WITHDRAWN: Interdental brushing for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases and dental caries in adults.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Effective oral hygiene is a crucial factor in maintaining good oral health, which is associated with overall health and health-related quality of life. Dental floss has been used for many years in conjunction with toothbrushing for removing dental plaque in between teeth, however, interdental brushes have been developed which many people find easier to use than floss, providing there is sufficient space between the teeth. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effects of interdental brushing in addition to toothbrushing, as compared with toothbrushing alone or toothbrushing and flossing for the prevention and control of periodontal diseases, dental plaque and dental caries. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the following electronic databases: the Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 7 March 2013), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 7 March 2013), EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 7 March 2013), CINAHL via EBSCO (1980 to 7 March 2013), LILACS via BIREME (1982 to 7 March 2013), ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1980 to 7 March 2013) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 7 March 2013). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (http://www.controlled-trials.com/mrct/) for ongoing trials to 7 March 2013. No restrictions were placed on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included randomised controlled trials (including split-mouth design, cross-over and cluster-randomised trials) of dentate adult patients. The interventions were a combination of toothbrushing and any interdental brushing procedure compared with toothbrushing only or toothbrushing and flossing. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:At least two review authors assessed each of the included studies to confirm eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data using a piloted data extraction form. We calculated standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous outcomes where different scales were used to assess an outcome. We attempted to extract data on adverse effects of interventions. Where data were missing or unclear we attempted to contact study authors to obtain further information. MAIN RESULTS:There were seven studies (total 354 participants analysed) included in this review. We assessed one study as being low, three studies as being high and three studies as being at unclear risk of bias. Studies only reported the clinical outcome gingivitis and plaque data, with no studies providing data on many of the outcomes: periodontitis, caries, halitosis and quality of life. Three studies reported that no adverse events were observed or reported during the study. Two other studies provided some data on adverse events but we were unable to pool the data due to lack of detail. Two studies did not report whether adverse events occurred.Interdental brushing in addition to toothbrushing, as compared with toothbrushing aloneOnly one high risk of bias study (62 participants in analysis) looked at this comparison and there was very low-quality evidence for a reduction in gingivitis (0 to 4 scale, mean in control): mean difference (MD) 0.53 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.83) and plaque (0 to 5 scale): MD 0.95 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.34) at one month, favouring of use of interdental brushes. This represents a 34% reduction in gingivitis and a 32% reduction in plaque.Interdental brushing in addition to toothbrushing, as compared with toothbrushing and flossingSeven studies provided data showing a reduction in gingivitis in favour of interdental brushing at one month: SMD -0.53 (95% CI -0.81 to -0.24, seven studies, 326 participants, low-quality evidence). This translates to a 52% reduction in gingivitis (Eastman Bleeding Index). Although a high effect size in the same direction was observed at three months (SMD -1.98, 95% CI -5.42 to 1.47, two studies, 107 participants, very low quality), the confidence interval was wide and did not exclude the possibility of no difference. There was insufficient evidence to claim a benefit for either interdental brushing or flossing for reducing plaque (SMD at one month 0.10, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.33, seven studies, 326 participants, low-quality evidence) and insufficient evidence at three months (SMD -2.14, 95% CI -5.25 to 0.97, two studies, 107 participants very low-quality evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Only one study looked at whether toothbrushing with interdental brushing was better than toothbrushing alone, and there was very low-quality evidence for a reduction in gingivitis and plaque at one month. There is also low-quality evidence from seven studies that interdental brushing reduces gingivitis when compared with flossing, but these results were only found at one month. There was insufficient evidence to determine whether interdental brushing reduced or increased levels of plaque when compared to flossing.

authors

Poklepovic Pericic T,Worthington HV,Johnson TM,Sambunjak D,Imai P,Clarkson JE,Tugwell P

