Further Understanding of Degradation Pathways of Microcystin-LR by an Indigenous Sphingopyxis sp. in Environmentally Relevant Pollution Concentrations.


:Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the most widely distributed microcystin (MC) that is hazardous to environmental safety and public health, due to high toxicity. Microbial degradation is regarded as an effective and environment-friendly method to remove it, however, the performance of MC-degrading bacteria in environmentally relevant pollution concentrations of MC-LR and the degradation pathways remain unclear. In this study, one autochthonous bacterium, Sphingopyxis sp. m6 which exhibited high MC-LR degradation ability, was isolated from Lake Taihu, and the degrading characteristics in environmentally relevant pollution concentrations were demonstrated. In addition, degradation products were identified by utilizing the full scan mode of UPLC-MS/MS. The data illustrated that strain m6 could decompose MC-LR (1⁻50 μg/L) completely within 4 h. The degradation rates were significantly affected by temperatures, pH and MC-LR concentrations. Moreover, except for the typical degradation products of MC-LR (linearized MC-LR, tetrapeptide, and Adda), there were 8 different products identified, namely, three tripeptides (Adda-Glu-Mdha, Glu-Mdha-Ala, and Leu-MeAsp-Arg), three dipeptides (Glu-Mdha, Mdha-Ala, and MeAsp-Arg) and two amino acids (Leu, and Arg). To our knowledge, this is the first report of Mdha-Ala, MeAsp-Arg, and Leu as MC-LR metabolites. This study expanded microbial degradation pathways of MC-LR, which lays a foundation for exploring degradation mechanisms and eliminating the pollution of microcystins (MCs).


Toxins (Basel)




Ding Q,Liu K,Xu K,Sun R,Zhang J,Yin L,Pu Y




Has Abstract


2018-12-14 00:00:00












  • Sea Anemones: Quiet Achievers in the Field of Peptide Toxins.

    abstract::Sea anemones have been understudied as a source of peptide and protein toxins, with relatively few examined as a source of new pharmacological tools or therapeutic leads. This is surprising given the success of some anemone peptides that have been tested, such as the potassium channel blocker from Stichodactyla helian...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Prentis PJ,Pavasovic A,Norton RS

    更新日期:2018-01-08 00:00:00

  • A Venom Gland Extracellular Chitin-Binding-Like Protein from Pupal Endoparasitoid Wasps, Pteromalus Puparum, Selectively Binds Chitin.

    abstract::Chitin-binding proteins (CBPs) are present in many species and they act in a variety of biological processes. We analyzed a Pteromalus puparum venom apparatus proteome and transcriptome and identified a partial gene encoding a possible CBP. Here, we report cloning a full-length cDNA of a sequence encoding a chitin-bin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu Y,Ye XH,Liu Y,Yan ZC,Stanley D,Ye GY,Fang Q

    更新日期:2015-11-30 00:00:00

  • Bioengineering of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin for Vaccine Development and Other Biotechnological Purposes.

    abstract::The adenylate cyclase toxin, CyaA, is one of the key virulent factors produced by Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. This toxin primarily targets innate immunity to facilitate bacterial colonization of the respiratory tract. CyaA exhibits several remarkable characteristics that have been expl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ladant D

    更新日期:2021-01-22 00:00:00

  • Changes in gene expression in the larval gut of Ostrinia nubilalis in Response to Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ab protoxin ingestion.

    abstract::We developed a microarray based on 2895 unique transcripts assembled from 15,000 cDNA sequences from the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) larval gut. This microarray was used to monitor gene expression in early third-instar larvae of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt)-susceptible O. nubilalis after 6 h feeding on die...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yao J,Buschman LL,Lu N,Khajuria C,Zhu KY

    更新日期:2014-04-03 00:00:00

  • Aflatoxin, fumonisin and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli infections in calves and the effectiveness of Celmanax®/Dairyman's Choice™ applications to eliminate morbidity and mortality losses.

    abstract::Mycotoxin mixtures are associated with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in mature cattle. STEC are considered commensal bacteria in mature cattle suggesting that mycotoxins provide a mechanism that converts this bacterium to an opportunistic pathogen. In this study, we assessed the mycotoxin co...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baines D,Sumarah M,Kuldau G,Juba J,Mazza A,Masson L

    更新日期:2013-10-23 00:00:00

  • Paulistine--The Functional Duality of a Wasp Venom Peptide Toxin.

