Types of indwelling urethral catheters for short-term catheterisation in hospitalised adults.

Abstract:

BACKGROUND:Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the most common hospital-acquired infection. The major associated cause is indwelling urethral catheters. Several measures have been introduced to reduce catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs). One of these measures is the introduction of specialised urethral catheters that have been designed to reduce the risk of infection. These include antiseptic-coated and antimicrobial-impregnated catheters. OBJECTIVES:The primary objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness of different types of indwelling urethral catheters in reducing the risk of UTI and to assess their impact on other outcomes in adults who require short-term urethral catheterisation in hospitals. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Incontinence Group's Specialised Trials Register, which contains trials identified from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, MEDLINE in process, ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO ICTRP and handsearching of journals and conference proceedings (searched 9 September 2014). We also examined the bibliographies of relevant articles and contacted catheter manufacturer representatives for trials. SELECTION CRITERIA:We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing types of indwelling urethral catheters for short-term catheterisation in hospitalised adults. 'Short-term' is defined as a duration of catheterisation which is intended to be less than or equal to 14 days. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:At least two review authors independently screened abstracts, extracted data and assessed risk of bias of the included trials. Any disagreement was resolved by discussion or consultation with a third party. We processed data as described in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. We assessed the quality of evidence using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS:Twenty-six trials met the inclusion criteria involving 12,422 hospitalised adults in 25 parallel group trials, and 27,878 adults in one large cluster-randomised cross-over trial. No trials compared one antiseptic catheter versus another, nor an antimicrobial catheter versus another. Antiseptic-coated indwelling urethral catheters versus standard indwelling urethral cathetersThe primary outcome, symptomatic CAUTI was reported in one large trial with a low risk of bias, comparing silver alloy hydrogel-coated latex catheter (antiseptic-coated) against a standard polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-coated latex catheter (control). The trial used a pragmatic, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-based definition for symptomatic CAUTI. For the comparison between silver alloy-coated catheter versus standard catheter, there was no significant difference in symptomatic CAUTI incidence (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.16).For secondary outcomes, the included trials reported on two types of antiseptic catheters (coated with either silver oxide or silver alloy). For the outcome of bacteriuria, silver oxide catheters were not associated with any statistically significant reduction (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.72 to 1.13). These catheters are no longer manufactured. Silver alloy catheters achieved a slight but statistically significant reduction in bacteriuria (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73 to 0.92). However, the one large trial with a low risk of bias did not support this finding (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.85 to 1.16). The randomised cross-over trial of silver alloy catheters versus standard catheters was excluded from the pooled results because data were not available prior to crossover. The results of this trial showed less bacteriuria in the silver alloy catheter group.For the outcome of discomfort whilst the catheter was in-situ, fewer patients with silver alloy catheters complained of discomfort compared with standard catheters (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.74 to 0.96). Antimicrobial-impregnated indwelling urethral catheters versus standard indwelling urethral cathetersThe primary outcome measure, symptomatic CAUTI was reported in one large trial with a low risk of bias, comparing nitrofurazone-impregnated silicone catheter (antimicrobial-impregnated) against a standard PTFE-coated latex catheter (control). The nitrofurazone catheter achieved a reduction in symptomatic CAUTI incidence which was of borderline statistical significance (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99).For secondary outcomes, the included trials reported on two types of antimicrobial catheters (impregnated with either nitrofurazone or minocycline/rifampicin). Antimicrobial-impregnated catheters, compared with standard catheters, were found to lower the rate of bacteriuria in the antimicrobial group for both minocycline and rifampicin (RR 0.36, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.73), and nitrofurazone (RR 0.73, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.85). The minocycline and rifampicin catheter is no longer manufactured.For the outcome of discomfort whilst the catheter was in-situ, more patients with nitrofurazone catheters complained of pain whilst the catheter was in-situ compared with standard catheters (RR 1.26, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.41). For the period after catheter removal, more patients with nitrofurazone catheters complained of pain than standard catheters (RR 1.43, 95% CI 1.30 to 1.57). Antimicrobial-impregnated indwelling urethral catheters versus antiseptic-coated indwelling urethral cathetersOne large trial compared antimicrobial-impregnated (nitrofurazone) catheters versus silver alloy-coated (antiseptic-coated) catheters. The results showed people were less likely to have a symptomatic CAUTI with nitrofurazone-impregnated catheters (228/2153, 10.6%) compared with silver alloy-coated catheters (263/2097, 12.5%), but this was of borderline statistical significance (RR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 1.00). They did, however, have significantly less bacteriuria (RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.67 to 0.91),While the catheter was in-situ (RR 1.50, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.70), and on removal (RR 1.32, 95% CI 1.20 to 1.45), nitrofurazone catheters were associated with more discomfort compared with silver-coated catheters. One type of standard indwelling urethral catheter versus another type of standard indwelling urethral catheterNone of the trials comparing standard catheters versus other types of standard catheters measured symptomatic CAUTI. In terms of reducing bacteriuria, individual trials were too small to show whether one type of standard catheter was superior to another type. For the outcome of urethral reactions, fully siliconised catheters appeared to be superior to latex-based catheters. However, the trials involved small numbers of participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the different catheters for all other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:Silver alloy-coated catheters were not associated with a statistically significant reduction in symptomatic CAUTI, and are considerably more expensive. Nitrofurazone-impregnated catheters reduced the risk of symptomatic CAUTI and bacteriuria, although the magnitude of reduction was low and hence may not be clinically important. However, they are more expensive than standard catheters. They are also more likely to cause discomfort than standard catheters.

