythmicity. 3. Because SCN cells expressing endogenous rhythms have a periodicity different from 24 h, there must be mechanisms in place to reset the rhythms on a daily basis. This is achieved in mammals by retinal light perception and neural transmission through several discrete pathways to the SCN. 4. The nature of the neurotransmitters involved in this transfer of environmental information to the timing system is controversial and may even very between similar species but, in the rat, there is compelling evidence that a serotonergic pathway is pre-eminent in mediating the effects of light. How the re-setting is achieved at the cellular level is not known.


Kennaway DJ




Has Abstract


1998-10-01 00:00:00












  • Effect of mineralocorticoids and salt loading on renin release, renal renin content and renal renin mRNA in mice.

    abstract::1. DOCA and 9 alpha-fludrocortisone were given to mice on a high-sodium diet for periods of up to 20 weeks, resulting in decreases in plasma renin concentration, renal renin concentration and renal renin mRNA with both treatments. 2. Plasma renin concentration was suppressed prior to suppression of renin mRNA and rena...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barrett G,Morgan T,Smith M,Aldred P

    更新日期:1989-08-01 00:00:00

  • Concentration of guanidines in normal human plasma.

    abstract::1. The concentration of methylguanidine and guanidinosuccinic acid has been measured in normal human plasma and discrepancies between various published methods for measuring methylguanidine have been resolved. Previous methods have been modified to allow these guanidines, together with guanidinoacetic acid and creatin...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lazdins I,Dawborn JK

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • Glycyrrhizin treatment ameliorates post-traumatic stress disorder-like behaviours and restores circadian oscillation of intracranial serotonin.

    abstract::Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has become a major disease that threatens human health. Neurotransmitters and the amygdala are found to be critical in the development and maintenance of PTSD. We aim to investigate the role of glycyrrhizin in treating PTSD. Contextual fear extinction and elevated plus maze test w...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lai S,Shi L,Jiang Z,Lin Z

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Paf antagonists block induction of nitric oxide synthase in cultured macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    abstract::1. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors and Paf antagonists abrogate hypotension in septic shock. The latter may act by blocking intracellular transduction mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammatory cells. We examined the effect of Paf antagonists on expression of inducible NO synthase. 2. A murine m...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arthur JF,Shahin S,Dusting GJ

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Action of almitrine bismesylate on ventilation-perfusion matching in cats and dogs with part of the lung hypoventilated.

    abstract::Ventilation to one lobe of lung was reduced in anaesthetized open-chest cats and dogs to simulate the ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) mismatching of chronic lung disease. Blood flow to this lobe fell less than ventilation; thus lobar V/Q diminished. In seven cats almitrine (0.5 mg/kg + 10 micrograms/kg per min, i.v.) caus...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wach RA,Gill GW,Suggett AJ,Bee D,Barer G

    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Functional interaction between DPI 201-106, a drug that mimics congenital long QT syndrome, and sevoflurane on the guinea-pig cardiac action potential.

    abstract::1. Sevoflurane produces QT prolongation on the electrocardiogram, predominantly via inhibition of the slow delayed rectifier K(+) current. DPI 201-106 is an experimental drug that produces QT prolongation by reducing Na(+) channel inactivation, thereby mimicking congenital long QT syndrome type 3 (LQT3). The present s...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kang J,Chen XL,Reynolds WP,Rampe D

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Infrequent response by diabetic rats to insulin-liposomes.

    abstract::1. Insulin-liposomes of four different lipid combinations were given intragastrically to normal rats on twenty occasions and to diabetic rats on 164 occasions. 2. Normal rats showed no hypoglycaemic response to either sonicated or unsonicated liposomes. 3. Diabetic rats failed to respond to sonicated liposomes but six...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shenfield GM,Hill JC

    更新日期:1982-07-01 00:00:00

  • Angiotensin II-nitric oxide interaction in glomerular arterioles.

    abstract::1. Resistance changes of the afferent and efferent arterioles determine blood flow and filtration rate in the kidney. The tone of both vessels results from the influence of nerves and humoral and paracrine factors, through a balance of constrictor and dilator systems. Angiotensin (Ang) II and nitric oxide (NO) are imp...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Patzak A,Lai E,Persson PB,Persson AE

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in postoperative night bispectral index of patients undergoing thoracic surgery with different types of anaesthesia management: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract::This study hypothesized that different types of anaesthesia management would result in similar postoperative sleep quality. In this prospective single-blind investigation, 219 patients undergoing elective thoracic surgery were randomized into three arms: general anaesthesia, as the control group (group C); general ana...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Tan WF,Guo B,Ma H,Li XQ,Fang B,Lv HW

