Airway protection following simulated gastro-oesophageal reflux in sedated and sleeping neonatal piglets during active sleep.


:1. In infants, promethazine has been implicated in the pathogenesis of sleep apnoea, apparent life threatening events (ALTE) and the Sudden Infant Death syndrome (SIDS). The aim of the present study was to investigate, in a neonatal animal, the effects of a commonly used promethazine-containing medication on airway protective mechanisms and cardiorespiratory reflexes following simulated gastro-oesophageal reflux (GER) to different levels in the oesophagus and pharynx. 2. Physiological and radiographic recordings were made in 21 naturally sleeping (controls) and 21 sedated (1.5 mg/kg, p.o., promethazine) piglets. On 3 consecutive days physiological recordings were made in all piglets during active sleep. Gastro-oesophageal reflux was simulated by the injection of boluses of 0.5 mL HCl, pH 2 or 3, or NaCl (0.9%) at 37 degrees C into the pharynx, upper or lower oesophagus. 3. In healthy neonatal piglets, minimal sedation with promethazine, which did not affect behaviour during wakefulness, revealed previously unreported findings during active sleep. 4. The most significant effects were observed following simulated GER to the pharynx, with no effect observed in the lower oesophagus. In sedated piglets, compared with naturally sleeping piglets, there was a significant reduction in swallowing (P < 0.01), delayed radiological clearance of fluid (P < 0.05), a reduction in breathing rate, oxygen saturation and heart rate and an increase in apnoea. 5. These findings are consistent with a low dose of promethazine producing a significant attenuation of airway protective mechanisms and, thus, stimulation of the laryngeal chemoreflex. The results suggest a mechanism for the association observed between promethazine use and the occurrence of ALTE and SIDS. The results support continued caution and suggest the need for greater regulation of promethazine-containing medications in infants.


McKelvey GM,Post EJ,Wood AK,Jeffery HE





Has Abstract


2001-07-01 00:00:00














  • The relationship between tissue levels of cyclic GMP and tracheal smooth muscle relaxation in the guinea-pig.

    abstract::The effect of cyclic GMP was investigated using guinea-pig tracheal smooth muscle. 8-Bromo-cyclic GMP showed a dose-dependent relaxation of spontaneous tension of tracheal smooth muscle. Administration of sodium nitroprusside induced dose-dependent relaxation of tracheal smooth muscle as well as an increase in tissue ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Suzuki K,Takagi K,Satake T,Sugiyama S,Ozawa T

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • Higher circulating resistin protein and PBMCs resistin mRNA levels are associated with increased prevalence of small dense LDL particles in coronary artery disease patients.

    abstract::Recent in vitro experiments have indicated that human resistin increases the number of lipoprotein particles secreted by the human hepatocytes and also influences their quality, in terms of generating more proatherogenic lipid particles. The aim of this study is to investigate associations of plasma resistin and perip...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Joksić J,Sopić M,Spasojević-Kalimanovska V,Gojković T,Zeljković A,Vekić J,Andjelkovic K,Kalimanovska-Oštrić D,Jelić-Ivanović Z

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Beta2-adrenoceptor polymorphisms and obstructive airway diseases: important issues of study design.

    abstract::1. Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic airway diseases characterized by airflow obstruction. The beta(2)-adrenoceptor mediates bronchodilatation in response to exogenous and endogenous beta-adrenoceptor agonists. 2. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in the beta(2)-adrenoceptor gene (ADRB2...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Yang IA,Ng T,Molenaar P,Fong KM

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of nuclear translocation of transcription factor nuclear factor-kappa B induces FAS- as well as tumour necrosis factor-alpha-mediated apoptosis through downregulation of a conserved family of inhibitor of apoptosis 1.

    abstract::1. In the present study, we examined whether the nuclear transcription factor (NF)-kappaB activity plays a role in the determination of sensitivity to tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha or agonistic Fas antibody (Ab) in human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMC). 2. To inhibit agonist-induced NF-kappaB activation in h...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imanishi T,Hano T,Takarada S,Nishio I

