The need for fast-track, high-quality and low-cost studies about the role of the BCG vaccine in the fight against COVID-19.


:Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination is routine and near-universal in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). It has been suggested that BCG can have a protective effect on COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. This commentary discusses the limitations of the evidence around BCG and COVID-19. We argue that higher-quality evidence is necessary to understand the protective effect of the BCG vaccine from existing, secondary data, while we await results from clinical trials currently conducted in different settings.


Respir Res


Respiratory research


Pereira M,Paixão E,Trajman A,de Souza RA,da Natividade MS,Pescarini JM,Pereira SM,Barreto FR,Ximenes R,Dalcomo M,Ichihara MY,Nunes C,Barral-Netto M,Barreto ML




Has Abstract


2020-07-11 00:00:00














  • 24-h bronchodilation and inspiratory capacity improvements with glycopyrrolate/formoterol fumarate via co-suspension delivery technology in COPD.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may vary throughout the day and it is important that therapeutic approaches provide 24-h symptom control. We report the results of two phase IIIb crossover studies, PT003011 and PT003012, investigating the 24-h lung function profile of GFF MDI (glycopyrrolate...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Reisner C,Gottschlich G,Fakih F,Koser A,Krainson J,Delacruz L,Arora S,Feldman G,Pudi K,Siddiqui S,Orevillo C,Maes A,St Rose E,Martin U

    更新日期:2017-08-18 00:00:00

  • Determination of rheology and surface tension of airway surface liquid: a review of clinical relevance and measurement techniques.

    abstract::By airway surface liquid, we mean a thin fluid continuum consisting of the airway lining layer and the alveolar lining layer, which not only serves as a protective barrier against foreign particles but also contributes to maintaining normal respiratory mechanics. In recent years, measurements of the rheological proper...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chen Z,Zhong M,Luo Y,Deng L,Hu Z,Song Y

    更新日期:2019-12-04 00:00:00

  • Arginase strongly impairs neuronal nitric oxide-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation in allergic asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Using guinea pig tracheal preparations, we have recently shown that endogenous arginase activity attenuates inhibitory nonadrenergic noncholinergic (iNANC) nerve-mediated airway smooth muscle relaxation by reducing nitric oxide (NO) production--due to competition with neuronal NO-synthase (nNOS) for the comm...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Maarsingh H,Leusink J,Bos IS,Zaagsma J,Meurs H

    更新日期:2006-01-12 00:00:00

  • Profibrotic potential of prominin-1+ epithelial progenitor cells in pulmonary fibrosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis loss of alveolar epithelium induces inflammation of the pulmonary tissue followed by accumulation of pathogenic myofibroblasts leading eventually to respiratory failures. In animal models inflammatory and resident cells have been demonstrated to contribute to pulmonary fibros...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blyszczuk P,Germano D,Stein S,Moch H,Matter CM,Beck-Schimmer B,Lüscher TF,Eriksson U,Kania G

    更新日期:2011-09-26 00:00:00

  • A confocal microscopic study of solitary pulmonary neuroendocrine cells in human airway epithelium.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells (PNEC) are specialized epithelial cells that are thought to play important roles in lung development and airway function. PNEC occur either singly or in clusters called neuroepithelial bodies. Our aim was to characterize the three dimensional morphology of PNEC, their distribut...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weichselbaum M,Sparrow MP,Hamilton EJ,Thompson PJ,Knight DA

    更新日期:2005-10-10 00:00:00

  • Pentraxin 3 promotes airway inflammation in experimental asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) regulates multiple aspects of innate immunity and tissue inflammation. Recently, it has been reported that PTX3 deficiency enhances interleukin (IL)-17A-dominant pulmonary inflammation in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse asthma model. However, whether PTX3 treatment would provide protectio...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gao P,Tang K,Lu Y,Huang Z,Wang S,Wang M,Wang J,Zhao J,Xie J

