Familial risks of breast cancer.


:A recent analysis by the Collaborative Group on Hormonal Factors in Breast Cancer has provided the most precise quantification to date of the familial risks of breast cancer. The familial relative risks are shown to decrease from more than fivefold in women younger than age 40 years with a first-degree relative aged younger than 40 years at diagnosis, to 1.4-fold in women older than 60 years with a relative diagnosed over age 60 years. These risks increase progressively with the number of affected relatives. The risks associated with an affected mother and an affected sister are similar, and the relative (but not absolute) risks are similar in subgroups defined by other established breast cancer risk factors. These results provide a useful basis for counselling of women with a family history of breast cancer, and they have implications for the genetic basis of the disease.


Breast Cancer Res


Easton DF





Has Abstract


2002-01-01 00:00:00












  • HER-2 positive breast cancer: decreasing proportion but stable incidence in Finnish population from 1982 to 2005.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Classification of breast cancers according to the HER-2 oncogene status is of central importance in the selection of post-surgical therapies. A decrease in the proportion of HER-2-positive breast cancer has been suspected, but no data on the incidence trends at population level have been reported. METHODS...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Köninki K,Tanner M,Auvinen A,Isola J

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • BRCA1: linking HOX to breast cancer suppression.

    abstract::Homeobox (HOX) genes play key roles in embryogenesis and tissue differentiation. Recently, a number of groups have reported altered HOX gene expression in breast cancer. However, the mechanism of HOX gene regulation and the search for direct targets of its transcriptional regulatory function have been minimally fruitf...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jin K,Sukumar S

    更新日期:2010-01-01 00:00:00

  • Polymorphic repeat in AIB1 does not alter breast cancer risk.

    abstract::STATEMENT OF FINDINGS: We assessed the association between a glutamine repeat polymorphism in AIB1 and breast cancer risk in a case-control study (464 cases, 624 controls) nested within the Nurses' Health Study cohort. We observed no association between AIB1 genotype and breast cancer incidence, or specific tumor char...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haiman CA,Hankinson SE,Spiegelman D,Colditz GA,Willett WC,Speizer FE,Brown M,Hunter DJ

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Targeted therapy against Bcl-2-related proteins in breast cancer cells.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL confer resistance to apoptosis, thereby reducing the effectiveness of chemotherapy. We examined the relationship between the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and chemosensitivity of breast cancer cells, with the aim of developing specific targeted therapy. METHODS:Four human breast cancer c...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Emi M,Kim R,Tanabe K,Uchida Y,Toge T

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Profiling gene promoter occupancy of Sox2 in two phenotypically distinct breast cancer cell subsets using chromatin immunoprecipitation and genome-wide promoter microarrays.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Aberrant expression of the embryonic stem cell marker Sox2 has been reported in breast cancer (BC). We previously identified two phenotypically distinct BC cell subsets separated based on their differential response to a Sox2 transcription activity reporter, namely the reporter-unresponsive (RU) and the mo...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung K,Wang P,Gupta N,Gopal K,Wu F,Ye X,Alshareef A,Bigras G,McMullen TP,Abdulkarim BS,Lai R

    更新日期:2014-11-08 00:00:00

  • On the role of tyrosine phosphatases as negative regulators of STAT signaling in breast cancers: new findings and future perspectives.

    abstract::The increasing importance of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) expression in human cancers has led several laboratories to examine in detail the expression of one of its major negative regulators in oncogenesis--the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase, nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2). A recent pape...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tremblay ML

    更新日期:2013-07-31 00:00:00

  • CXCL17-derived CD11b+Gr-1+ myeloid-derived suppressor cells contribute to lung metastasis of breast cancer through platelet-derived growth factor-BB.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Metastasis is the major cause of death from breast cancer. Colonization and adaption of metastatic cells in distant organs is a rate-limiting step of the cancer spreading. The underlying mechanisms responsible for the colonization of breast cancer to lung metastatic niches are not fully understood. METHODS:...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hsu YL,Yen MC,Chang WA,Tsai PH,Pan YC,Liao SH,Kuo PL

    更新日期:2019-02-12 00:00:00

  • Antitumor activity of Cetuximab in combination with Ixabepilone on triple negative breast cancer stem cells.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Developing novel strategies against treatment-resistant triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells remains a significant challenge. The ErbB family, including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), plays key roles in metastasis, tumorigenesis, cell proliferation, and drug resistance. Recently, these charac...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanei T,Choi DS,Rodriguez AA,Liang DH,Dobrolecki L,Ghosh M,Landis MD,Chang JC

    更新日期:2016-01-12 00:00:00

  • Plasma levels of leptin and mammographic density among postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Obesity has been linked to increased risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Increased peripheral production of estrogens has been regarded as the main cause for this association, but other features of increased body fat mass may also play a part. Leptin is a protein produced mainly by adipose tissu...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stuedal A,Ursin G,Veierød MB,Bremnes Y,Reseland JE,Drevon CA,Gram IT

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Variation in breast cancer risk associated with factors related to pregnancies according to truncating mutation location, in the French National BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations carrier cohort (GENEPSO).