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • New insights into the treatment of hypertension.

    abstract::1. The choice of initial pharmacological therapy is one area where the different hypertension management guidelines vary in recommending either the use of diuretics and beta-blockers as preferred drugs or choosing from any of the five major classes of antihypertensives. 2. Improvement in cardiovascular morbidity and m...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Tomlinson B

    更新日期:1997-12-01 00:00:00

  • Facilitation of sympathetic transmission by prejunctional beta-adrenoceptors in cardiac and vascular tissues.

    abstract::1. In rat isolated tail arteries and atria in which transmitter stores are labelled with (3H)-noradrenaline, isoprenaline in low concentrations facilitates the stimulation-induced efflux of tritium. 2. This effect is dependent on the frequency and duration of electrical stimulation, being observed only at low frequenc...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Medgett IC,McCulloch MW,Rand MJ,Story DF

    更新日期:1980-09-01 00:00:00

  • Decreased oxidative stress in prehepatic portal hypertensive rat livers following the induction of diabetes.

    abstract::1. Oxidative stress (OS) is a biological entity indicated as being responsible for several pathologies, including diabetes. Diabetes can also be associated with human cirrhosis. Portal hypertension (PH), a major syndrome in cirrhosis, produces hyperdynamic splanchnic circulation and hyperaemia. The present study was d...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Evelson P,Llesuy S,Filinger E,Rodriguez RR,Lemberg A,Scorticati C,Susemihl M,Villareal I,Polo JM,Peredo H,Perazzo JC

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • On making multiple comparisons in clinical and experimental pharmacology and physiology.

    abstract::1. It is a central thesis of this review that in clinical and experimental pharmacology and physiology the goal of statistical analysis should be to minimize the risk of making any false-positive inferences from the results of an experiment (experimentwise Type I error). 2. It is common in clinical and experimental ph...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 社论,评审


    authors: Ludbrook J

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Sympathoinhibitory action of nociceptin in the rat spinal cord.

    abstract::1. Whole-cell patch recordings were made from antidromically identified sympathetic preganglionic neurons (SPN) of immature rat spinal cord slices. Bath application of nociceptin (0.1-1 micromol/L) suppressed excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) and hyperpolarized a population of SPN; these effects were naloxone ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brailoiu GC,Lai CC,Chen CT,Hwang LL,Lin HH,Dun NJ

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Type-specific orthostatic hemodynamic response of hypertensive diseases in pregnancy.

    abstract::Posture changes may differ between types of hypertensive disease. The aim is to evaluate the orthostatic response of impedance cardiography (ICG) measurements in uncomplicated and hypertensive pregnancies. Measurements were performed in supine and standing position in 202 women: 41 uncomplicated pregnancies (UP), 59 g...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staelens AS,Vonck S,Mesens T,Tomsin K,Molenberghs G,Gyselaers W

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • The association between serum albumin/prealbumin level and disease severity in non-CF bronchiectasis.

    abstract::Non-cystic fibrosis (non-CF) bronchiectasis is a chronic pulmonary disease that can lead to malnutrition. Serum prealbumin and albumin level are related to inflammatory and nutritional status. Thus, we aimed to confirm our hypothesis that low serum albumin and prealbumin level, as well as body mass index (BMI), is cor...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li L,Li Z,Bi J,Li H,Wang S,Shao C,Song Y

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of taurine on serum cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerosis in spontaneously hyperlipidaemic mice.

    abstract::1. The effects of two naturally occurring substances, namely taurine and catechins, on serum cholesterol levels and on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated using spontaneously hyperlipidaemic (SHL) mice as an animal model of atherogenesis. 2. Twelve weeks treatment of SHL mice with taurine (1% in ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsushima Y,Sekine T,Kondo Y,Sakurai T,Kameo K,Tachibana M,Murakami S

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Barriers to successful delivery of short interfering RNA after systemic administration.