    abstract::It has been reported that Paulistine in the venom of the wasp Polybia paulista co-exists as two different forms: an oxidized form presenting a compact structure due to the presence of a disulfide bridge, which causes inflammation through an apparent interaction with receptors in the 5-lipoxygenase pathway, and a natur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arcuri HA,Gomes PC,de Souza BM,Dias NB,Brigatte P,Stabeli RG,Palma MS

    更新日期:2016-02-29 00:00:00

  • The Dual Prey-Inactivation Strategy of Spiders-In-Depth Venomic Analysis of Cupiennius salei.

    abstract::Most knowledge of spider venom concerns neurotoxins acting on ion channels, whereas proteins and their significance for the envenomation process are neglected. The here presented comprehensive analysis of the venom gland transcriptome and proteome of Cupiennius salei focusses on proteins and cysteine-containing peptid...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuhn-Nentwig L,Langenegger N,Heller M,Koua D,Nentwig W

    更新日期:2019-03-19 00:00:00

  • The Cytotoxicity Effect of Resveratrol: Cell Cycle Arrest and Induced Apoptosis of Breast Cancer 4T1 Cells.

    abstract::Resveratrol, a natural polyterpenoid, can scavenge reactive oxygen species in vivo to carry out the functions of antioxidation and antiaging. Resveratrol's anti-cancer capability has attracted widespread attention, but its molecular mechanism has not been systematically explained. In this study, by comparing the activ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu H,Chen L,Zhu F,Han X,Sun L,Chen K

    更新日期:2019-12-13 00:00:00

  • Snake Venomics and Antivenomics of Bothrops diporus, a Medically Important Pitviper in Northeastern Argentina.

    abstract::Snake species within genus Bothrops are responsible for more than 80% of the snakebites occurring in South America. The species that cause most envenomings in Argentina, B. diporus, is widely distributed throughout the country, but principally found in the Northeast, the region with the highest rates of snakebites. Th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gay C,Sanz L,Calvete JJ,Pla D

    更新日期:2015-12-25 00:00:00

  • Effects of Zearalenone Exposure on the TGF-β1/Smad3 Signaling Pathway and the Expression of Proliferation or Apoptosis Related Genes of Post-Weaning Gilts.

    abstract::Zearalenone (ZEA) is an estrogenic toxin produced by Fusarium species, which is widely distributed and posed a great health risk to both humans and farm animals. Reproductive disorders associated with ZEA such as premature puberty, infertility and abortion have plagued the animal husbandry, but the molecular mechanism...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhou M,Yang L,Shao M,Wang Y,Yang W,Huang L,Zhou X,Jiang S,Yang Z

    更新日期:2018-01-23 00:00:00

  • Engineering of Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Proteins to Enhance the Activity against Western Corn Rootworm.

    abstract::A novel Bacillus thuringiensis Cry protein, Cry8Hb, active against Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Western corn rootworm, WCRW) was discovered. Unexpectedly, the anti-rootworm activity of the Cry8Hb toxin was enhanced significantly by fusing Escherichia coli maltose binding protein (MBP) to this Cry toxin. While the e...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hou J,Cong R,Izumi-Willcoxon M,Ali H,Zheng Y,Bermudez E,McDonald M,Nelson M,Yamamoto T

    更新日期:2019-03-14 00:00:00

  • Scorpion Toxins and Ion Channels: Potential Applications in Cancer Therapy.

    abstract::Apoptosis, a genetically directed process of cell death, has been studied for many years, and the biochemical mechanisms that surround it are well known and described. There are at least three pathways by which apoptosis occurs, and each pathway depends on extra or intracellular processes for activation. Apoptosis is ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dueñas-Cuellar RA,Santana CJC,Magalhães ACM,Pires OR Jr,Fontes W,Castro MS

    更新日期:2020-05-15 00:00:00

  • Phytic Acid Decreases Oxidative Stress and Intestinal Lesions Induced by Fumonisin B₁ and Deoxynivalenol in Intestinal Explants of Pigs.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of phytic acid (IP6) on morphological and immunohistochemical parameters and oxidative stress response in intestinal explants of pigs exposed to fumonisin B₁ (FB₁) and/or deoxynivalenol (DON). The jejunal explants were exposed to the following treatments:...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: da Silva EO,Gerez JR,Hohmann MSN,Verri WA Jr,Bracarense APFRL