authors

Lam TB,Omar MI,Fisher E,Gillies K,MacLennan S

doi

10.1002/14651858.CD004013.pub4

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2014-09-23 00:00:00

pages

CD004013

issue

9

issn

1469-493X

pub_type

杂志文章,meta分析,评审
  • Droperidol for psychosis-induced aggression or agitation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:People experiencing acute psychotic illnesses, especially those associated with agitated or violent behaviour, may require urgent pharmacological tranquillisation or sedation. Droperidol, a butyrophenone antipsychotic, has been used for this purpose in several countries. OBJECTIVES:To estimate the effects o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002830.pub3

    authors: Khokhar MA,Rathbone J

    更新日期:2016-12-15 00:00:00

  • Pulmonary rehabilitation following exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Pulmonary rehabilitation has become a cornerstone in the management of patients with stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Systematic reviews have shown large and important clinical effects of pulmonary rehabilitation in these patients. In unstable COPD patients who have suffered from an exace...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005305.pub2

    authors: Puhan M,Scharplatz M,Troosters T,Walters EH,Steurer J

    更新日期:2009-01-21 00:00:00

  • Mohs micrographic surgery versus surgical excision for periocular basal cell carcinoma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) is the commonest skin cancer in the white population. It is traditionally treated by surgical excision (SE) or by Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS). OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to compare the effectiveness, cost, complications and acceptability of periocular BCCs whe...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007041.pub2

    authors: Narayanan K,Hadid OH,Barnes EA

    更新日期:2009-04-15 00:00:00

  • Short-term treatment with proton pump inhibitors, H2-receptor antagonists and prokinetics for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease-like symptoms and endoscopy negative reflux disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Approximately 25% of adults regularly experience heartburn, a symptom of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Most patients are treated empirically (without specific diagnostic evaluation e.g. endoscopy. Among patients who have an upper endoscopy, findings range from a normal appearance, mild erythema t...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002095.pub4

    authors: van Pinxteren B,Sigterman KE,Bonis P,Lau J,Numans ME

    更新日期:2010-11-10 00:00:00

  • Blood pressure lowering efficacy of angiotensin receptor blockers for primary hypertension.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are widely prescribed for hypertension so it is essential to determine and compare their effects on blood pressure (BP), heart rate and withdrawals due to adverse effects (WDAE). OBJECTIVES:To quantify the dose-related systolic and/or diastolic BP lowering efficacy of AR...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003822.pub2

    authors: Heran BS,Wong MM,Heran IK,Wright JM

    更新日期:2008-10-08 00:00:00

  • Blue-light filtering intraocular lenses (IOLs) for protecting macular health.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:An intraocular lens (IOL) is a synthetic lens that is surgically implanted within the eye following removal of the crystalline lens, during cataract surgery. While all modern IOLs attenuate the transmission of ultra-violet (UV) light, some IOLs, called blue-blocking or blue-light filtering IOLs, also reduce ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011977.pub2

    authors: Downie LE,Busija L,Keller PR

    更新日期:2018-05-22 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Interventions for treating hallux valgus (abductovalgus) and bunions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hallux valgus is classified as an abnormal deviation of the great toe (hallux) towards the midline of the foot. OBJECTIVES:To identify and evaluate the evidence from randomised trials of interventions used to correct hallux valgus. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauama Gro...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000964.pub3

    authors: Ferrari J,Higgins JP,Prior TD

    更新日期:2009-04-15 00:00:00

  • Midwife-led continuity models versus other models of care for childbearing women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Midwives are primary providers of care for childbearing women around the world. However, there is a lack of synthesised information to establish whether there are differences in morbidity and mortality, effectiveness and psychosocial outcomes between midwife-led continuity models and other models of care. O...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004667.pub4

    authors: Sandall J,Soltani H,Gates S,Shennan A,Devane D

    更新日期:2015-09-15 00:00:00

  • Antibiotics for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis in cirrhotics.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is mainly a complication of cirrhotic ascites that occurs in the absence of any intra-abdominal, surgically treatable source of infection. Antibiotics have been recommended as the mainstay treatment for spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. However, this recommendation is not b...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002232

    authors: Soares-Weiser K,Brezis M,Leibovici L

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Drugs for preventing postoperative nausea and vomiting.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Drugs can prevent postoperative nausea and vomiting, but their relative efficacies and side effects have not been compared within one systematic review. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the prevention of postoperative nausea and vomiting by drugs and the development of any side effects....