    abstract::1. RNA interference in vivo has tremendous potential, both with respect to the elucidation of protein function in animals and as a therapeutic platform in humans. In vitro, short interfering RNA (siRNA) has been shown to completely silence gene expression in mammalian cells at low picomolar concentrations. 2. Although...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: White PJ

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • The possible involvement of adrenoceptors in the intestinal effect of morphine in mice.

    abstract::The inhibitory effect of morphine on intestine was observed by following the intestinal transit of a charcoal meal. This inhibitory effect of morphine was antagonized by naloxone. In addition, the inhibitory effect of morphine was also suppressed by prior administration of yohimbine and phentolamine. However, prazosin...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wong CL

    更新日期:1984-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of labetalol on human platelet function.

    abstract::1. The effects of the alpha-beta-adrenergic antagonist labetalol on the activation of human platelets by adrenaline and other aggregating stimuli have been investigated. 2. Labetalol inhibited platelet aggregation and secretion induced by collagen and the second phase of aggregation caused by ADP, platelet activating ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anfossi G,Trovati M,Lanzio M,Mularoni E,Massucco P,Emanuelli G

    更新日期:1988-06-01 00:00:00

  • High-salt diet and responses of the pressurized mesenteric artery of the dog to noradrenaline and acetylcholine.

    abstract::A high-salt diet in rats has been shown to result in enhanced vasoconstrictor and/or reduced vasodilator responses of isolated arteries to agonists. The present experiments were designed to investigate the effects of dietary salt on the responses of the pressurized mesenteric resistance artery of the dog to constricto...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sofola O,Knill A,Myers D,Hainsworth R,Drinkhill M

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cellular calcium regulatory machinery of vasorelaxation elicited by petasin.

    abstract::1. The present study examined the cytosolic Ca(2+) regulatory machinery involved in the vasorelaxation produced by petasin, a sesquiterpene isolated from Petasites formosanus. 2. Aortic rings isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to petasin (0.01-100 micromol/L) to elucidate its vascular effects on isometric ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang GJ,Lin YL,Chen CH,Wu XC,Liao JF,Ren J

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of the orthostatic blood pressure response by acute nitrate consumption is dependent upon ethnic origin.

    abstract::Orthostatic stress triggers a response to maintain cerebral perfusion and prevent syncope. Given the hypotensive effects of inorganic nitrate this response to orthostasis may be altered by acute supplementation with inorganic nitrate and modified by ethnic origin. Caucasian and SE Asian (n = 30 for both), were recruit...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen K,Chuter KM,Fithon K,Marshall L,Hauton D

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Antihypertensive effects of DL-tetrahydropalmatine: an active principle isolated from Corydalis.

    abstract::1. The effects of DL-tetrahydropalmatine (DL-THP) on cardio-vascular function and hypothalamic release of monoamines were assessed in rats under urethane anaesthesia. 2. Intravenous administration of DL-THP (1-10 mg/kg) produced hypotension, bradycardia, a decrease in hypothalamic serotonin and noradrenaline release a...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin MT,Chueh FY,Hsieh MT,Chen CF

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Attenuation of the antihypertensive effect of captopril by the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone.

    abstract::To test a possible role of endogenous opioids in the blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) responses to the converting enzyme inhibitor captopril in man, nine normal subjects were given captopril (50 mg) or placebo with and without the opioid antagonist naloxone (0.2 mg/kg i.v.). Treatments were given in random orde...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Millar JA,Sturani A,Rubin PC,Lawrie C,Reid JL

    更新日期:1983-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of an orally active vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist.

    abstract::1. This paper reports on the in vitro and in vivo characteristics of a non-peptide vasopressin V1 receptor antagonist 1-(1-[4-(3-acetylaminopropoxy)benzoyl]-4-piperidyl)-3,4-dihydro-2( 1H)- quinolinone (OPC-21268). 2. OPC-21268 caused a concentration-dependent displacement of the selective V1 receptor antagonist radio...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burrell LM,Phillips PA,Stephenson J,Risvanis J,Hutchins AM,Johnston CI

