Theory-based interventions for contraception.


BACKGROUND:The explicit use of theory in research helps expand the knowledge base. Theories and models have been used extensively in HIV-prevention research and in interventions for preventing sexually transmitted infections (STIs). The health behavior field uses many theories or models of change. However, many educational interventions addressing contraception have no explicit theoretical base. OBJECTIVES:To review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that tested a theoretical approach to inform contraceptive choice and encourage or improve contraceptive use. SEARCH METHODS:To 1 November 2016, we searched for trials that tested a theory-based intervention for improving contraceptive use in PubMed, CENTRAL, POPLINE, Web of Science,, and ICTRP. For the initial review, we wrote to investigators to find other trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:Included trials tested a theory-based intervention for improving contraceptive use. Interventions addressed the use of one or more methods for contraception. The reports provided evidence that the intervention was based on a specific theory or model. The primary outcomes were pregnancy and contraceptive choice or use. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:We assessed titles and abstracts identified during the searches. One author extracted and entered the data into Review Manager; a second author verified accuracy. We examined studies for methodological quality.For unadjusted dichotomous outcomes, we calculated the Mantel-Haenszel odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Cluster randomized trials used various methods of accounting for the clustering, such as multilevel modeling. Most reports did not provide information to calculate the effective sample size. Therefore, we presented the results as reported by the investigators. We did not conduct meta-analysis due to varied interventions and outcome measures. MAIN RESULTS:We included 10 new trials for a total of 25. Five were conducted outside the USA. Fifteen randomly assigned individuals and 10 randomized clusters. This section focuses on nine trials with high or moderate quality evidence and an intervention effect. Five based on social cognitive theory addressed preventing adolescent pregnancy and were one to two years long. The comparison was usual care or education. Adolescent mothers with a home-based curriculum had fewer second births in two years (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.00). Twelve months after a school-based curriculum, the intervention group was more likely to report using an effective contraceptive method (adjusted OR 1.76 ± standard error (SE) 0.29) and using condoms during last intercourse (adjusted OR 1.68 ± SE 0.25). In alternative schools, after five months the intervention group reported more condom use during last intercourse (reported adjusted OR 2.12, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.56). After a school-based risk-reduction program, at three months the intervention group was less likely to report no condom use at last intercourse (adjusted OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.47 to 0.96). The risk avoidance group (abstinence-focused) was less likely to do so at 15 months (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.85). At 24 months after a case management and peer-leadership program, the intervention group reported more consistent use of hormonal contraceptives (adjusted relative risk (RR) 1.30, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.58), condoms (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.28 to 1.94), and dual methods (RR 1.36, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.85).Four of the nine trials used motivational interviewing (MI). In three studies, the comparison group received handouts. The MI group more often reported effective contraception use at nine months (OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.47 to 2.83). In two studies, the MI group was less likely to report using ineffective contraception at three months (OR 0.31, 95% CI 0.12 to 0.77) and four months (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.98), respectively. In the fourth trial, the MI group was more likely than a group with non-standard counseling to initiate long-acting reversible contraception (LARC) by one month (OR 3.99, 95% CI 1.36 to 11.68) and to report using LARC at three months (OR 3.38, 95% CI 1.06 to 10.71). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:The overall quality of evidence was moderate. Trials based on social cognitive theory focused on adolescents and provided multiple sessions. Those using motivational interviewing had a wider age range but specific populations. Sites with low resources need effective interventions adapted for their settings and their typical clients. Reports could be clearer about how the theory was used to design and implement the intervention.


