Hepatic glucose uptake, gluconeogenesis and the regulation of glycogen synthesis.


:Hepatic glycogen is replenished during the absorptive period postprandially. This repletion is prompted partly by an increased hepatic uptake of glucose by the liver, partly by metabolite and hormonal signals in the portal vein, and partly by an increased gluconeogenic flux to glycogen (glyconeogenesis). There is some evidence that the direct formation of glycogen from glucose and that formed by gluconeogenic pathways is linked. This includes: (i) the inhibition of all glycogen synthesis, in vivo, when gluconeogenic flux is blocked by inhibitors; (ii) a dual relationship between glucose concentrations, lactate uptake by the liver and glycogen synthesis (by both pathways) which indicates that glucose sets the maximal rates of glycogen synthesis while lactate uptake determines the actual flux rate to glycogen; (iii) the decrease of both gluconeogenesis and glycogen synthesis by the biguanide, metformin; and (iv) correlations between increased gluconeogenesis and liver glycogen in obese patients and animal models. The degree to which the liver extracts portal glucose is not entirely agreed upon although a preponderance of evidence points to about a 5% extraction rate, following meals, which is dependent on a stimulation of glucokinase. This enzyme may be linked to the expression of other enzymes in the gluconeogenic pathway. Perivenous cells in the liver may induce additional gluconeogenesis in the periportal cells by increasing glycolytically produced lactate. A number of potential mechanisms therefore exist which could link glycogen synthesis from glucose and gluconeogenic substrate.


Diabetes Metab Res Rev


Radziuk J,Pye S





Has Abstract


2001-07-01 00:00:00














  • Lack of association of insulin resistance and carotid intimal medial thickness in non-diabetic Asian Indian subjects.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Atherosclerosis is associated with insulin resistance (IR) and dyslipidaemia. Impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) is characterised by IR and is associated with a higher risk of atherosclerosis. The objective of the present study was to test whether early atherosclerosis indicated by intimal medial thickness (IMT...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Snehalatha C,Vijay V,Suresh Mohan R,Satyavani K,Sivasankari S,Megha T,Radhika S,Ramachandran A

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Prevention of insulin resistance and beta-cell loss by abrogating PKCepsilon-induced serine phosphorylation of muscle IRS-1 in Psammomys obesus.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Psammomys obesus gerbil exhibits PKCepsilon over-expression on high-energy (HE) diet. Muscle insulin receptor (IR) signalling and tyrosine kinase activity are inhibited eliciting insulin resistance. We aimed at preventing diabetes by inhibiting PKCepsilon-induced serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 with novel PKC...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mack E,Ziv E,Reuveni H,Kalman R,Niv MY,Jörns A,Lenzen S,Shafrir E

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Programmed disorders of beta-cell development and function as one cause for type 2 diabetes? The GK rat paradigm.

    abstract::Now that the reduction in beta-mass has been clearly established in humans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) 1-4, the debate focuses on the possible mechanisms responsible for decreased beta-cell number and impaired beta-cell function and their multifactorial etiology. Appropriate inbred rodent models are essential...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Portha B

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Coincident diabetes mellitus and primary hyperparathyroidism.

    abstract::The prevalence of diabetes mellitus in primary hyperparathyroidism is approximately 8% and that of primary hyperparathyroidism in diabetic patients is approximately 1%. Both values are about three-fold higher than the respective expected prevalences in general populations. Patients with both disorders are over 40 year...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Taylor WH,Khaleeli AA

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

  • Retinal capillary basement membrane thickness in diabetic mice genetically modified at the haptoglobin locus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM) homozygous for the haptoglobin (Hp) 1 allele are at decreased risk of retinopathy as compared to DM individuals with the Hp 2 allele. We sought to recapitulate these findings in DM mice genetically modified at the Hp locus. METHODS:An early morphological characteristi...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller-Lotan R,Miller B,Nakhoul F,Aronson D,Asaf R,Levy AP

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

  • 24-Hour Fasting with Diabetes: guide to physicians advising patients on medication adjustments prior to religious observances (or outpatient surgical procedures).

    abstract::Patients with diabetes may undergo an approximately 24-h fast for a voluntary religious observance or in preparation for a medical procedure. Commonly, patients will manage their diabetes before and during such fasting without guidelines from their doctors, often because they did not ask for advice. The physician shou...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grajower MM

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of hyperglycaemia in singleton versus twin pregnancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:There is conflicting information regarding the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus in twin pregnancies. This study was conducted to determine whether the risk of gestational diabetes mellitus is higher in pregnant Japanese women with twin versus singleton pregnancy. METHODS:The prevalence of gestational d...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morikawa M,Yamada T,Akaishi R,Kojima T,Nishida R,Koyama T,Cho K,Minakami H

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Recent findings on fulminant type 1 diabetes.