    更新日期:2020-09-16 00:00:00

  • Population specificity of the DNAI1 gene mutation spectrum in primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mutations in the DNAI1 gene, encoding a component of outer dynein arms of the ciliary apparatus, are the second most important genetic cause of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), the genetically heterogeneous recessive disorder with the prevalence of ~1/20,000. The estimates of the DNAI1 involvement in PCD pa...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ziętkiewicz E,Nitka B,Voelkel K,Skrzypczak U,Bukowy Z,Rutkiewicz E,Humińska K,Przystałowska H,Pogorzelski A,Witt M

    更新日期:2010-12-08 00:00:00

  • Successful establishment of primary small airway cell cultures in human lung transplantation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The study of small airway diseases such as post-transplant bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) is hampered by the difficulty in assessing peripheral airway function either physiologically or directly. Our aims were to develop robust methods for sampling small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) and to establi...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Banerjee B,Kicic A,Musk M,Sutanto EN,Stick SM,Chambers DC

    更新日期:2009-10-26 00:00:00

  • Lung function reductions associated with motor vehicle density in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Motor vehicle-related air pollution can potentially impair lung function. The effect of pollution in people with compromised pulmonary function such as in COPD has not been previously investigated. To examine the association of lung function with motor vehicle density in people with spirometrically determine...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nitschke M,Appleton SL,Li Q,Tucker GR,Shah P,Bi P,Pisaniello DL,Adams RJ

    更新日期:2016-10-24 00:00:00

  • Rituximab therapy in pulmonary alveolar proteinosis improves alveolar macrophage lipid homeostasis.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis (PAP) patients exhibit an acquired deficiency of biologically active granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) attributable to GM-CSF specific autoantibodies. PAP alveolar macrophages are foamy, lipid-filled cells with impaired surfactant clearance and markedly r...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Malur A,Kavuru MS,Marshall I,Barna BP,Huizar I,Karnekar R,Thomassen MJ

    更新日期:2012-06-14 00:00:00

  • Validated and longitudinally stable asthma phenotypes based on cluster analysis of the ADEPT study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Asthma is a disease of varying severity and differing disease mechanisms. To date, studies aimed at stratifying asthma into clinically useful phenotypes have produced a number of phenotypes that have yet to be assessed for stability and to be validated in independent cohorts. The aim of this study was to def...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Loza MJ,Djukanovic R,Chung KF,Horowitz D,Ma K,Branigan P,Barnathan ES,Susulic VS,Silkoff PE,Sterk PJ,Baribaud F,ADEPT (Airways Disease Endotyping for Personalized Therapeutics) and U-BIOPRED (Unbiased Biomarkers for the Prediction

    更新日期:2016-12-15 00:00:00

  • Maintained inspiratory activity during proportional assist ventilation in surfactant-depleted cats early after surfactant instillation: phrenic nerve and pulmonary stretch receptor activity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Inspiratory activity is a prerequisite for successful application of patient triggered ventilation such as proportional assist ventilation (PAV). It has recently been reported that surfactant instillation increases the activity of slowly adapting pulmonary stretch receptors (PSRs) followed by a shorter inspi...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sindelar R,Rieger-Fackeldey E,Jonzon A,Schaller P,Schulze A,Sedin G

    更新日期:2006-03-10 00:00:00

  • Macrorheology of cystic fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease & normal sputum.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prior microrheologic assessments of selected, microlitre plugs of cystic fibrosis (CF) sputum suggest no intrinsic rheologic abnormality. However, such analyses may not be representative of CF sputum as a whole. We therefore reassessed this question using whole sputum macrorheology. Additionally, we wished t...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Serisier DJ,Carroll MP,Shute JK,Young SA

    更新日期:2009-07-06 00:00:00

  • Impact of gastroesophageal reflux on longitudinal lung function and quantitative computed tomography in the COPDGene cohort.

    abstract:RATIONALE:Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a common comorbidity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and has been associated with increased risk of acute exacerbations, hospitalization, emergency room visits, costs, and quality-of-life impairment. However, it remains unclear whether GERD contributes...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baldomero AK,Wendt CH,Petersen A,Gaeckle NT,Han MK,Kunisaki KM,COPDGene Investigators.