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004125.pub3

    authors: Carlisle J,Stevenson CA

    更新日期:2017-07-17 00:00:00

  • Vaginal misoprostol for cervical ripening and induction of labour.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Misoprostol (Cytotec, Searle) is a prostaglandin E1 analogue marketed for use in the prevention and treatment of peptic ulcer disease. It is inexpensive, easily stored at room temperature and has few systemic side effects. It is rapidly absorbed orally and vaginally. Although not registered for such use, mis...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000941

    authors: Hofmeyr GJ,Gulmezoglu AM

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Amantadine and rimantadine for influenza A in children and the elderly.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The effectiveness and safety of amantadine (AMT) and rimantadine (RMT) for preventing and treating influenza A in adults has been systematically reviewed. However, little is known about these treatments in children and the elderly. OBJECTIVES:To systematically review the effectiveness and safety of AMT and ...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002745.pub3

    authors: Alves Galvão MG,Rocha Crispino Santos MA,Alves da Cunha AJ

    更新日期:2012-01-18 00:00:00

  • Brief educational strategies for improving contraception use in young people.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Global high rates of unplanned pregnancy and abortion among young women demonstrate the need for increased access to modern contraceptive services. In sub-Saharan Africa, the birth rate for those aged 15 to 19 years is 121 per 1000. In the USA, 6% of teens aged 15 to 19 years became pregnant in 2010. Most pr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012025.pub2

    authors: Lopez LM,Grey TW,Tolley EE,Chen M

    更新日期:2016-03-30 00:00:00

  • Decompressive craniectomy for the treatment of high intracranial pressure in closed traumatic brain injury.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:High intracranial pressure (ICP) is the most frequent cause of death and disability after severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). It is usually treated with general maneuvers (normothermia, sedation, etc.) and a set of first-line therapeutic measures (moderate hypocapnia, mannitol, etc.). When these measures fa...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003983.pub3

    authors: Sahuquillo J,Dennis JA

    更新日期:2019-12-31 00:00:00

  • Methadone at tapered doses for the management of opioid withdrawal.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Despite use in many countries of tapered methadone for detoxification from opiate, the evidence of efficacy to prevent relapse and promote lifestyle change has not been systematically evaluated. OBJECTIVES:To determine whether tapered methadone is effective to manage withdrawal from opioids. SEARCH STRATEG...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003409

    authors: Amato L,Davoli M,Ferri M,Ali R

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing pneumococcal infection in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Diseases caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) continue to cause substantial morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccines have been developed for over 50 years and may have the potential to prevent disease and death. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effectiveness o...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000422

    authors: Dear K,Holden J,Andrews R,Tatham D

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interventions for preventing and treating incontinence-associated dermatitis in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD) is one of the most common skin problems in adults who are incontinent for urine, stool, or both. In practice, products and procedures are the same for both prevention and treatment of IAD. OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness of var...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011627.pub2

    authors: Beeckman D,Van Damme N,Schoonhoven L,Van Lancker A,Kottner J,Beele H,Gray M,Woodward S,Fader M,Van den Bussche K,Van Hecke A,De Meyer D,Verhaeghe S

    更新日期:2016-11-10 00:00:00

  • Luteinising hormone releasing hormone (LHRH) agonists for the treatment of relapsed epithelial ovarian cancer.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Ovarian cancer is seventh most common cancer in women worldwide. Approximately 1.3% of women will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer at some point during their life time. The majority of tumours arise from surface of the ovary (epithelial). Two thirds of these women will present with advanced disease, requirin...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD011322.pub2

    authors: Wuntakal R,Seshadri S,Montes A,Lane G

    更新日期:2016-06-29 00:00:00

  • Biomarkers for diagnosis of Wilson's disease.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Wilson's disease, first described by Samuel Wilson in 1912, is an autosomal recessive metabolic disorder resulting from mutations in the ATP7B gene. The disease develops as a consequence of copper accumulating in affected tissues. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of Wilson's disease, which is ofte...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD012267.pub2

