Routine anticonvulsants for treating cerebral malaria.


BACKGROUND:Cerebral malaria is a common complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection, and kills over a million people every year. People with cerebral malaria become unconscious, and often have protracted convulsions. It is unclear whether giving anticonvulsant drugs routinely to people with cerebral malaria will improve the outcome of treatment and prevent death. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of routine anticonvulsant drugs in people with cerebral malaria. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group specialized trials register (November 2001), The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 4, 2001), MEDLINE (1966 to November 2001), EMBASE (1988 to October 2001), LILACS (2001, 40a Edition CD-ROM), Science Citation Index (November 2001), African Index Medicus (1999), reference lists of articles, and research organizations. We also contacted the authors for addtional information. SELECTION CRITERIA:Randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials of people with cerebral malaria. The trials compared anticonvulsant drugs started on admission to hospital with no anticonvulsant drug or placebo. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Two reviewers independently extracted data from those trials eligible for inclusion. We assessed the methodological quality of the included trials by considering allocation sequence, concealment of allocation, blinding, and inclusion of all randomized participants. We used Review Manager (version 4.1) for the meta-analysis and also explored possible sources of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS:Three trials with a total of 573 participants met the inclusion criteria. These trials all compared phenobarbitone with placebo or no treatment. In the two trials with adequate allocation concealment, death was more common in the anticonvulsant group (Relative Risk 2.0; 95% confidence interval 1.20 to 3.33; fixed effect model). In all three trials, phenobarbitone compared with placebo or no treatment was associated with fewer convulsions (Relative Risk 0.30; 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 0.45; fixed effect model). REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:Routine phenobarbitone in cerebral malaria is associated with fewer convulsions but possibly more deaths. Further trials with adequate design, more participants, and different doses of anticonvulsant drugs are needed.


Meremikwu M,Marson AG





Has Abstract


2002-01-01 00:00:00










  • Haloperidol versus placebo for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Haloperidol was developed in the late 1950s for use in the field of anaesthesia. Research subsequently demonstrated effects on hallucinations, delusions, aggressiveness, impulsiveness and states of excitement and led to the introduction of haloperidol as an antipsychotic. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the clinical...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Adams CE,Bergman H,Irving CB,Lawrie S

    更新日期:2013-11-15 00:00:00

  • Low protein diets for non-diabetic adults with chronic kidney disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is defined as reduced function of the kidneys present for 3 months or longer with adverse implications for health and survival. For several decades low protein diets have been proposed for participants with CKD with the aim of slowing the progression to end-stage kidney disease (...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Hahn D,Hodson EM,Fouque D

    更新日期:2020-10-29 00:00:00

  • Interventions to enhance return-to-work for cancer patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cancer patients are 1.4 times more likely to be unemployed than healthy people. Therefore it is important to provide cancer patients with programmes to support the return-to-work (RTW) process. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2011. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness of interv...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: de Boer AG,Taskila TK,Tamminga SJ,Feuerstein M,Frings-Dresen MH,Verbeek JH

    更新日期:2015-09-25 00:00:00

  • Oral steroids for long-term use in cystic fibrosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In cystic fibrosis (CF) airway obstruction and recurrent respiratory infection lead to inflammation, long-term lung damage, respiratory failure and death. Anti-inflammatory agents, e.g. oral corticosteroids are used since inflammation occurs early in disease. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness of oral c...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cheng K,Ashby D,Smyth RL

    更新日期:2011-10-05 00:00:00

  • Day three versus day two embryo transfer following in vitro fertilization or intracytoplasmic sperm injection.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Embryo transfer (ET) was traditionally performed two days after oocyte retrieval; however, developments in culture media have allowed embryos to be maintained in culture for longer periods. Delaying transfer from Day two to Day three would allow for further development of the embryo and might have a positive...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Brown J,Daya S,Matson P

    更新日期:2016-12-14 00:00:00

  • Transient neurological symptoms (TNS) following spinal anaesthesia with lidocaine versus other local anaesthetics in adult surgical patients: a network meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Spinal anaesthesia has been implicated as one of the possible causes of neurological complications following surgical procedures. This painful condition, occurring during the immediate postoperative period, is termed transient neurological symptoms (TNS) and is typically observed after the use of spinal lido...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Forget P,Borovac JA,Thackeray EM,Pace NL

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Benzodiazepines for delirium.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Delirium occurs in 30% of hospitalised patients and is associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. The results of uncontrolled studies have been unclear, with some suggesting that benzodiazepines may be useful in controlling non-alcohol related delirium. OBJECTIVES:To dete...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lonergan E,Luxenberg J,Areosa Sastre A,Wyller TB