    更新日期:2020-08-03 00:00:00

  • Hospitalisation and mortality in patients with comorbid COPD and heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Discrepancy exists amongst studies investigating the effect of comorbid heart failure (HF) on the morbidity and mortality of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS:MEDLINE and Embase were searched using a pre-specified search strategy for studies comparing hospitalisation, rehospital...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Axson EL,Ragutheeswaran K,Sundaram V,Bloom CI,Bottle A,Cowie MR,Quint JK

    更新日期:2020-02-14 00:00:00

  • Comparing microbiota profiles in induced and spontaneous sputum samples in COPD patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Induced and spontaneous sputum are used to evaluate the airways microbiota. Whether the sputum types can be used interchangeably in microbiota research is unknown. Our aim was to compare microbiota in induced and spontaneous sputum from COPD patients sampled during the same consultation. METHODS:COPD patien...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tangedal S,Aanerud M,Grønseth R,Drengenes C,Wiker HG,Bakke PS,Eagan TM

    更新日期:2017-08-29 00:00:00

  • Impact of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex lineages as a determinant of disease phenotypes from an immigrant rich moderate tuberculosis burden country.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Growing evidences suggested that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) lineages can determine the clinical outcome of pulmonary and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis. However, limited data only available revealing such association of bacterial genotypes and clinical phenotypes from immigrant rich countrie...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Varghese B,Enani M,Alrajhi A,Al Johani S,Albarak A,Althawadi S,Elkhizzi N,AlGhafli H,Shoukri M,Al-Hajoj S

    更新日期:2018-12-27 00:00:00

  • Medroxyprogesterone improves nocturnal breathing in postmenopausal women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Progestins as respiratory stimulants in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been investigated in males and during wakefulness. However, sleep and gender may influence therapeutic responses. We investigated the effects of a 2-week medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) therapy on sleep and nocturnal ...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Saaresranta T,Aittokallio T,Utriainen K,Polo O

    更新日期:2005-04-04 00:00:00

  • Effects of cigarette smoke on barrier function and tight junction proteins in the bronchial epithelium: protective role of cathelicidin LL-37.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Airway epithelial barrier function is maintained by the formation of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs). Inhalation of cigarette smoke causes airway epithelial barrier dysfunction and may contribute to the pathogenesis of chronic lung diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary ...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tatsuta M,Kan-O K,Ishii Y,Yamamoto N,Ogawa T,Fukuyama S,Ogawa A,Fujita A,Nakanishi Y,Matsumoto K

    更新日期:2019-11-09 00:00:00

  • Serum heat shock protein 47 levels in patients with drug-induced lung disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Heat shock protein (HSP) 47 is a collagen-specific molecular chaperone that is required for molecular maturation of various types of collagens. We recently reported that HSP47 serum levels were markedly higher in patients with acute exacerbations of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) when compared with pati...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kakugawa T,Yokota S,Ishimatsu Y,Hayashi T,Nakashima S,Hara S,Sakamoto N,Matsuoka Y,Kubota H,Mine M,Mukae H,Nagata K,Kohno S

    更新日期:2013-11-20 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-17 regulation: an attractive therapeutic approach for asthma.

    abstract::Interleukin (IL)-17 is recognized to play a critical role in numerous immune and inflammatory responses by regulating the expression of various inflammatory mediators, which include cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules. There is growing evidence that IL-17 is involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. IL-17 orch...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Park SJ,Lee YC

    更新日期:2010-06-16 00:00:00

  • Anti-fibrotic effects of nintedanib in lung fibroblasts derived from patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. The kinase inhibitor nintedanib specific for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) significantly reduced the rate ...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hostettler KE,Zhong J,Papakonstantinou E,Karakiulakis G,Tamm M,Seidel P,Sun Q,Mandal J,Lardinois D,Lambers C,Roth M