    更新日期:2019-01-04 00:00:00

  • Oscillatoxin I: A New Aplysiatoxin Derivative, from a Marine Cyanobacterium.

    abstract::Cyanobacteria have been shown to produce a number of bioactive compounds, including toxins. Some bioactive compounds obtained from a marine cyanobacterium Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) have been recognized as drug leads; one of these compounds is aplysiatoxin. We have isolated various aplysiatoxin deri...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagai H,Sato S,Iida K,Hayashi K,Kawaguchi M,Uchida H,Satake M

    更新日期:2019-06-21 00:00:00

  • Antiparasitic Properties of Cantharidin and the Blister Beetle Berberomeloe majalis (Coleoptera: Meloidae).

    abstract::Cantharidin (CTD) is a toxic monoterpene produced by blister beetles (Fam. Meloidae) as a chemical defense against predators. Although CTD is highly poisonous to many predator species, some have evolved the ability to feed on poisonous Meloidae, or otherwise beneficially use blister beetles. Great Bustards, Otis tarda...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Whitman DW,Andrés MF,Martínez-Díaz RA,Ibáñez-Escribano A,Olmeda AS,González-Coloma A

    更新日期:2019-04-22 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of Cyanopeptides from Two Microcystis Strains on Larval Development of Astyanax altiparanae.

    abstract::Absorption and accumulation of bioavailable cyanobacterial metabolites (including cyanotoxins) are likely in fish after senescence and the rupturing of cells during bloom episodes. We determined the toxicity of cyanopeptides identified from two strains of Microcystis (M. panniformis MIRS-04 and M. aeruginosa NPDC-01) ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fernandes K,Gomes A,Calado L,Yasui G,Assis D,Henry T,Fonseca A,Pinto E

    更新日期:2019-04-13 00:00:00

  • Genetic Profiling of Aspergillus Isolates with Varying Aflatoxin Production Potential from Different Maize-Growing Regions of Kenya.

    abstract::Highly toxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus have been reported to frequently contaminate maize, causing fatal aflatoxin poisoning in Kenya. To gain insights into the environmental and genetic factors that influence toxigenicity, fungi (n = 218) that were culturally identified as A. flavus were isolated from maize g...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dooso Oloo R,Okoth S,Wachira P,Mutiga S,Ochieng P,Kago L,Nganga F,Domelevo Entfellner JB,Ghimire S

    更新日期:2019-08-09 00:00:00

  • Autophagy and Apoptosis Interact to Modulate T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Liver Cells.

    abstract::T-2 toxin is a mycotoxin generated by Fusarium species which has been shown to be highly toxic to human and animals. T-2 toxin induces apoptosis in various tissues/organs. Apoptosis and autophagy are two closely interconnected processes, which are important for maintaining physiological homeostasis as well as pathogen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu J,Zhou Y,Yuan Z,Yi J,Chen J,Wang N,Tian Y

    更新日期:2019-01-15 00:00:00

  • Maternal-Fetal Cancer Risk Assessment of Ochratoxin A during Pregnancy.

    abstract::Increasing evidence has demonstrated that in utero exposure to environmental chemicals may interfere with fetal development and increase the risk of disease and cancer development later in life. Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been proven to induce diverse toxic effects including teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, immunotoxicity...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Woo CS,El-Nezami H

    更新日期:2016-03-23 00:00:00

  • Characterization of Bacillus cereus in Dairy Products in China.

    abstract::Bacillus cereus is a common and ubiquitous foodborne pathogen with an increasing prevalence rate in dairy products in China. High and unmet demands for such products, particularly milk, raise the risk of B. cereus associated contamination. The presence of B. cereus and its virulence factors in dairy products may cause...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liu XY,Hu Q,Xu F,Ding SY,Zhu K

    更新日期:2020-07-14 00:00:00

  • Presence of the neurotoxin BMAA in aquatic ecosystems: what do we really know?

    abstract::The neurotoxin β-N-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is suspected to play a role in the neurological diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease. BMAA production by cyanobacteria has been reported and contact with cyanobacteria infested waters or consumption of aquatic organisms are...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Faassen EJ