Lopez LM,Grey TW,Chen M,Tolley EE,Stockton LL




Has Abstract


2016-11-23 00:00:00








  • Media-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy and behavioural therapy (self-help) for anxiety disorders in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Anxiety disorders are the most common mental health problems. They are chronic and unremitting. Effective treatments are available, but access to services is limited. Media-delivered behavioural and cognitive behavioural interventions (self-help) aim to deliver treatment with less input from professionals co...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Mayo-Wilson E,Montgomery P

    更新日期:2013-09-09 00:00:00

  • Celecoxib for rheumatoid arthritis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic auto-immune disorder, involving persistent joint inflammation. NSAIDs are used to control the symptoms of RA, but are associated with significant gastro-intestinal toxicity, including a risk of potentially life threatening gastroduodenal perforations, ulcers and bleeds...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Garner S,Fidan D,Frankish R,Judd M,Shea B,Towheed T,Wells G,Tugwell P

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antifibrinolytic drugs for acute traumatic injury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Uncontrolled bleeding is an important cause of death in trauma victims. Antifibrinolytic treatment has been shown to reduce blood loss following surgery and may also be effective in reducing blood loss following trauma. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effect of antifibrinolytic drugs in patients with acute traumat...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Ker K,Roberts I,Shakur H,Coats TJ

    更新日期:2015-05-09 00:00:00

  • Surgical procedures for evacuating incomplete miscarriage.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Incomplete miscarriage is a major problem that should be effectively managed with safe and appropriate procedures. Surgical evacuation of the uterus for management of incomplete miscarriage usually involves vacuum aspiration or sharp curettage. OBJECTIVES:To compare the safety and effectiveness of surgical ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Tunçalp O,Gülmezoglu AM,Souza JP

    更新日期:2010-09-08 00:00:00

  • Antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of postoperative wound infection in adults undergoing open elective inguinal or femoral hernia repair.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Inguinal or femoral hernia is a tissue protrusion in the groin region and has a cumulative incidence of 27% in adult men and of 3% in adult women. As most hernias become symptomatic over time, groin hernia repair is one of the most frequently performed surgical procedures worldwide. This type of surgery is c...

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    authors: Orelio CC,van Hessen C,Sanchez-Manuel FJ,Aufenacker TJ,Scholten RJ

    更新日期:2020-04-21 00:00:00

  • Intranasal steroids for acute sinusitis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Acute sinusitis is a common reason for primary care visits. It causes significant symptoms and often results in time off work and school. OBJECTIVES:We examined whether intranasal corticosteroids (INCS) are effective in relieving symptoms of acute sinusitis. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Central...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Zalmanovici A,Yaphe J

    更新日期:2009-10-07 00:00:00

  • Strategies to improve the implementation of workplace-based policies or practices targeting tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity and obesity.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Given the substantial period of time adults spend in their workplaces each day, these provide an opportune setting for interventions addressing modifiable behavioural risk factors for chronic disease. Previous reviews of trials of workplace-based interventions suggest they can be effective in modifying a ran...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Wolfenden L,Goldman S,Stacey FG,Grady A,Kingsland M,Williams CM,Wiggers J,Milat A,Rissel C,Bauman A,Farrell MM,Légaré F,Ben Charif A,Zomahoun HTV,Hodder RK,Jones J,Booth D,Parmenter B,Regan T,Yoong SL

    更新日期:2018-11-14 00:00:00

  • Chest radiograph in acute respiratory infections in children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chest radiography is widely used in children with acute lower respiratory infections, but the benefits are unknown. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of chest radiography for children with acute lower respiratory infections. SEARCH STRATEGY:The searches were updated in November 2004. We searched the Cochran...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Swingler GH,Zwarenstein M

    更新日期:2005-07-20 00:00:00

  • Nicotine replacement therapy for smoking cessation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The aim of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) is to temporarily replace much of the nicotine from cigarettes to reduce motivation to smoke and nicotine withdrawal symptoms, thus easing the transition from cigarette smoking to complete abstinence. OBJECTIVES:The aims of this review were: To determine the eff...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Stead LF,Perera R,Bullen C,Mant D,Hartmann-Boyce J,Cahill K,Lancaster T

    更新日期:2012-11-14 00:00:00

  • Medical treatment for early fetal death (less than 24 weeks).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In most pregnancies that miscarry, arrest of embryonic or fetal development occurs some time (often weeks) before the miscarriage occurs. Ultrasound examination can reveal abnormal findings during this phase by demonstrating anembryonic pregnancies or embryonic or fetal death. Treatment has traditionally bee...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Lemmers M,Verschoor MA,Kim BV,Hickey M,Vazquez JC,Mol BWJ,Neilson JP

