Diabetic retinopathy: early functional changes.


:1. The present review reports some of the earliest physiological changes that occur in the diabetic retina prior to any clinical or anatomical changes in an animal model of diabetes. 2. Using chemically induced diabetes (by streptozotocin) in rats, retinal blood flow and vitreal and retinal oxygen tension were determined after 5 weeks of sustained hyperglycaemia. Blood flow was greater and was also redistributed in the diabetic group compared with values for the control group. At the same time, oxygen tension distribution was altered around retinal arterioles, implying an increase in retinal oxygen consumption in these early diabetic retinas. 3. The possibility that the blood flow changes could be due to altered control mechanisms in the retinal vasculature was confirmed using an isolated, perfused eye preparation. In diabetic eyes an altered reactivity to test pharmacological agents was demonstrated after 4 weeks of diabetes. 4. To further explore these vascular response changes we developed an isolated, perfused retinal arteriolar preparation in which individual segments of the vasculature can be tested. The possibility that insulin has a direct vasodilator effect on retinal arterioles was confirmed and was demonstrated to act via nitric oxide released from the vascular endothelial cells. These data may implicate the diabetic-induced insulin changes in early retinal changes. 5. Evidence is presented that although early glucose control may be vital in stopping the onset of diabetic retinopathy, there comes a stage in the induced diabetic cascade where if the retinopathy has commenced, good glucose control cannot stop the further progression of the retinopathy.


Alder VA,Su EN,Yu DY,Cringle SJ,Yu PK




Has Abstract


1997-09-01 00:00:00












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    abstract::Serotonin causes a dose related (0.1-20 micrograms/kg i.v.) increase in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and heart rate in conscious sheep. Ketanserin (0.1 mg/kg per h i.v.) causes a decrease in blood pressure, and an increase in heart rate. In the presence of ketanserin, serotonin induced increases in MAP are atten...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nelson MA,Coghlan JP,Denton DA,Mills EH,Spence CD,Whitworth JA,Scoggins BA

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Generation and propagation of gastric slow waves.

    abstract::1. Mechanisms underlying the generation and propagation of gastrointestinal slow wave depolarizations have long been controversial. The present review aims to collate present knowledge on this subject with specific reference to slow waves in gastric smooth muscle. 2. At present, there is strong agreement that intersti...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: van Helden DF,Laver DR,Holdsworth J,Imtiaz MS

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Strategies of treating cancer by cytokine regulation of chromosome end remodelling.

    abstract::1. Telomeres (ends of chromosomes) undergo constant remodelling during cell development, proliferation and differentiation, as well as in neoplastic cell immortalization and transformation. How the cellular microenvironment influences telomere remodelling (lengthening or shortening) remains largely unknown. 2. Recentl...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liu JP,Nicholls C,Chen SM,Li H,Tao ZZ

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of exercise on plasma adrenomedullin and natriuretic peptide levels in myocardial infarction.

    abstract::1. We investigated the effect of exercise on plasma adrenomedullin, atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) concentrations and studied the relationship between these peptides and haemodynamic parameters in nine patients with old myocardial infarction (MI) and in eight normal subjects. 2. T...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morimoto A,Nishikimi T,Takaki H,Okano Y,Matsuoka H,Takishita S,Kitamura K,Miyata A,Kangawa K,Matsuo H

    更新日期:1997-05-01 00:00:00

  • Angiotensin II increases tissue-specific inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2 expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in vivo: evidence of a pressure-independent effect.

    abstract::1. Angiotensin (Ang) II plays a major role in vascular remodelling. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs) are involved in the tissue remodelling processes. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether AngII modulates TIMP-2 expression in rat aortic smooth muscle cells in vivo....

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Castoldi G,di Gioia CR,Travaglini C,Busca G,Redaelli S,Bombardi C,Stella A

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McKinley MJ,Allen AM,May CN,McAllen RM,Oldfield BJ,Sly D,Mendelsohn FA

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::1. Intermittent bursts of activity are a robust feature of the discharges of sympathetic nerves. There are at least two major mechanisms producing such discharges: (i) phasic inputs influencing sympathetic circuits; and (ii) oscillators embedded within sympathetic networks. The functional significance of patterned and...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gilbey MP

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of ivermectin on some haematological indices in rabbits: influence of vitamin K treatment.

    abstract::1. Rabbits were treated with the antiparasitic drug ivermectin at subcutaneous doses of 0.2, 1 and 2.5 mg/kg and blood collected weekly for 4 weeks thereafter for measuring some blood parameters. At a dose of 0.2 or 1 mg/kg the drug had no significant effect on any of the parameters measured. At a dose of 2.5 mg/kg, t...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ali BH

    更新日期:1990-10-01 00:00:00

  • Resveratrol induces gastric cancer cell apoptosis via reactive oxygen species, but independent of sirtuin1.