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD009857.pub3

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-04-24 00:00:00

pages

CD009857

issn

1469-493X

journal_volume

4

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Interventions for treating traumatised permanent front teeth: avulsed (knocked out) and replanted.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Traumatic dental injuries are common. One of the most severe injuries is when a permanent tooth is knocked completely out of the mouth (avulsed). In most circumstances the tooth should be replanted as quickly as possible. There is uncertainty on which interventions will maximise the survival and repair of th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006542.pub3

    authors: Day PF,Duggal M,Nazzal H

    更新日期:2019-02-05 00:00:00

  • Treatment of seizures in multiple sclerosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Epileptic seizures occur in only a minority of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS), but can have serious consequences. The available literature suggests an association of seizures in MS with cortical and subcortical demyelinating lesions, which suggest that seizures in MS are probably most often symptomati...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007150.pub2

    authors: Koch MW,Polman SK,Uyttenboogaart M,De Keyser J

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • Photodynamic therapy for recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a benign condition of the mucosa of the upper aerodigestive tract. It is characterised by recurrent papillomatous lesions and is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). Frequent recurrence and rapid papilloma growth are common and in part responsible for the ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009810.pub2

    authors: Lieder A,Khan MK,Lippert BM

    更新日期:2014-06-05 00:00:00

  • Early versus delayed antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive people with cryptococcal meningitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There remains uncertainty about the optimum timing of antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-positive people with cryptococcal meningitis. This uncertainty is the result of conflicting data on the mortality risk and occurrence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) when ART is initiate...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009012.pub3

    authors: Eshun-Wilson I,Okwen MP,Richardson M,Bicanic T

    更新日期:2018-07-24 00:00:00

  • Interventions for congenital talipes equinovarus (clubfoot).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), which is also known as clubfoot, is a common congenital orthopaedic condition. It is characterised by an excessively turned in foot (equinovarus) and high medial longitudinal arch (cavus). If left untreated it can result in long-term disability, deformity and pain. Inte...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008602.pub2

    authors: Gray K,Pacey V,Gibbons P,Little D,Frost C,Burns J

    更新日期:2012-04-18 00:00:00

  • Interventions for preventing bone disease in kidney transplant recipients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with chronic kidney disease have significant abnormalities of bone remodelling and calcium homeostasis and are at increased risk of fracture. The fracture risk for a kidney transplant recipient is four times that of the general population and higher than that for a patient on dialysis. Trials report...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005015.pub2

    authors: Palmer S,McGregor DO,Strippoli GF

    更新日期:2005-04-18 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroid therapy for nephrotic syndrome in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In nephrotic syndrome protein leaks from the blood to the urine through the glomeruli resulting in hypoproteinaemia and generalised oedema. Children with untreated nephrotic syndrome frequently die from infections. The majority of children with nephrotic syndrome respond to corticosteroids. However about 70%...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001533

    authors: Hodson EM,Knight JF,Willis NS,Craig JC

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interleukin-1 inhibitors for acute gout.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acute gout flares cause significant pain and disability and it is important to provide quick and effective pain relief. Traditional options for managing acute flares include colchicine, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and glucocorticoids. OBJECTIVES:To assess the benefits and harms of interle...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009993.pub2

    authors: Sivera F,Wechalekar MD,Andrés M,Buchbinder R,Carmona L

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Steroidal contraceptives: effect on carbohydrate metabolism in women without diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Many hormonal contraceptives have been associated with changes in carbohydrate metabolism. Alterations may include decreased glucose tolerance and increased insulin resistance, which are risk factors for Type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. These issues have been raised primarily with contrac...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006133.pub5

    authors: Lopez LM,Grimes DA,Schulz KF

    更新日期:2014-04-30 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Day care for pre-school children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The debate about how, where and by whom young children should be looked after is one which has occupied much social policy and media attention in recent years. Mothers undertake most of the care of young children. Internationally, out-of-home day-care provision ranges widely. These different levels of provis...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000564.pub2

    authors: Zoritch B,Roberts I,Oakley A

    更新日期:2016-10-11 00:00:00

  • Tailored interventions to overcome identified barriers to change: effects on professional practice and health care outcomes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Strategies to implement change in health professional performance have variable impact. A potential explanation is that the barriers to implementation are different in different settings and at different times. Change may be more likely if the strategies were specifically chosen to address the identified bar...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005470