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Enzyme induction by eating charcoal-grilled steak with no effect on blood lipids.

    abstract::1. There has been interest in the suggestion that enzyme-inducing drugs, such as anticonvulsants, may produce beneficial changes in lipoprotein levels, in particular a rise in the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol to total cholesterol. 2. This controlled study observed the effects of diets of charcoal or o...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Heller RF,Henry DA,Brent PJ

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • Metformin improves cardiac function in rats via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase.

    abstract::1. Metformin is one of the most commonly used drugs for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes. Accumulating evidence suggests that metformin also has cardioprotective effects. In the present study, we investigated the cardioprotective effects of metformin and the mechanisms involved. 2. A rat model of chronic heart failure...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang XF,Zhang JY,Li L,Zhao XY,Tao HL,Zhang L

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • In Vitro electrophysiological activity of nerispirdine, a novel 4-aminopyridine derivative.

    abstract::Summary 1. The non-selective K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) has shown clinical efficacy in the treatment of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis. The clinical usefulness of 4-AP is hampered by its ability to produce seizures. Nerispirdine, an analogue of 4-AP, is currently under clinical inve...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith C,Kongsamut S,Wang H,Ji J,Kang J,Rampe D

    更新日期:2009-11-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effect of ouabain and acetazolamide on secretin-stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion in anaesthetized dog.

    abstract::1. The effects of ouabain and acetazolamide on the secretion of pancreatic juice stimulated by secretin in anaesthetized dogs were investigated. 2. Intra-arterial injection of ouabain (1-10 micrograms) and acetazolamide (1-10 mg) caused dose-dependent decreases in the volume of pancreatic juice. When both drugs were a...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iwatsuki K,Horiuchi A,Yonekura Y,Chiba S

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptor signalling in patients with left ventricular volume overload disease.

    abstract::1. Studies using animal experimental models have suggested that the beta2-adrenoceptor is uncoupled in association with alterations in the expression of G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRK) 2/3 in heart failure. However, the functional expression of the components of this pathway in human disease has not been full...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dzimiri N,Basco C,Moorji A,Afrane B,Al-Halees Z

    更新日期:2002-03-01 00:00:00

  • Systemic adenosine increase during cold pressor test is dependent on sympathetic activation.

    abstract::1. Following local vasoconstriction-inducing stimuli, such as the cold pressor test (CPT), significant changes occur in haemodynamics, with a rise in arterial blood pressure and heart rate (HR) due to the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Among the compensatory mechanisms to local ischaemia, the endogenous...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pasini FL,Capecchi PL,Colafati M,Randisi P,Puccetti L,Di Perri T

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of histamine, glutathione and oxyradicals in modulating gastric haemorrhagic ulcer in septic rats.

    abstract::1. The ulcerogenesis of gastric haemorrhagic damage during sepsis is unclear. The present study first proposes that gastric haemorrhagic ulcer is modulated by mucosal glutathione, histamine and oxyradicals in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis in rats. The protective effects of several drugs on the ulcerogenic pa...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hung CR

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Neural pathways from the lamina terminalis influencing cardiovascular and body fluid homeostasis.

    abstract::1. The lamina terminalis, a region of the brain with a high concentration of angiotensin AT1 receptors, consists of three distinct nuclei, the median preoptic nucleus, the subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT). These latter two regions lack a blood-brain and detect changes in plasma ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McKinley MJ,Allen AM,May CN,McAllen RM,Oldfield BJ,Sly D,Mendelsohn FA

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of minocycline on parameters of cardiovascular recovery after cardioplegic arrest in a rabbit Langendorff heart model.

    abstract::Pharmacological cardiac organ protection during cardiopulmonary bypass presents an opportunity for improvement. A number of different strategies have been established to minimize ischemia/reperfusion-induced damage to the heart. Among these, cardioplegia with histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution and hypothermia...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salameh A,Halling M,Seidel T,Dhein S

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00