    更新日期:2014-12-12 00:00:00

  • Toll-like receptor 2 expression is decreased on alveolar macrophages in cigarette smokers and COPD patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cigarette smoke exposure including biologically active lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the particulate phase of cigarette smoke induces activation of alveolar macrophages (AM) and alveolar epithelial cells leading to production of inflammatory mediators. This represents a crucial mechanism in the pathogenesis of...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Droemann D,Goldmann T,Tiedje T,Zabel P,Dalhoff K,Schaaf B

    更新日期:2005-07-08 00:00:00

  • Sputum and blood transcriptomics characterisation of the inhaled PDE4 inhibitor CHF6001 on top of triple therapy in patients with chronic bronchitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitors have been shown to reduce COPD exacerbation rate, their biological mechanism of action is not completely elucidated at the molecular level. We aimed to characterise the whole genome gene expression profile of the inhaled PDE4-inhibitor CHF6001 on top of triple t...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Govoni M,Bassi M,Vezzoli S,Lucci G,Emirova A,Nandeuil MA,Petruzzelli S,Jellema GL,Afolabi EK,Colgan B,Leaker B,Kornmann O,Beeh KM,Watz H,Singh D

    更新日期:2020-03-20 00:00:00

  • Predictive factors of severe coronavirus disease 2019 in previously healthy young adults: a single-center, retrospective study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Several previously healthy young adults have developed Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), and a few of them progressed to the severe stage. However, the factors are not yet determined. METHOD:We retrospectively analyzed 123 previously healthy young adults diagnosed with COVID-19 from January to March 2020...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou C,Huang Z,Tan W,Li X,Yin W,Xiao Y,Tao Z,Geng S,Hu Y

    更新日期:2020-06-22 00:00:00

  • Role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels on hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in endotoxemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:ATP-regulated potassium channels (KATP) regulate pulmonary vascular tone and are involved in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV). In patients with inflammation like sepsis or ARDS, HPV is impaired, resulting in a ventilation-perfusion mismatch and hypoxia. Since increase of vascular KATP channel Kir6.1 ...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turzo M,Vaith J,Lasitschka F,Weigand MA,Busch CJ

    更新日期:2018-02-13 00:00:00

  • A systematic review of the role of vitamin insufficiencies and supplementation in COPD.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary inflammation, oxidants-antioxidants imbalance, as well as innate and adaptive immunity have been proposed as playing a key role in the development of COPD. The role of vitamins, as assessed either by food frequency questionnaires or measured in serum levels, have been reported to improve pulmonary ...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Tsiligianni IG,van der Molen T

    更新日期:2010-12-06 00:00:00

  • Greater severity of new onset asthma in allergic subjects who smoke: a 10-year longitudinal study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Little is known about the association between cigarette smoking and asthma severity. We assessed smoking as a determinant of disease severity and control in a cohort of clinic-referred allergic subjects who developed new onset asthma. METHODS:Allergic rhinitis subjects with no asthma (n = 371) were followed...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Polosa R,Russo C,Caponnetto P,Bertino G,Sarvà M,Antic T,Mancuso S,Al-Delaimy WK

    更新日期:2011-01-24 00:00:00

  • Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients with severe physiologic impairment: characteristics and outcomes.

    abstract:RESEARCH QUESTION:There is no widely accepted grading system for IPF disease severity, although physiologic impairment based on pulmonary function testing is frequently employed. We sought to describe clinical and functional characteristics as well as outcomes of patients with severe physiologic impairment. PATIENTS A...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pastre J,Barnett S,Ksovreli I,Taylor J,Brown AW,Shlobin OA,Ahmad K,Khangoora V,Aryal S,King CS,Nathan SD

    更新日期:2021-01-06 00:00:00

  • Role of SOD3 in silica-related lung fibrosis and pulmonary vascular remodeling.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Work-place exposure to silica dust may lead to progressive lung inflammation culminating in the development of silicosis, an irreversible condition that can be complicated by onset of pulmonary hypertension (PH). The molecular mechanisms leading to the development of PH and lung fibrosis in response to silic...

    journal_title:Respiratory research

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zelko IN,Zhu J,Roman J

    更新日期:2018-11-20 00:00:00