    authors: Shaw B,Cheater F,Baker R,Gillies C,Hearnshaw H,Flottorp S,Robertson N

    更新日期:2005-07-20 00:00:00

  • Hepatitis B vaccination for patients with chronic renal failure.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic renal failure patients are at particular risk of hepatitis B virus infection. Early studies have demonstrated that renal failure patients benefit from vaccination; however, not all studies have consistently shown benefit. OBJECTIVES:To determine the beneficial and harmful effects of hepatitis B vacc...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003775.pub2

    authors: Schroth RJ,Hitchon CA,Uhanova J,Noreddin A,Taback SP,Moffatt ME,Zacharias JM

    更新日期:2004-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for assisted reproductive technology.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite substantial improvements in the success of treatments through assisted reproduction technologies (ART), live birth rates remain constantly low, and practitioners are seeking aetiologic treatments to improve the outcomes.Local inflammatory response is believed to contribute to implantation failure, wh...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007618.pub2

    authors: Nyachieo A,Siristatidis CS,Vaidakis D

    更新日期:2019-10-19 00:00:00

  • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving aphasia in adults with aphasia after stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide and aphasia among survivors is common. Current speech and language therapy (SLT) strategies have only limited effectiveness in improving aphasia. A possible adjunct to SLT for improving SLT outcomes might be non-invasive brain stimulation by transcr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009760.pub4

    authors: Elsner B,Kugler J,Pohl M,Mehrholz J

    更新日期:2019-05-21 00:00:00

  • Anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pre-eclampsia is a relatively common complication of pregnancy. Anticonvulsants are used in the belief they help prevent eclamptic fits and subsequent poor outcomes for mother and infant. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effects of anticonvulsants for women with pre-eclampsia on the...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000025

    authors: Duley L,Gulmezoglu AM,Henderson-Smart DJ

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Epley (canalith repositioning) manoeuvre for benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in The Cochrane Library in Issue 1, 2002 and previously updated in 2004 and 2007.Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is a syndrome characterised by short-lived episodes of vertigo in association with rapid changes in head position. It is a common...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003162.pub3

    authors: Hilton MP,Pinder DK

    更新日期:2014-12-08 00:00:00

  • Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Organised stroke unit care is provided by multidisciplinary teams that exclusively manage stroke patients in a dedicated ward (stroke ward), with a mobile team (stroke team) or within a generic disability service (a mixed rehabilitation ward). OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effect...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000197

    authors: Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration.

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cholecystectomy deferral in patients with endoscopic sphincterotomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cholecystectomy is not required in up to 64% of patients who adopt a wait-and-see policy after endoscopic clearance of common bile duct stones. Although reports of retrospective cohort series have shown a higher mortality among patients who defer cholecystectomy, it is not known if this is due to the patient...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006233.pub2

    authors: McAlister VC,Davenport E,Renouf E

    更新日期:2007-10-17 00:00:00

  • End-of-life care pathways for improving outcomes in caring for the dying.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In many clinical areas, integrated care pathways are utilised as structured multidisciplinary care plans which detail essential steps in caring for patients with specific clinical problems. Particularly, care pathways for the dying have been developed as a model to improve the end-of-life care of all patient...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008006.pub2

    authors: Chan R,Webster J

    更新日期:2010-01-20 00:00:00

  • Surgery versus thrombolysis for initial management of acute limb ischaemia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Both peripheral arterial thrombolysis and surgery can be used in the management of peripheral arterial ischaemia. Much is known about the indications, risks, and benefits of thrombolysis. However, whether thrombolysis works better than surgery for initial management of acute limb ischaemia remains unknown. T...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002784.pub3

    authors: Darwood R,Berridge DC,Kessel DO,Robertson I,Forster R

    更新日期:2018-08-10 00:00:00

  • Antidepressants using active placebos.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although there is a consensus that antidepressants are effective in depression, placebo effects are also thought to be substantial. Side effects of antidepressants may reveal the identity of medication to participants or investigators and thus may bias the results of conventional trials using inert placebos....