    abstract::Fulminant type 1 diabetes (fT1D) is a new subtype of type 1 diabetes proposed by Imagawa in 2000. It is a clinical syndrome characterized by a markedly rapid and almost complete destruction of pancreatic β cells. Metabolic derangement is more severe in this subtype than in autoimmune type 1 diabetes. The incidence of ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Liu L,Zeng L,Sang D,Lu Z,Shen J

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Gluten-free but also gluten-enriched (gluten+) diet prevent diabetes in NOD mice; the gluten enigma in type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Environmental factors such as nutrition or exposure to infections play a substantial role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). We have previously shown that gluten-free, non-purified diet largely prevented diabetes in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice. In this study we tested hypothesis that early intro...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Funda DP,Kaas A,Tlaskalová-Hogenová H,Buschard K

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Statin users have an elevated risk of dysglycemia and new-onset-diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Statins are one of the most widely prescribed medications in the United States; however, there is a concern that they are associated with new-onset-diabetes (NOD) development. We sought to understand the risk of dysglycemia and NOD for a cohort of individuals that reflect real-world physician prescribing patt...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zigmont VA,Shoben AB,Lu B,Kaye GL,Clinton SK,Harris RE,Olivo-Marston SE

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Birth weight in newborn infants with different diabetes-associated HLA genotypes in three neighbouring countries: Finland, Estonia and Russian Karelia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genotypes associated with increased risk for type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) have been reported to be associated with increased birth weight. We set out to investigate the association between HLA haplotypes conferring risk for T1D and birth weight and search for possible differen...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Peet A,Kool P,Ilonen J,Knip M,Tillmann V,DIABIMMUNE Study Group.

    更新日期:2012-07-01 00:00:00

  • Stability of mitochondrial DNA against reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated in diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mitochondria has been proposed as the pathogenic mechanism for chronic complications of diabetes. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species. However, there are few data on the mitochondrial DNA damage in diabetes and these...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Savu O,Sunkari VG,Botusan IR,Grünler J,Nikoshkov A,Catrina SB

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • The 2015 IWGDF guidance documents on prevention and management of foot problems in diabetes: development of an evidence-based global consensus.

    abstract::Foot problems complicating diabetes are a source of major patient suffering and societal costs. Investing in evidence-based, internationally appropriate diabetic foot care guidance is likely among the most cost-effective forms of healthcare expenditure, provided it is goal-focused and properly implemented. The Interna...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bakker K,Apelqvist J,Lipsky BA,Van Netten JJ,International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot.

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exosomes and diabetes.

    abstract::Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases characterized by elevated blood glucose levels that drive the development of life-threatening complications. Diabetes results from a situation of insufficient insulin action, either by deficient production of the hormone by the pancreas, or by the development of insulin resist...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Castaño C,Novials A,Párrizas M

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Thiazolidinediones as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic agents.

    abstract::In the last few years, there has been increasing focus on the impact of interventions on cardiovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. Insulin resistance and hyperglycaemia often co-exist with a cluster of risk factors for coronary artery disease, but the underlying mechanisms leading to the development of...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ceriello A

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes trends in Africa.

    abstract::Diabetes is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in Africa. Although a dramatic increase in disease burden is projected, it remains to be seen what effect the ongoing devastation of HIV disease will have on the epidemiology of such chronic diseases as diabetes. Recent data on type 2 diabetes prevalence indica...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Motala AA

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • The association between fasting plasma glucose and all-cause and cause-specific mortality by gender: The rural Chinese cohort study.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:To evaluate the association between fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and mortality by gender. METHODS:A total of 17 248 eligible participants from a rural Chinese prospective cohort population were included. The same questionnaire interview and anthropometric and laboratory measurements were performed at both b...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liu L,Chen X,Liu Y,Sun X,Yin Z,Li H,Zhang M,Wang B,Ren Y,Zhao Y,Liu D,Zhou J,Liu X,Zhang D,Cheng C,Liu F,Zhou Q,Xu Q,Xiong Y,Liu J,You Z,Hong S,Wang C,Hu D

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • A case-control study: The association of serum paraoxonase 1 activity and concentration with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:A longitudinal study assessed serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and concentration as affected by age and as associated with the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D). PON1's recently established physiological function is the hydrolysis of lipolactones in oxidized LDL particles. METHODS:Serum samples and cl...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crow JA,Meek EC,Wills RW,Chambers JE

    更新日期:2018-03-01 00:00:00

  • Axonal dysfunction prior to neuropathy onset in type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The present study was undertaken to determine whether there were changes evident in axonal membrane function prior to the onset of neuropathy in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. METHODS:From a cohort of 110 consecutive referrals, nerve excitability was investigated in 40 diabetic patients without c...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arnold R,Kwai N,Lin CS,Poynten AM,Kiernan MC,Krishnan AV