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 confer a high risk of breast cancer (BC), but the magnitude of this risk seems to vary according to the study and various factors. Although controversial, there are data to support the hypothesis of allelic risk heterogeneity. METHODS:We assessed variation in BC risk according...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lecarpentier J,Noguès C,Mouret-Fourme E,Gauthier-Villars M,Lasset C,Fricker JP,Caron O,Stoppa-Lyonnet D,Berthet P,Faivre L,Bonadona V,Buecher B,Coupier I,Gladieff L,Gesta P,Eisinger F,Frénay M,Luporsi E,Lortholary A,

    更新日期:2012-07-03 00:00:00

  • Whither high-dose chemotherapy in breast cancer?

    abstract::Four trials of high-dose chemotherapy with stem cell support in breast cancer in the adjuvant and metastatic settings have shown no long-term disease-free or overall survival gain. This relative failure of a single high-dose therapy we believe opens up the development of a dose-dense approach with block scheduling as ...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mayer A,Earl H

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • High-throughput genomic technology in research and clinical management of breast cancer. Molecular signatures of progression from benign epithelium to metastatic breast cancer.

    abstract::It is generally accepted that early detection of breast cancer has great impact on patient survival, emphasizing the importance of early diagnosis. In a widely recognized model of breast cancer development, tumor cells progress through chronological and well defined stages. However, the molecular basis of disease prog...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rennstam K,Hedenfalk I

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rats: gnawing through the barriers to understanding genetic susceptibility and breast cancer.

    abstract::Advances in genotyping technology have provided us with a large number of genetic loci associated with cancer susceptibility; however, our ability to understand the functional effects of the genetic variants of these loci remains limited. In the previous issue, Smits and colleagues demonstrate the use of congenic rat ...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 评论,社论


    authors: Blackburn AC

    更新日期:2011-10-12 00:00:00

  • GATA3 protein as a MUC1 transcriptional regulator in breast cancer cells.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Recent studies have demonstrated that members of the GATA-binding protein (GATA) family (GATA4 and GATA5) might have pivotal roles in the transcriptional upregulation of mucin genes (MUC2, MUC3 and MUC4) in gastrointestinal epithelium. The zinc-finger GATA3 transcription factor has been reported to be invo...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abba MC,Nunez MI,Colussi AG,Croce MV,Segal-Eiras A,Aldaz CM

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • The diagnosis and management of pre-invasive breast disease: promise of new technologies in understanding pre-invasive breast lesions.

    abstract::Array-based comparative genomic hybridization, RNA expression profiling, and proteomic analyses are new molecular technologies used to study breast cancer. Invasive breast cancers were originally evaluated because they provided ample quantities of DNA, RNA, and protein. The application of these technologies to pre-inv...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jeffrey SS,Pollack JR

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Preclinical modeling of combined phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibition with endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) induces apoptosis when combined with estrogen deprivation in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to identify effective PI3K pathway inhibitor and endocrine therapy combinations, to evaluate the effect of PI3K p...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanchez CG,Ma CX,Crowder RJ,Guintoli T,Phommaly C,Gao F,Lin L,Ellis MJ

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular drivers of lobular carcinoma in situ.

    abstract::Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS) is considered to be a risk factor for the development of invasive breast carcinoma, but it may also be a non-obligate precursor to invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC). Many LCIS lesions do not progress to ILC, and the molecular changes that are necessary for progression from LCIS to ILC a...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Logan GJ,Dabbs DJ,Lucas PC,Jankowitz RC,Brown DD,Clark BZ,Oesterreich S,McAuliffe PF

    更新日期:2015-06-04 00:00:00

  • Dendritic cell defects in patients with cancer: mechanisms and significance.

    abstract::Dendritic cells (DCs) are a complex network of antigen-presenting cells that have an essential role in the modulation of primary immunity. There has been increasing evidence that DCs isolated from patients with malignancy demonstrate functional deficiencies that inhibit the capacity to mount an effective anti-tumor re...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Lenahan C,Avigan D

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chromogenic in situ hybridisation for the assessment of HER2 status in breast cancer: an international validation ring study.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Before any new methodology can be introduced into the routine diagnostic setting it must be technically validated against the established standards. To this end, a ring study involving five international pathology laboratories was initiated to validate chromogenic in situ hybridisation (CISH) against fluor...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: van de Vijver M,Bilous M,Hanna W,Hofmann M,Kristel P,Penault-Llorca F,Rüschoff J

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Serum concentrations of active tamoxifen metabolites predict long-term survival in adjuvantly treated breast cancer patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Controversies exist as to whether the genetic polymorphisms of the enzymes responsible for the metabolism of tamoxifen can predict breast cancer outcome in patients using adjuvant tamoxifen. Direct measurement of concentrations of active tamoxifen metabolites in serum may be a more biological plausible and r...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Helland T,Henne N,Bifulco E,Naume B,Borgen E,Kristensen VN,Kvaløy JT,Lash TL,Alnæs GIG,van Schaik RH,Janssen EAM,Hustad S,Lien EA,Mellgren G,Søiland H