    更新日期:2009-01-21 00:00:00

  • Targeted client communication via mobile devices for improving sexual and reproductive health.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The burden of poor sexual and reproductive health (SRH) worldwide is substantial, disproportionately affecting those living in low- and middle-income countries. Targeted client communication (TCC) delivered via mobile devices (MD) (TCCMD) may improve the health behaviours and service use important for sexual...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Palmer MJ,Henschke N,Villanueva G,Maayan N,Bergman H,Glenton C,Lewin S,Fønhus MS,Tamrat T,Mehl GL,Free C

    更新日期:2020-07-14 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Ovarian ablation for early breast cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Among women with early breast cancer, the effects of ovarian ablation on recurrence and death have been assessed by several randomised trials that now have long follow-up. OBJECTIVES:In this report, the Early Breast Cancer Trialists' Collaborative Group present their third 5-yearly systematic overview (meta...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clarke MJ

    更新日期:2008-10-08 00:00:00

  • Uterine artery embolization for symptomatic uterine fibroids.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Uterine fibroids cause heavy prolonged bleeding, pain, pressure symptoms and subfertility. The traditional method of treatment has been surgery as medical therapies have not proven effective. Uterine artery embolization has been reported to be an effective and safe alternative to treat fibroids in women not ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Gupta JK,Sinha A,Lumsden MA,Hickey M

    更新日期:2014-12-26 00:00:00

  • High protein supplementation in pregnancy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of providing pregnant women with high-protein nutritional supplements on gestational weight gain and on the outcome of pregnancy, including fetal growth, gestational duration, and maternal and fetal/infant morbidity and mortality. SEARCH STRATEGY:The register of clinical trials maintai...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kramer MS

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exercise interventions for upper-limb dysfunction due to breast cancer treatment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Upper-limb dysfunction is a commonly reported side effect of treatment for breast cancer and may include decreased shoulder range of motion (the range through which a joint can be moved) (ROM) and strength, pain and lymphedema. OBJECTIVES:To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the effectiv...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: McNeely ML,Campbell K,Ospina M,Rowe BH,Dabbs K,Klassen TP,Mackey J,Courneya K

    更新日期:2010-06-16 00:00:00

  • Hormonal contraceptives for contraception in overweight or obese women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Obesity has reached epidemic proportions around the world. Metabolic changes in obesity and greater body mass may lead to reduced effectiveness of hormonal contraceptives, such as the skin patch, vaginal ring, implants, and injectables. We systematically reviewed the evidence on the effectiveness of hormonal...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lopez LM,Grimes DA,Chen-Mok M,Westhoff C,Edelman A,Helmerhorst FM

    更新日期:2010-07-07 00:00:00

  • Fluphenazine (oral) versus placebo for schizophrenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Fluphenazine is one of the first drugs to be classed as an 'antipsychotic' and has been widely available for five decades. OBJECTIVES:To compare the effects of oral fluphenazine with placebo for the treatment of schizophrenia. To evaluate any available economic studies and value outcome data. SEARCH METHOD...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Matar HE,Almerie MQ,Sampson SJ

    更新日期:2018-06-12 00:00:00

  • Radical multimodality therapy for malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Malignant pleural mesothelioma is an almost always fatal tumour, for which palliative platinum-based chemotherapy is currently the standard treatment. Multimodal therapeutic strategies incorporating surgery, radiation therapy or photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy have been recommended for selected patient...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Abdel-Rahman O,Elsayed Z,Mohamed H,Eltobgy M

    更新日期:2018-01-08 00:00:00

  • Chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment for preventing malaria in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Malaria causes repeated illness in children living in endemic areas. Policies of giving antimalarial drugs at regular intervals (prophylaxis or intermittent treatment) are being considered for preschool children. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate chemoprophylaxis and intermittent treatment with antimalarial drugs to p...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Meremikwu MM,Omari AA,Garner P

    更新日期:2005-10-19 00:00:00

  • Indacaterol, a once-daily beta2-agonist, versus twice-daily beta₂-agonists or placebo for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Indacaterol is an inhaled long-acting beta2-agonist that is administered once daily and has been investigated as a treatment for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Four different doses have been investigated (75 mcg, 150 mcg, 300 mcg and 600 mcg). The relative effects of different doses of once-da...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Geake JB,Dabscheck EJ,Wood-Baker R,Cates CJ

    更新日期:2015-01-10 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic ovarian drilling for ovulation induction in women with anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition affecting 8% to 13% of reproductive-aged women. In the past clomiphene citrate (CC) used to be the first-line treatment in women with PCOS. Ovulation induction with letrozole should be the first-line treatment according to new guidelines, but the use of ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Bordewijk EM,Ng KYB,Rakic L,Mol BWJ,Brown J,Crawford TJ,van Wely M