    更新日期:2019-06-17 00:00:00

  • Pharmacological interventions for non-ulcer dyspepsia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The commonest cause of upper gastrointestinal symptoms is non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) and yet the pathophysiology of this condition has been poorly characterised and the optimum treatment is uncertain. It is estimated that pound450 million is spent on dyspepsia drugs in the UK each year. OBJECTIVES:This revie...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Soo S,Moayyedi P,Deeks J,Delaney B,Innes M,Forman D

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Oestrogen and progestogen hormone replacement therapy for peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women: weight and body fat distribution.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is commonly prescribed to treat menopausal symptoms and to prevent post-menopausal bone loss. However, many women are concerned about hormonal replacement therapy because they believe that such treatment will result in weight gain. The effect of HRT on weight and body fat di...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Norman RJ,Flight IH,Rees MC

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pramipexole for levodopa-induced complications in Parkinson's disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To compare the efficacy and safety of adjuvant pramipexole therapy versus inactive placebo in patients with Parkinson's disease, already established on levodopa. SEARCH STRATEGY:Electronic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register. Handsearching of the neurology literature as p...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Clarke C E,Speller J M,Clarke J A

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Proton pump inhibitor treatment initiated prior to endoscopic diagnosis in upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is conflicting evidence regarding the clinical efficacy of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) initiated before endoscopy for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. OBJECTIVES:To systematically review evidence from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of PPI treatment initiated before endoscopy for upper gastrointe...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Sreedharan A,Martin J,Leontiadis GI,Dorward S,Howden CW,Forman D,Moayyedi P

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  • Antenatal cardiotocography for fetal assessment.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Cardiotocography (CTG) is a continuous recording of the fetal heart rate obtained via an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. CTG is widely used in pregnancy as a method of assessing fetal well-being, predominantly in pregnancies with increased risk of complications. OBJECTIVES:To assess th...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Grivell RM,Alfirevic Z,Gyte GM,Devane D

    更新日期:2012-12-12 00:00:00

  • Interventions for American cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:On the American continent, cutaneous and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (CL and MCL) are diseases associated with infection by several species of Leishmania parasites. Pentavalent antimonials remain the first-choice treatment. There are alternative interventions, but reviewing their effectiveness and safety is ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

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    authors: Pinart M,Rueda JR,Romero GA,Pinzón-Flórez CE,Osorio-Arango K,Silveira Maia-Elkhoury AN,Reveiz L,Elias VM,Tweed JA

    更新日期:2020-08-27 00:00:00

  • Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a significant risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease and death. Increased oxidative stress in people with CKD has been implicated as a potential causative factor for some cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidant therapy may reduce cardiovascular mortality and morbidity i...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Jun M,Venkataraman V,Razavian M,Cooper B,Zoungas S,Ninomiya T,Webster AC,Perkovic V

    更新日期:2012-10-17 00:00:00

  • Families and Schools Together (FAST) for improving outcomes for children and their families.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Parents and carers have a major influence on children's learning and development from birth, through the school years, and into adulthood. Parental contributions to education include providing a secure environment in which to learn, providing intellectual stimulation, transmitting social norms and values, sh...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Valentine JC,Leach SM,Fowler AP,Stojda DK,Macdonald G

    更新日期:2019-07-31 00:00:00

  • Calcium channel blockers for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Calcium channel blockers (CCBs) are used to manage hypertension which is highly prevalent among people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The treatment for hypertension is particularly challenging in people undergoing dialysis. OBJECTIVES:To assess the benefits and harms of calcium channel blockers in patie...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Mugendi GA,Mutua FM,Natale P,Esterhuizen TM,Strippoli GF

    更新日期:2020-10-01 00:00:00

  • Lay-led and peer support interventions for adolescents with asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Adolescents with asthma are at high risk of poor adherence with treatment. This may be compounded by activities that worsen asthma, in particular smoking. Additional support above and beyond routine care has the potential to encourage good self-management. We wanted to find out whether sessions led by their ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kew KM,Carr R,Crossingham I