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Augmented exercise plasma noradrenaline with impaired chronotropic responsiveness in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    abstract::1. There is controversy regarding plasma catecholamine levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and few data exist on serial plasma catecholamine measurements during exercise. The present study determined whether cardiovascular and plasma catecholamine responses to exercise were altered in patients wi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Omodani H,Kinugawa T,Ogino K,Furuse Y,Yamaguchi M,Mori M,Endo A,Kato M,Kato T,Osaki S,Miyakoda H,Igawa O,Hisatome I,Shigemasa C

    更新日期:1998-12-01 00:00:00

  • Autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury.

    abstract::Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohu...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hering D,Winklewski PJ

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Role of cAMP in the effects of K+ on the steroidogenesis of zona glomerulosa cells.

    abstract::1. Investigations of the role of cAMP in the stimulation of the steroidogenesis of zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells by increased extracellular K+ concentration are reviewed. 2. Possible reasons for discrepancies in the results of different investigators on whether K+ increases the cAMP content or output of ZG tissue or dis...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tait JF,Tait SA

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Signalling pathways activated by endothelin stimulation of renal cells.

    abstract::1. Endothelin mediates its effects in a variety of renal cells via a multiplicity of intracellular signalling pathways. 2. Stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC), resulting in the activation of inositol trisphosphate and diacylglycerol, can be detected even at picomolar concentrations of...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nord EP

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Carotid body potentiation induced by intermittent hypoxia: implications for cardiorespiratory changes induced by sleep apnoea.

    abstract::1. The most usual form of chronic hypoxia in humans is the intermittent hypoxia resulting from obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA). The OSA syndrome is a highly prevalent sleep breathing disorder that is considered an independent risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Endothelial dysfunction, oxidative s...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Iturriaga R,Moya EA,Del Rio R

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • The uridine nucleotides constitute a natriuretic pressor system.

    abstract::1. Uridine monophosphate was tested in the conscious rat for natriuretic properties and an immunoperoxidase technique was used to localize uridine-containing compounds in the rat kidney. 2. Uridine monophosphate, infused in a moderate pressor dose, caused a significant natriuresis compared to the effect of control inf...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Macdonald G,Assef R,Watkins S,Burrell J

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • The emerging role of calmodulin regulation of RyR2 in controlling heart rhythm, the progression of heart failure and the antiarrhythmic action of dantrolene.

    abstract::Cardiac output and rhythm depend on the release and the take-up of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Excessive diastolic calcium leak from the SR due to dysfunctional calcium release channels (RyR2) contributes to the formation of delayed after-depolarizations, which underlie the fatal arrhythmias that occ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Walweel K,Oo YW,Laver DR

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma and tissue iron changes in the rat after acute administration of ethionine.

    abstract::1. Ethionine administered acutely to the adult female rat markedly elevates and then lowers plasma iron concentration over several days. Liver iron undergoes a reverse cycle. 2. Ethionine does not cause changes in the blood parameters, including total plasma iron-binding capacity and plasma iron clearance. Erythrocyte...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loh TT,Archdeacon JW

    更新日期:1975-11-01 00:00:00

  • Integrative role of the lamina terminalis in the regulation of cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis.

    abstract::1. Cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis depends upon the activation and co-ordination of reflexes and behavioural responses. In order to accomplish this, the brain receives and processes both neural and chemical input. Once in the brain, information from sources signalling the status of the cardiovascular system ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson AK,Cunningham JT,Thunhorst RL

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Hesperidin attenuates altered redox homeostasis in an experimental hyperlipidaemic model of rat.

    abstract::Diets rich in saturated fats and cholesterol contribute to the incidence of hyperlipidaemia. An altered lipid profile is a major factor responsible for the development of CVD. Male Wistar rats were fed with a high-fat diet (HFD) (suspension (w/v) of 0.5% cholesterol, 3% coconut oil and 0.25% cholic acid for 30 days) t...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kumar R,Akhtar F,Rizvi SI

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Extracellular fluid distribution in rats with chronic one- and two-kidney Goldblatt hypertension.

    abstract::1. The influence of the intact kidney on blood pressure, extracellular fluid volume (ECF, ferrocyanide space) and ECF volume distribution was studied in rats 60 days after constriction of the contralateral renal artery. 2. Renal artery constriction increased both blood pressure and ECF levels. The rise of both variabl...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kunes J,Jelínek J