    abstract::The currently available chemotherapeutic regimens against gastric cancer are not very effective, leading to high recurrence and poor survival. Resveratrol is a naturally occurring polyphenol with potent apoptosis-inducing activity. However, the mechanism underlying its actions remains unknown. In the present study, hu...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang Z,Li W,Meng X,Jia B

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the spinal cord mediate pressor responses to stimulation of the rostral ventrolateral medulla in the rat.

    abstract::1. Activation of bulbospinal neurons projecting from the C1 area of the rostral ventrolateral medulla evokes a pressor response. The nature of the neurotransmitters involved in mediating this response at spinal cord level has not been established. 2. Amino acid antagonists were introduced into the spinal subarachnoid ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mills EH,Minson JB,Pilowsky PM,Chalmers JP

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on advanced glycation and cross-linking of collagen in the aorta of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    abstract::1. The therapeutic effect of green tea extract (GTE) on the aortic collagen content and its characteristics were investigated in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg bodyweight). Six weeks after diabetes induction, GTE was admi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Babu PV,Sabitha KE,Shyamaladevi CS

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Development of peripheral autonomic synapses: neurotransmitter receptors, neuroeffector associations and neural influences.

    abstract::1. The functional innervation of autonomic target tissues occurs early during development, at a time when both the nerves and post-synaptic target tissues are still differentiating. 2. Physiological responses appear soon after the arrival of the first fibres when uptake and release mechanisms within the nerves are alr...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hill CE,Phillips JK,Sandow SL

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of NO synthesis has an additive effect on hypertension induced by ACTH in conscious rats.

    abstract::1. The haemodynamic and metabolic effects of oral intake of approximately 30 mg/kg per day N-nitro-L-arginine (NOLA) were examined in sham and adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH, 0.5 mg/kg per day) treated conscious Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 33). 2. NOLA administration produced an increase in systolic blood pressure of 24 +/- ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li M,Dusting GJ,Whitworth JA

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Glucuronidation of dihydrocodeine by human liver microsomes and the effect of inhibitors.

    abstract::1. Glucuronidation is the major route of metabolism of dihydrocodeine (DHC) and accounts for 25-30% of an oral dose in urine. The kinetics of DHC-6-glucuronide formation in liver microsomes from five human donors and the effect of a number of potential inhibitor drugs were examined using a newly developed and validate...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kirkwood LC,Nation RL,Somogyi AA

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::This study explored the effects and mechanisms of dopamine D1 receptors (DR1) activation on the apoptosis of osteosarcoma cells (OS732).The DR1 agonist SKF-38393 decreased the viability of OS732 cells and increased their rate of apoptosis, whereas the DR1 antagonist SCH-23390 abolished the effects of SKF-38393. In OS7...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Gao J,Gao F

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Anti-arrhythmic effects of a new calcium antagonist, monatepil, AJ-2615, in experimental arrhythmic models [corrected].

    abstract::1. To characterize the anti-arrhythmic properties of a new calcium antagonist, monatepil [corrected], AJ-2615, the preventive effects of AJ-2615 were compared with those of the existing calcium antagonists, diltiazem and verapamil, in experimental models of arrhythmia. 2. AJ-2615 (0.1-3.0 mg/kg, i.v.) suppressed ventr...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yamamoto T,Hosoki K,Karasawa T

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Influence of low and normal appendicular lean mass on central blood pressure and wave reflection responses to muscle metaboreflex activation in postmenopausal women.

    abstract::Sarcopenia, defined by reduced appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM)/height2 (ASMI), is associated with increased arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity, baPWV) and wave reflection (augmentation index, AIx). Blood pressure (BP) responses to metaboreflex activation (post-exercise muscle ischemia, PEMI...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 信件


    authors: Figueroa A,Alvarez-Alvarado S,Jaime SJ,Johnson SA,Campbell JC,Feresin RG,Elam ML,Navaei N,Pourafshar S,Arjmandi BH

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Peptidyl-prolyl isomerases: functionality and potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease.

    abstract::Peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerases (PPIases) are a conserved group of enzymes that catalyse the conversion between cis and trans conformations of proline imidic peptide bonds. These enzymes play critical roles in regulatory mechanisms of cellular function and pathophysiology of disease. There are three different cla...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rostam MA,Piva TJ,Rezaei HB,Kamato D,Little PJ,Zheng W,Osman N

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • L-type calcium channels and CRH-mediated ACTH and cortisol release in humans.

    abstract::1. The effect of pretreatment with nifedipine on naloxone-stimulated corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH)-induced adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) release in humans was investigated. The mean peak plasma ACTH and cortisol levels and the mean peak change in cortisol levels from basal were significantly lower in the nifedi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hockings GI,Grice JE,Walters MM,Jackson RV