    更新日期:2017-04-19 00:00:00

  • Slow-release oral morphine as maintenance therapy for opioid dependence.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Opioid substitution treatments are effective in retaining people in treatment and suppressing heroin use. An open question remains whether slow-release oral morphine (SROM) could represent a possible alternative for opioid-dependent people who respond poorly to other available maintenance treatments. OBJECT...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Ferri M,Minozzi S,Bo A,Amato L

    更新日期:2013-06-05 00:00:00

  • Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting in adults after general anaesthesia: a network meta-analysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) is a common adverse effect of anaesthesia and surgery. Up to 80% of patients may be affected. These outcomes are a major cause of patient dissatisfaction and may lead to prolonged hospital stay and higher costs of care along with more severe complications. Many antiem...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Weibel S,Rücker G,Eberhart LH,Pace NL,Hartl HM,Jordan OL,Mayer D,Riemer M,Schaefer MS,Raj D,Backhaus I,Helf A,Schlesinger T,Kienbaum P,Kranke P

    更新日期:2020-10-19 00:00:00

  • Once daily versus multiple daily dosing with intravenous aminoglycosides for cystic fibrosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with cystic fibrosis, who are chronically colonised with the organism Pseudomonas aeruginosa, often require repeated courses of intravenous aminoglycoside antibiotics for the management of pulmonary exacerbations. The properties of aminoglycosides suggest that they could be given in higher concentra...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tan K,Bunn H

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • Absorbable staples for uterine incision at caesarean section.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Staples can be placed during the making of an incision, with the aim of decreasing blood loss from the cut edges. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effects of using a stapler with absorbable staples to extend the uterine incision at lower segment caesarean section. SEARCH STRATEGY:W...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wilkinson C,Enkin MW

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN. Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy (without surgery) compared with radiotherapy alone in localized carcinoma of the esophagus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Esophageal carcinoma can be managed primarily with either a surgical or non-surgical radiotherapeutic approach. Combination chemotherapy (CT) and radiotherapy (RT) has been incorporated into clinical practice and applied increasingly, especially in North America. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate combined CT and RT (C...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wong RK,Malthaner R

    更新日期:2010-01-20 00:00:00

  • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and perioperative bleeding in paediatric tonsillectomy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are used for pain relief following tonsillectomy in children. However, as they inhibit platelet aggregation and prolong bleeding time, they could cause increased perioperative bleeding. The overall risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVES:The primary objective of this r...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Cardwell M,Siviter G,Smith A

    更新日期:2005-04-18 00:00:00

  • Immunotherapy for IgM anti-Myelin-Associated Glycoprotein paraprotein-associated peripheral neuropathies.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Serum monoclonal anti-Myelin Associated Glycoprotein antibodies may be pathogenic in some patients with IgM paraprotein and demyelinating neuropathy. Immunotherapies aimed at reducing the level of these antibodies might be expected to be of benefit in the treatment of the neuropathy. Many potential therapies...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lunn MP,Nobile-Orazio E

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for improving function and activities of daily living in patients after stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Stroke is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. Functional impairment resulting in poor performance in activities of daily living (ADLs) among stroke survivors is common. Current rehabilitation approaches have limited effectiveness in improving ADL performance and function after stroke, but a po...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Elsner B,Kugler J,Pohl M,Mehrholz J

    更新日期:2013-11-15 00:00:00

  • Ibuprofen for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in preterm and/or low birth weight infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) complicates the clinical course of preterm infants, increasing their risks of developing chronic lung disease (CLD), necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH). Indomethacin is used as standard therapy to close a PDA, but is associated with reduced...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Ohlsson A,Walia R,Shah S

    更新日期:2008-01-23 00:00:00

  • Effect of partogram use on outcomes for women in spontaneous labour at term.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The partogram (sometimes known as partograph) is usually a pre-printed paper form, on which labour observations are recorded. The aim of the partogram is to provide a pictorial overview of labour, to alert midwives and obstetricians to deviations in maternal or fetal wellbeing and labour progress. Charts oft...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Lavender T,Hart A,Smyth RM

    更新日期:2008-10-08 00:00:00