    更新日期:1979-09-01 00:00:00

  • Centrally mediated increased sympathetic activity is not important in the genesis of ACTH-induced hypertension in sheep.

    abstract::1. Adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) administration to sheep produces a rapid adrenally dependent hypertension which is maximal after 3 days and associated with increased cardiac output (CO) and heart rate (HR), while calculated total peripheral resistance remains unchanged. 2. This study investigated the proposal that a ce...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spence CD,Mathai M,Mills EH,Coghlan JP,Whitworth JA,Scoggins BA

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Asymmetric dimethylarginine does not inhibit arginase activity and is pro-proliferative in pulmonary endothelial cells.

    abstract::Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenously produced nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor. L-Arginine can be metabolised by NOS and arginase, and arginase is the first step in polyamine production necessary for cellular proliferation. We tested the hypothesis that ADMA would inhibit NOS but not arginase act...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen B,Strauch K,Jin Y,Cui H,Nelin LD,Chicoine LG

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Visfatin is associated with lipid metabolic abnormalities in Lyon hypertensive rats.

    abstract::1. Visfatin (also known as nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase or Nampt) is a novel adipokine associated with metabolic abnormalities in obesity and diabetes. The aim of the present study was to determine whether visfatin levels in the circulation and visfatin expression in fat tissues are altered in Lyon hypertens...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang P,Bai C,Xu QY,Xu TY,Su DF,Sassard J,Miao CY

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dual nitric oxide mechanisms of cholestasis-induced bradycardia in the rat.

    abstract::1. Cholestatic liver disease is associated with nitric oxide (NO) overproduction and bradycardia. Nitric oxide has a dual effect on sinoatrial node and its effects depend on its concentration. Nitric oxide can increase heart rate by activating hyperpolarization-activated pacemaker current (If) but, at high concentrati...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mani AR,Nahavandi A,Moosavi M,Safarinejad R,Dehpour AR

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cardiac-specific overexpression of catalase prolongs lifespan and attenuates ageing-induced cardiomyocyte contractile dysfunction and protein damage.

    abstract::1. Oxidative stress plays a role in senescence-associated organ deterioration. This is supported by the beneficial effects of anti-oxidants against ageing-related organ damage, although their role in cardiac ageing has not been elucidated. 2. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of cardiac-specific o...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu S,Li Q,Du M,Li SY,Ren J

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebrovascular and metabolic effects of bradykinin, ATP and hypercapnia in the goat.

    abstract::Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral O2 metabolism (CMRO2) changes were measured in these studies during treatment with three reputed cerebral vasodilators: bradykinin, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and increased arterial PCO2. Intracerebrovascular bradykinin infusions increased CMRO2 and CBF to a similar degree. Int...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffman WE,Miletich DJ,Volkman PH,Albrecht RF

    更新日期:1983-03-01 00:00:00

  • Glaucocalyxin A inhibits hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory response in coronary artery smooth muscle cells.

    abstract::Atherosclerosis is a complex chronic inflammatory disease that remains one of the leading causes of death and disability worldwide. A previous study reported that glaucocalyxin A (GLA), a natural ent-Kaurane diterpenoid triptolide, exhibits anti-atherosclerotic activity. However, the underlying molecular mechanism has...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu S,Zhang J,Lv Y

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the activity of circular and longitudinal myometrium from pregnant rats: co-ordination between muscle layers.

    abstract::1. Contractions and electrical activity were recorded from isolated segments of longitudinal (L) and circular (C) myometrium from rats on gestation days 16-17 and 21 before and during parturition. 2. The segments were arranged so that the activity of the two layers could be monitored simultaneously and independently. ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tomiyasu BA,Chen CJ,Marshall JM

    更新日期:1988-09-01 00:00:00

  • Lack of effect of bromocriptine on serum levels of calcium in the rat.

    abstract::1. The effect of bromocriptine (a prolactin suppressant drug) on the serum levels of calcium was studied in the male rat. The drug was administered subcutaneously at a dosage of 100 microgram per 100 g body weight three times per day. 2. Chronic treatment with bromocriptine had no significant effect on the serum calci...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tan CM,Tan GJ

    更新日期:1978-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nitric oxide inhibits renal cytochrome P450-dependent epoxygenases in the rat.

    abstract::1. Nitric oxide (NO), or peroxynitrite, is known to inhibit haemoproteins, including cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenases. The present study explores the functional correlates of the inhibition by NO of renal epoxygenase on the vascular responses to arachidonic acid (AA) in the perfused kidney. 2. Control kidneys produce m...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oyekan A

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00