    更新日期:2014-03-21 00:00:00

  • Quantification of α-Thujone and Its Metabolites in Human Urine after Consumption of a Sage Infusion Using Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    abstract::The metabolism of the monoterpene α-thujone was investigated in humans after consumption of sage tea, by analyses of its metabolites 2-hydroxythujone, 4-hydroxythujone, and 7-hydroxythujone in urine. For the quantitation of α-thujone and its metabolites, stable isotope dilution assays were developed. Using d₆-α-thujon...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thamm I,Tiefenbacher K,Rychlik M

    更新日期:2018-12-03 00:00:00

  • Mycotoxin Exposure and Related Diseases.

    abstract::Mycotoxins are considered the most frequently occurring natural contaminants in the diet of humans and animals [...]. ...


    pub_type: 社论


    authors: Assunção R,Viegas S

    更新日期:2020-03-11 00:00:00

  • Bioengineering of Bordetella pertussis Adenylate Cyclase Toxin for Antigen-Delivery and Immunotherapy.

    abstract::The adenylate cyclase toxin (CyaA) is one of the major virulence factors of Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. CyaA is able to invade eukaryotic cells where, upon activation by endogenous calmodulin, it synthesizes massive amounts of cAMP that alters cellular physiology. The CyaA toxin is a 1...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chenal A,Ladant D

    更新日期:2018-07-20 00:00:00

  • Early Activation of MAPK p44/42 Is Partially Involved in DON-Induced Disruption of the Intestinal Barrier Function and Tight Junction Network.

    abstract::Deoxynivalenol (DON), produced by the plant pathogens Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum, is one of the most common mycotoxins, contaminating cereal and cereal-derived products. Although worldwide contamination of food and feed poses health threats to humans and animals, pigs are particularly susceptible to th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Springler A,Hessenberger S,Schatzmayr G,Mayer E

    更新日期:2016-09-08 00:00:00

  • Impact of pH on the stability and the cross-reactivity of ochratoxin A and citrinin.

    abstract::Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by several fungi contaminating crops. In several countries, the maximum permitted levels of mycotoxins are found in foodstuffs and feedstuffs. The common strategy of mycotoxin analysis involves extraction, clean-up and quantification by chromatography. In this paper, we an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bazin I,Faucet-Marquis V,Monje MC,El Khoury M,Marty JL,Pfohl-Leszkowicz A

    更新日期:2013-11-28 00:00:00

  • Response to Peter Mantle. Comments on "Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China. Toxins 2015, 7, 3858-3875"-Rigour in Attributing Ochratoxin A Biosynthesis within the Genus Penicillium Occurring on Natural Agricultural Produce.

    abstract::My colleagues and I appreciate the comments and constructive suggestions on our manuscript "Mycobiota and Mycotoxins in Traditional Medicinal Seeds from China".[...]. ...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Gao W

    更新日期:2016-05-31 00:00:00

  • Human illnesses and animal deaths associated with freshwater harmful algal blooms-Kansas.

    abstract::Freshwater harmful algal bloom (FHAB) toxins can cause morbidity and mortality in both humans and animals, and the incidence of FHABs in the United States and Kansas has increased. In 2010, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE) developed a FHAB policy and response plan. We describe the epidemiology of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trevino-Garrison I,DeMent J,Ahmed FS,Haines-Lieber P,Langer T,Ménager H,Neff J,van der Merwe D,Carney E

    更新日期:2015-01-30 00:00:00

  • Safety of botulinum toxin A in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy in a pragmatic setting.

    abstract::This retrospective study aimed to examine the safety of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) treatment in a paediatric multidisciplinary cerebral palsy clinic. In a sample of 454 patients who had 1515 BoNT-A sessions, data on adverse events were available in 356 patients and 1382 sessions; 51 non-fatal adverse events were repor...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Papavasiliou AS,Nikaina I,Foska K,Bouros P,Mitsou G,Filiopoulos C

    更新日期:2013-03-12 00:00:00

  • Health-based cyanotoxin guideline values allow for cyanotoxin-based monitoring and efficient public health response to cyanobacterial blooms.

    abstract::Human health risks from cyanobacterial blooms are primarily related to cyanotoxins that some cyanobacteria produce. Not all species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins. Those that do often do not produce toxins at levels harmful to human health. Monitoring programs that use identification of cyanobacteria genus and sp...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farrer D,Counter M,Hillwig R,Cude C

    更新日期:2015-02-05 00:00:00