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003012

    authors: Moncrieff J,Wessely S,Hardy R

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative wound infection in adults undergoing open elective inguinal or femoral hernia repair.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Inguinal or femoral hernia is a tissue protrusion in the groin region and has a cumulative incidence of 27% in adult men and of 3% in adult women. As most hernias become symptomatic over time, groin hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. This type of surgery is c...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003769.pub5

    authors: Orelio CC,van Hessen C,Sanchez-Manuel FJ,Aufenacker TJ,Scholten RJ

    更新日期:2020-04-21 00:00:00

  • Antioxidants for female subfertility.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A couple may be considered to have fertility problems if they have been trying to conceive for over a year with no success. This may affect up to a quarter of all couples planning a child. It is estimated that for 40% to 50% of couples, subfertility may result from factors affecting women. Antioxidants are t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007807.pub3

    authors: Showell MG,Mackenzie-Proctor R,Jordan V,Hart RJ

    更新日期:2017-07-28 00:00:00

  • Metroplasty versus expectant management for women with recurrent miscarriage and a septate uterus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The prevalence of recurrent miscarriage in women with a septate uterus has increased. Restoration of the morphology of the uterus can hypothetically increase live birth rate and subsequent pregnancies in women with a septate uterus and recurrent miscarriage. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether hysteroscopic met...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD008576.pub3

    authors: Kowalik CR,Goddijn M,Emanuel MH,Bongers MY,Spinder T,de Kruif JH,Mol BW,Heineman MJ

    更新日期:2011-06-15 00:00:00

  • Cholinesterase inhibitors for rarer dementias associated with neurological conditions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rarer dementias include Huntington's disease (HD), cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), dementia in multiple sclerosis (MS) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Cholinesterase inhibitors, including donepezil,...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009444.pub3

    authors: Li Y,Hai S,Zhou Y,Dong BR

    更新日期:2015-03-03 00:00:00

  • Post-operative radiotherapy for ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The addition of radiotherapy (RT) following breast conserving surgery (BCS) was first shown to reduce the risk of ipsilateral recurrence in the treatment of invasive breast cancer. Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is a pre-invasive lesion. Recurrence of ipsilateral disease following BCS can be either DCIS or ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000563.pub5

    authors: Goodwin A,Parker S,Ghersi D,Wilcken N

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Upper abdominal surgical procedures are associated with a high risk of postoperative pulmonary complications. The risk and severity of postoperative pulmonary complications can be reduced by the judicious use of therapeutic manoeuvres that increase lung volume. Our objective was to assess the effect of incen...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006058.pub2

    authors: Guimarães MM,El Dib R,Smith AF,Matos D

    更新日期:2009-07-08 00:00:00

  • Adjuvant radiotherapy and chemoradiation after surgery for cervical cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is an ongoing debate about the indications for, and value of, adjuvant pelvic radiotherapy after radical surgery in women with early cervical cancer. Certain combinations of pathologic risk factors are thought to represent sufficient risk for recurrence, that they justify the use of post-operative pelv...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007583.pub2

    authors: Rogers L,Siu SS,Luesley D,Bryant A,Dickinson HO

    更新日期:2009-10-07 00:00:00

  • Sclerotherapy versus sham or no intervention for primary prophylaxis of oesophageal variceal bleeding in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein thrombosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Portal hypertension commonly accompanies advanced liver disease and often gives rise to life-threatening complications, including bleeding (haemorrhage) from oesophageal and gastrointestinal varices. Variceal bleeding commonly occurs in children with chronic liver disease or portal vein obstruction. Therefor...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011573.pub2

    authors: Gattini D,Cifuentes LI,Torres-Robles R,Gana JC

    更新日期:2020-03-05 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic versus open gastrectomy for gastric cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is the third most common cause of cancer-related mortality in the world. Currently there are two surgical options for potentially curable patients (i.e. people with non-metastatic gastric cancer), laparoscopic and open gastrectomy. However, it is not clear whether one of these options is super...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011389.pub2

    authors: Best LM,Mughal M,Gurusamy KS

    更新日期:2016-03-31 00:00:00