    更新日期:2017-11-28 00:00:00

  • ALK alteration is a frequent event in aggressive breast cancers.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Breast cancer is the most common female malignancy worldwide and, despite improvements in treatment modalities, there are increased chances of recurrence and metastasis in a substantial number of cases and it remains one of the major causes of mortality among female cancer patients. Anaplastic lymphoma kin...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Siraj AK,Beg S,Jehan Z,Prabhakaran S,Ahmed M,R Hussain A,Al-Dayel F,Tulbah A,Ajarim D,Al-Kuraya KS

    更新日期:2015-09-17 00:00:00

  • Targeted therapies in breast cancer: are heart and vessels also being targeted?

    abstract::The concept of 'targeted' therapies implies that such drugs only act on cells that specifically express the particular target, therefore giving rise to a low incidence of side effects. However, targeted therapies currently approved for the treatment of breast cancer have demonstrated a relatively high incidence of car...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Criscitiello C,Metzger-Filho O,Saini KS,de Castro G Jr,Diaz M,La Gerche A,de Azambuja E,Piccart-Gebhart MJ

    更新日期:2012-06-19 00:00:00

  • Additive growth inhibitory effects of ibandronate and antiestrogens in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer cell lines.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Bisphosphonates are inhibitors of osteoclast-mediated tumor-stimulated osteolysis, and they have become standard therapy for the management of bone metastases from breast cancer. These drugs can also directly induce growth inhibition and apoptosis of osteotropic cancer cells, including estrogen receptor-po...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Journe F,Chaboteaux C,Magne N,Duvillier H,Laurent G,Body JJ

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • The clinical and functional significance of c-Met in breast cancer: a review.

    abstract::c-Met is a receptor tyrosine kinase that upon binding of its ligand, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), activates downstream pathways with diverse cellular functions that are important in organ development and cancer progression. Anomalous c-Met signalling has been described in a variety of cancer types, and the receptor...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ho-Yen CM,Jones JL,Kermorgant S

    更新日期:2015-04-08 00:00:00

  • Update on HER-2 as a target for cancer therapy: intracellular signaling pathways of ErbB2/HER-2 and family members.

    abstract::ErbB (also termed HER) receptors are expressed in various tissues of epithelial, mesenchymal and neuronal origin, in which they are involved in the control of diverse biological processes such as proliferation, differentiation, migration and apoptosis. Furthermore, their deregulated expression has been implicated in m...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Olayioye MA

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Biology of breast cancer in young women.

    abstract::Breast cancer arising at a young age is relatively uncommon, particularly in the developed world. Several studies have demonstrated that younger patients often experience a more aggressive disease course and have poorer outcome compared to older women. Expression of key biomarkers, including endocrine receptors, HER2 ...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Azim HA Jr,Partridge AH

    更新日期:2014-08-27 00:00:00

  • Tyrosine kinase signalling in breast cancer: modulation of tyrosine kinase signalling in human breast cancer through altered expression of signalling intermediates.

    abstract::The past decade has seen the definition of key signalling pathways downstream of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in terms of their components and the protein-protein interactions that facilitate signal transduction. Given the strong evidence that links signalling by certain families of RTKs to the progression of brea...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kairouz R,Daly RJ

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Nighttime eating and breast cancer among Chinese women in Hong Kong.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A novel line of research suggests that eating at nighttime may have several metabolic consequences that are highly relevant to breast cancer. We investigated the association between nighttime eating habits after 10 p.m. and breast cancer in Hong Kong women. METHODS:A hospital-based case-control study was co...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li M,Tse LA,Chan WC,Kwok CH,Leung SL,Wu C,Yu WC,Lee PM,Tsang KH,Law SH,Vermeulen R,Gu F,Caporaso NE,Yu IT,Wang F,Yang XR

    更新日期:2017-03-17 00:00:00

  • Effects of combined treatment with rapamycin and cotylenin A, a novel differentiation-inducing agent, on human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells and xenografts.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:Rapamycin, an inhibitor of the serine/threonine kinase target of rapamycin, induces G1 arrest and/or apoptosis. Although rapamycin and its analogues are attractive candidates for cancer therapy, their sensitivities with respect to growth inhibition differ markedly among various cancer cells. Using human br...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kasukabe T,Okabe-Kado J,Kato N,Sassa T,Honma Y

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Growth of a human mammary tumor cell line is blocked by galangin, a naturally occurring bioflavonoid, and is accompanied by down-regulation of cyclins D3, E, and A.

    abstract:INTRODUCTION:This study was designed to determine if and how a non-toxic, naturally occurring bioflavonoid, galangin, affects proliferation of human mammary tumor cells. Our previous studies demonstrated that, in other cell types, galangin is a potent inhibitor of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), an environmental c...

    journal_title:Breast cancer research : BCR

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murray TJ,Yang X,Sherr DH

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00