    更新日期:2020-02-11 00:00:00

  • Body weight management in overweight and obese breast cancer survivors.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Studies suggest that overweight and obese breast cancer survivors are at increased risk of cancer recurrence and have higher all-cause mortality. Obesity has an impact on breast cancer survivor's quality of life (QOL) and increases the risk of longer-term morbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and card...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Shaikh H,Bradhurst P,Ma LX,Tan SYC,Egger SJ,Vardy JL

    更新日期:2020-12-11 00:00:00

  • Group-based parent-training programmes for improving emotional and behavioural adjustment in 0-3 year old children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Mental health problems in children are common. Research suggests that parenting has an important role to play in helping children to become well adjusted adults, and that the first few months and years of a child's life are especially important in establishing patterns of emotional, cognitive and social func...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Barlow J,Parsons J

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Perioperative beta-blockers for preventing surgery-related mortality and morbidity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Randomized controlled trials have yielded conflicting results regarding the ability of beta-blockers to influence perioperative cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Thus routine prescription of these drugs in unselected patients remains a controversial issue. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Blessberger H,Kammler J,Domanovits H,Schlager O,Wildner B,Azar D,Schillinger M,Wiesbauer F,Steinwender C

    更新日期:2018-03-13 00:00:00

  • Food supplementation for improving the physical and psychosocial health of socio-economically disadvantaged children aged three months to five years.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Undernutrition contributes to five million deaths of children under five each year. Furthermore, throughout the life cycle, undernutrition contributes to increased risk of infection, poor cognitive functioning, chronic disease, and mortality. It is thus important for decision-makers to have evidence about th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kristjansson E,Francis DK,Liberato S,Benkhalti Jandu M,Welch V,Batal M,Greenhalgh T,Rader T,Noonan E,Shea B,Janzen L,Wells GA,Petticrew M

    更新日期:2015-03-05 00:00:00

  • Enteral antibiotics for preventing necrotizing enterocolitis in low birthweight or preterm infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Necrotizing enterocolitis continues to be a problem, particularly in preterm neonates. There have been reports published suggesting that the use of enteral antibiotics may be effective as prophylaxis. This systematic review was undertaken to clarify the issue. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the benefits and harms o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bury RG,Tudehope D

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antidepressants using active placebos.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although there is a consensus that antidepressants are effective in depression, placebo effects are also thought to be substantial. Side effects of antidepressants may reveal the identity of medication to participants or investigators and thus may bias the results of conventional trials using inert placebos....

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moncrieff J,Wessely S,Hardy R

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Adverse events in people taking macrolide antibiotics versus placebo for any indication.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Macrolide antibiotics (macrolides) are among the most commonly prescribed antibiotics worldwide and are used for a wide range of infections. However, macrolides also expose people to the risk of adverse events. The current understanding of adverse events is mostly derived from observational studies, which ar...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Hansen MP,Scott AM,McCullough A,Thorning S,Aronson JK,Beller EM,Glasziou PP,Hoffmann TC,Clark J,Del Mar CB

    更新日期:2019-01-18 00:00:00

  • Domiciliary oxygen for interstitial lung disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Retrospective survival data have suggested poor effectiveness of oxygen therapy in patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD). OBJECTIVES:To determine the effect of domiciliary oxygen therapy on survival and quality of life in patients with a diagnosis of ILD and hypoxaemia. SEARCH STRATEGY:Randomized C...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Crockett AJ,Cranston JM,Antic N

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antiemetics for reducing vomiting related to acute gastroenteritis in children and adolescents.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vomiting caused by acute gastroenteritis is very common in children and adolescents. Treatment of vomiting in children can be problematic and the use of antiemetics remains a controversial issue. There have been concerns expressed about apparently unacceptable levels of side effects such as sedation and extr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Alhashimi D,Al-Hashimi H,Fedorowicz Z

    更新日期:2009-04-15 00:00:00

  • Primary antifungal prophylaxis for cryptococcal disease in HIV-positive people.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cryptococcal disease remains one of the main causes of death in HIV-positive people who have low cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4) cell counts. Currently, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends screening HIV-positive people with low CD4 counts for cryptococcal antigenaemia (CrAg), and treating those...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Awotiwon AA,Johnson S,Rutherford GW,Meintjes G,Eshun-Wilson I

    更新日期:2018-08-29 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroids for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy is a peripheral neuropathy caused by peripheral nerve inflammation probably due to autoimmunity and would be expected to benefit from corticosteroids. Non-randomised studies suggest that corticosteroids are often beneficial. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mehndiratta MM,Hughes RA

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) for fetal monitoring during labour.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hypoxaemia during labour can alter the shape of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) waveform, notably the relation of the PR to RR intervals, and elevation or depression of the ST segment. Technical systems have therefore been developed to monitor the fetal ECG during labour as an adjunct to continuous electro...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Neilson JP

    更新日期:2006-07-19 00:00:00