    更新日期:1991-05-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effects of magnesium against ischaemia-reperfusion injury through inhibition of P-selectin in rats.

    abstract::1. The leucocyte-mediated inflammatory response plays a pivotal role in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. P-Selectin and CD11b are important mediators for the recruitment of leucocytes into the endothelium. However, the time-course of changes in P-selectin and CD11b expression during reperfusion is not defined. Magnesium ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ying SQ,Fang L,Xiang MX,Xu G,Shan J,Wang JA

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • In Vitro electrophysiological activity of nerispirdine, a novel 4-aminopyridine derivative.

    abstract::Summary 1. The non-selective K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. The clinical usefulness of 4-AP is hampered by its ability to produce seizures. Nerispirdine, an analogue of 4-AP, is currently under clinical inve...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith C,Kongsamut S,Wang H,Ji J,Kang J,Rampe D

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum in altered action potential and contraction of myopathic human and hamster ventricle.

    abstract::1. The present experiments were performed in order to study the role of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in the altered action potential and contraction of ventricular myocardium obtained from myopathic Syrian hamster and explanted human hearts (n = 8). The hamsters included age-matched healthy hamsters (F1B; n = 18), ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wei J,Liu HC,Lee FY,Lee MS,Huang CY,Pan HP,Lin CI

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 by carbenoxolone affects glucose homeostasis and obesity in db/db mice.

    abstract::1. One of the major causes of metabolic syndrome is elevated 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) in the liver and adipose tissue. High 11β-HSD1 expression contributes significantly to the diabetic phenotype in db/db mice. The purpose of the present study was to test the effect of the pharmacological inhibiti...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dhanesha N,Joharapurkar A,Shah G,Kshirsagar S,Dhote V,Sharma A,Jain M

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • GABA in the control of sympathetic preganglionic neurons.

    abstract::1. Amino acid neurotransmitters are critical for controlling the activity of most central neurons, including sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN), the spinal cord neurons involved in controlling blood pressure and other autonomic functions. 2. In studies reviewed here, SPN were identified either by retrograde traci...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Llewellyn-Smith IJ

    更新日期:2002-05-01 00:00:00

  • Paradoxical cardiovascular response to visceral afferent stimulation in the established spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    abstract::Afferent splanchnic nerve stimulation with different frequencies in Wistar Kyoto rats caused depressor and pressor responses depending on the frequency employed. Similar visceral afferent activation in spontaneously hypertensive rats caused depressor responses at all frequencies of stimulation. It is suggested that th...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Koyama S,Manning JW

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Investigation of class I anti-arrhythmic drug actions on guinea-pig cardiac mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    abstract::1. The effects of the Class I anti-arrhythmic drugs quinidine, procainamide, lidocaine, phenytoin and tocainide on mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase activity were compared in guinea-pig heart preparations. 2. All the tested drugs inhibited the enzyme activity in a concentration-dependent fashion, exhibiting varying ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dzimiri N,Almotrefi AA

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Diclofenac sodium in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis: double-blind crossover study.

    abstract::The prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor diclofenac sodium has been compared with a placebo in the treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis in a double-blind crossover trial. Twenty patients were entered: 14 female, six male; age range 6-17 years. The results showed that diclofenac sodium was significantly more effective ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Al-Waili NS

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00

  • Human tachykinin NK2 receptor: a comparative study of the colon and urinary bladder.

    abstract::1. The present study compared the binding and functional characteristics of tachykinin NK2 receptors in human detrusor muscle with those in human colon circular muscle. 2. In radioligand binding studies, similar KD values were observed for tachykinin NK2 receptor radioligands [125I]-neurokinin (NK) A, [125I]-[Lys5,Tyr...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Warner FJ,Miller RC,Burcher E

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic factors regulate the rise in blood pressure in F2 generation crossed between stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    abstract::1. There was no significant difference between the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of offspring derived from SHRSP mother and WKY father and the SBP of offspring derived from WKY mother and SHRSP father at the developing stage (5-13 weeks of age). 2. The degree of genetic determinations of SBP in stroke-prone spontaneou...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ikeda K,Nara Y,Nabica T,Fujimoto A,Endo J,Ishino H,Yamori Y

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition by ethacrynic acid of NO-mediated relaxations of the rat anococcygeus muscle.

    abstract::1. The effects of ethacrynic acid were studied on relaxations elicited by nitric oxide (NO), the NO-donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), nitrergic nerve stimulation and the NO-independent agent papaverine in isolated preparations of rat anococcygeus muscles. 2. Ethacrynic acid (100 mumol/L)...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li CG,Brosch SF,Rand MJ

    更新日期:1994-04-01 00:00:00