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Intranasally administered insulin intended for prevention of type 1 diabetes--a safety study in healthy adults.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Intranasally applied insulin is one of the antigen-specific therapies currently tested in clinical type 1 diabetes prevention trials, for example, in the Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Study (DIPP). The possibility that the therapy may cause hypoglycaemia or local irritation and the poorly known i...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Kupila A,Sipilä J,Keskinen P,Simell T,Knip M,Pulkki K,Simell O

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Globular adiponectin stimulates glucose transport in type 2 diabetic muscle.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Adiponectin acts as an insulin sensitizer in rodent models. The direct effect of adiponectin in intact type 2 diabetic muscle is unknown. We examined whether adiponectin stimulates glucose transport in isolated skeletal muscle strips from type 2 diabetic men. METHODS:We obtained open muscle biopsies from 12...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuoppamaa H,Skrobuk P,Sihvo M,Hiukka A,Chibalin AV,Zierath JR,Koistinen HA

    更新日期:2008-10-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of early and late prematurity is similar among pediatric type 1 diabetes patients and the general population.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has increased in recent decades, as has the incidence of preterm births (<37 weeks). We aimed to evaluate and compare the prevalence of prematurity and early prematurity (<34 weeks) and birth season variability among T1DM and non-T1DM children. METHODS:A nati...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adar A,Shalitin S,Eyal O,Loewenthal N,Pinhas-Hamiel O,Levy M,Dally-Gottfried O,Landau Z,Zung A,Levy-Khademi F,Zangen D,Tenenbaum-Rakover Y,Rachmiel M

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Toxin-based selection of insulin-producing cells with improved defense properties for islet cell transplantation.

    abstract::Insulin-producing pancreatic beta-cells are known to be extremely susceptible to destruction, primarily by autoimmune mechanisms, infectious agents, and by chemical toxins that cause overt type I diabetes. As development of highly protected insulin-producing cells would be important for successful cell therapy of diab...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bloch K,Vardi P

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Identification of a distinct phenotype of elderly latent autoimmune diabetes in adults: LADA China Study 8.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) exhibits significant clinical heterogeneity, but the underlying causes remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether age of onset of LADA contributes to the observed clinical heterogeneity by comparing the clinical, metabolic, and immunogenetic c...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Niu X,Luo S,Li X,Xie Z,Xiang Y,Huang G,Lin J,Yang L,Liu Z,Wang X,Leslie RD,Zhou Z

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Prognostic value of serum liver enzymes levels in type 2 diabetic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Elevated liver enzymes are associated with cardiovascular disease, while their relationship with cancer-related mortality has not been assessed so far in diabetic patients. METHODS:An observational cohort study was performed on a consecutive series of 1952 type 2 diabetic patients. The association of liver ...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Monami M,Balzi D,Lamanna C,Melani C,Cocca C,Lotti E,Fedeli A,Masotti G,Marchionni N,Mannucci E

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of unhealthy childhood and unfavorable parents' characteristics on adiposity in schoolchildren.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Childhood obesity is encouraged by low physical activity (PA), time spent using screens (screen time, ST), and by sugar-sweetened beverage consumption (SSBc). It is also influenced by unfavorable parents' characteristics, such as a high body mass index (BMI) and low education level (EL). Our aim was to evalu...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vinciguerra F,Tumminia A,Roppolo F,Romeo LC,La Spina N,Baratta R,Parrino C,Sciacca L,Vigneri R,Frittitta L

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Classification systems for lower extremity amputation prediction in subjects with active diabetic foot ulcer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract:AIM:We systematically review the available systems used to classify diabetic foot ulcers in order to synthesize their methodological qualitative issues and accuracy to predict lower extremity amputation, as this may represent a critical point in these patients' care. MATERIAL AND METHODS:Two investigators searched, in...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Monteiro-Soares M,Martins-Mendes D,Vaz-Carneiro A,Sampaio S,Dinis-Ribeiro M

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Oestradiol levels may differ between premenopausal women, ages 18-50, with type 1 diabetes and matched controls.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:This study aimed to investigate whether oestradiol differs between premenopausal women with and without type 1 diabetes and whether levels are associated with such factors as age, reproductive history or diabetes management. METHODS:Oestradiol in premenopausal women with type 1 diabetes (n = 89; age = 18-50...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hassan LS,Monson RS,Danielson KK

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Stroke in patients with diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::The article's objective is to review the key advances in the scientific literature related to the association of stroke with diabetes mellitus and to summarize the current approaches to stroke prevention in diabetic patients. The key findings from the literature regarding stroke incidence in patients with diabetes, sp...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mankovsky BN,Ziegler D

    更新日期:2004-07-01 00:00:00

  • The incidence of mild and severe hypoglycaemia in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus treated with sulfonylureas: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    abstract::Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus using sulfonylurea derivatives or insulin may experience hypoglycaemia. However, recent data regarding the incidence of hypoglycaemia are scarce. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the proportion of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus that experien...

    journal_title:Diabetes/metabolism research and reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Schopman JE,Simon AC,Hoefnagel SJ,Hoekstra JB,Scholten RJ,Holleman F

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00