    authors: Ryan A,Nevitt SJ,Tuohy O,Cook P

    更新日期:2019-11-19 00:00:00

  • Gabapentin for chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This review is an update of a review published in 2011, itself a major update of previous reviews published in 2005 and 2000, investigating the effects of gabapentin in chronic neuropathic pain (pain due to nerve damage). Antiepileptic drugs are used to manage chronic neuropathic pain and fibromyalgia. OBJE...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007938.pub3

    authors: Moore RA,Wiffen PJ,Derry S,Toelle T,Rice AS

    更新日期:2014-04-27 00:00:00

  • Immediate-release methylphenidate for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), diagnosed mainly in children, often persist into adulthood. Adults in this group have a high rate of other psychiatric problems and functional difficulties in a number of key areas such as academic achievement, interpersonal relationships, and empl...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005041.pub2

    authors: Epstein T,Patsopoulos NA,Weiser M

    更新日期:2014-09-18 00:00:00

  • Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Organised stroke unit care is provided by multidisciplinary teams that exclusively manage stroke patients in a dedicated ward (stroke ward), with a mobile team (stroke team) or within a generic disability service (a mixed rehabilitation ward). OBJECTIVES:The objective of this review was to assess the effect...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000197

    authors: Stroke Unit Trialists' Collaboration.

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Oral betamimetics for maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Some women who have threatened to give birth prematurely, subsequently settle. They may then take oral tocolytic maintenance therapy to prevent preterm birth and to prolong gestation. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of oral betamimetic maintenance therapy after threatened preterm labour for preventing pret...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003927.pub3

    authors: Dodd JM,Crowther CA,Middleton P

    更新日期:2012-12-12 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial lock solutions for preventing catheter-related infections in haemodialysis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) through a central venous catheter (CVC) are exposed to several risks, being a catheter-related infection (CRI) and a CVC lumen thrombosis among the most serious. Standard of care regarding CVCs includes their sealing with heparin lock solutions to prevent catheter lumen...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD010597.pub2

    authors: Arechabala MC,Catoni MI,Claro JC,Rojas NP,Rubio ME,Calvo MA,Letelier LM

    更新日期:2018-04-03 00:00:00

  • Vaccines for preventing malaria (pre-erythrocytic).

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Vaccines against all stages of the malaria parasite are in development, mainly for Plasmodium falciparum, which causes the most serious form of malaria. Pre-erythrocytic vaccines act to prevent or delay a malaria attack by attacking the sporozoite and liver stages before the parasite reaches the bloodstream....

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006198

    authors: Graves P,Gelband H

    更新日期:2006-10-18 00:00:00

  • Prostaglandins for preventing postpartum haemorrhage.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prostaglandins have mainly been used for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when other measures fail. Misoprostol, a new and inexpensive prostaglandin E1 analogue, has been suggested as an alternative for routine management of the third stage of labour. OBJECTIVES:To assess the effects of prophylactic prostagland...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000494.pub3

    authors: Gülmezoglu AM,Forna F,Villar J,Hofmeyr GJ

    更新日期:2007-07-18 00:00:00

  • Amphotericin B lipid soluble formulations vs amphotericin B in cancer patients with neutropenia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Patients with cancer who are treated with chemotherapy or receive a bone marrow transplant have an increased risk of acquiring fungal infections. Such infections can be life-threatening. Antifungal drugs are therefore often given prophylactically to such patients, or when they have a fever. OBJECTIVES:To co...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000969

    authors: Johansen HK,Gotzsche PC

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • WITHDRAWN: Proton pump inhibitor treatment for acute peptic ulcer bleeding.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the clinical effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in peptic ulcer (PU) bleeding yield conflicting results. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the efficacy of PPIs in acute bleeding from PU using evidence from RCTs. SEARCH STRATEGY:We searched CENTRAL, The Cochrane Libr...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD002094.pub4

    authors: Leontiadis GI,Sharma VK,Howden CW

    更新日期:2010-05-12 00:00:00

  • Alternative positions for the baby at birth before clamping the umbilical cord.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The third stage of labour is from birth of the baby until delivery of the placenta. Clamping the umbilical cord is one component of active management of the third stage. Deferring cord clamping allows blood flow between the baby and the placenta to continue; net transfer to the baby is called placental trans...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD007555.pub2

    authors: Airey RJ,Farrar D,Duley L

    更新日期:2010-10-06 00:00:00

  • Laparoscopic "drilling" by diathermy or laser for ovulation induction in anovulatory polycystic ovary syndrome.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Problems in inducing ovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and anovulation (failure to ovulate) are well recognised. Surgical ovarian wedge resection was the first established treatment for anovulatory PCOS patients but was largely abandoned because of the risk of post-surgical adhesion fo...

    journal_title:The Cochrane database of systematic reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1002/14651858.CD001122

    authors: Farquhar C,Vandekerckhove P,Lilford R

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00