Chest physiotherapy for preventing morbidity in babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Chest physiotherapy has been used to clear secretions and help lung ventilation in newborns who have needed mechanical ventilation for respiratory problems. However concerns about the safety of some forms of chest physiotherapy have been expressed. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of active chest physiotherapy on babies being extubated from mechanical ventilation for neonatal respiratory failure. SEARCH STRATEGY:The standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group was used. This included searches of electronic databases: Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials; Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Cochrane Library Issue 4 2001); MEDLINE (1966-2001); and CINAHL (1982-2001), previous reviews including cross references, abstracts, conferences, symposia proceedings, expert informants and journal hand searching mainly in the English language. SELECTION CRITERIA:All trials utilising random or quasi-random patient allocation, in which active chest physiotherapy was compared with non-active techniques (eg positioning and suction alone) or no intervention in the periextubation period. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:Assessment of methodological quality and extraction of data for each included trial was undertaken independently by the authors. Data were extracted for the primary outcomes of postextubation lobar collapse, use of reintubation, duration of oxygen therapy, intracranial haemorrhage, cerebral cystic lesions, long term neurosensory impairment and death. Subgroup analysis was performed on different treatment frequencies and gestational age less than 32 weeks. Meta-analysis was conducted using a fixed effects model. Results are presented as relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and mean difference (MD) for data measured on a continuous scale. All outcomes are reported with the use of 95% confidence intervals. MAIN RESULTS:In this review of four trials, two of which were carried out 15 & 23 years ago, no clear benefit of periextubation active chest physiotherapy can be seen. Active chest physiotherapy did not significantly reduce the rate of postextubation lobar collapse [RR 0.80 (95% CI 0.49,1.29)], though a reduction in the use of reintubation was shown in the overall analysis: RR 0.32 (95% CI 0.13,0.82); RD -7% (95% CI-13, -2); NNT 14 (95% CI 8, 50). There is insufficient information to adequately assess important short and longer term outcomes, including adverse effects. REVIEWER'S CONCLUSIONS:The results of this review do not allow development of clear guidelines for clinical practice. Caution is required when interpreting the possible positive effects of chest physiotherapy of a reduction in the use of reintubation and the trend for decreased post-extubation atelectasis as the numbers of babies studied are small, the results are not consistent across trials, data on safety are insufficient, and applicability to current practice may be limited. Further randomised controlled trials addressing the role of prophylactic active chest physiotherapy for neonates in the postextubation period may be unwarranted.

authors

Flenady VJ,Gray PH

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD000283

keywords:

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2002-01-01 00:00:00

pages

CD000283

issue

2

issn

1469-493X

pii

CD000283

pub_type

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