Estimating the burden of disease from water, sanitation, and hygiene at a global level.


:We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene at the global level taking into account various disease outcomes, principally diarrheal diseases. The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) combines the burden from death and disability in a single index and permits the comparison of the burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene with the burden from other risk factors or diseases. We divided the world's population into typical exposure scenarios for 14 geographical regions. We then matched these scenarios with relative risk information obtained mainly from intervention studies. We estimated the disease burden from water, sanitation, and hygiene to be 4.0% of all deaths and 5.7% of the total disease burden (in DALYs) occurring worldwide, taking into account diarrheal diseases, schistosomiasis, trachoma, ascariasis, trichuriasis, and hookworm disease. Because we based these estimates mainly on intervention studies, this burden is largely preventable. Other water- and sanitation-related diseases remain to be evaluated. This preliminary estimation of the global disease burden caused by water, sanitation, and hygiene provides a basic model that could be further refined for national or regional assessments. This significant and avoidable burden suggests that it should be a priority for public health policy.


Prüss A,Kay D,Fewtrell L,Bartram J




Has Abstract


2002-05-01 00:00:00














  • Disrupted patterns of behavior in natural populations as an index of ecotoxicity.

    abstract::This paper examines behavioral changes in natural populations of wildlife associated with pollution. Although some changes such as lack of nest attentiveness and decreased nest defense have been noted, the results have not been consistent and have been difficult to relate to specific pollutants. Experimental studies i...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Peakall DB

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Mitochondria-derived reactive intermediate species mediate asbestos-induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress-responsive signaling pathways.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The incidence of asbestos-induced human cancers is increasing worldwide, and considerable evidence suggests that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important mediators of these diseases. Our previous studies suggested that mitochondria might be involved in the initiation of oxidative stress in asbestos-expose...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huang SX,Partridge MA,Ghandhi SA,Davidson MM,Amundson SA,Hei TK

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity.

    abstract::Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition in which persons experience negative health effects in multiple organ systems from exposure to low levels of common chemicals. Although symptoms experienced from particular chemicals vary across persons, they are generally stable within persons. The sensitivities ofte...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gibson PR,Elms AN,Ruding LA

    更新日期:2003-09-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicological interactions between nickel and radiation on chromosome damage and repair.

    abstract::Carcinogenic nickel compounds are usually found to be weak mutagens; therefore these compounds may not exert their carcinogenic activity through conventional genotoxic mechanisms. On the other hand, the activities of many nickel compounds have not been adequately investigated. We evaluated the genotoxic activities of ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Au WW,Heo MY,Chiewchanwit T

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of perinatal exposure to PCBs and dioxins on play behavior in Dutch children at school age.

    abstract::Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dioxins are known as neurotoxic compounds that may modulate sex steroid hormones. Steroid hormones play a mediating role in brain development and may influence behaviors that show sex differences, such as childhood play behavior. In this study we evaluated the effects of perinatal ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vreugdenhil HJ,Slijper FM,Mulder PG,Weisglas-Kuperus N

    更新日期:2002-10-01 00:00:00

  • Statistical analysis of Clewell et al. PBPK model of trichloroethylene kinetics.

    abstract::A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for trichloroethylene (TCE) in rodents and humans was calibrated with published toxicokinetic data sets. A Bayesian statistical framework was used to combine previous information about the model parameters with the data likelihood, to yield posterior parameter distribution...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bois FY

    更新日期:2000-05-01 00:00:00

  • Combined exposure to anti-androgens exacerbates disruption of sexual differentiation in the rat.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to assess whether the joint effects of three androgen receptor antagonists (vinclozolin, flutamide, procymidone) on male sexual differentiation after in utero and postnatal exposures can be predicted based on dose-response data of the individual chemicals. METHODS:Test chemicals and...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hass U,Scholze M,Christiansen S,Dalgaard M,Vinggaard AM,Axelstad M,Metzdorff SB,Kortenkamp A

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Highly chlorinated PCBs inhibit the human xenobiotic response mediated by the steroid and xenobiotic receptor (SXR).

    abstract::Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are a family of persistent organic contaminants suspected to cause adverse effects in wildlife and humans. In rodents, PCBs bind to the aryl hydrocarbon (AhR) and pregnane X receptors (PXR) inducing the expression of catabolic cytochrome p450 enzymes of the CYP1A and 3A families. We fo...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tabb MM,Kholodovych V,Grün F,Zhou C,Welsh WJ,Blumberg B

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of coumestrol on estrogen receptor function and uterine growth in ovariectomized rats.

    abstract::Isoflavonoids and related compounds such as coumestrol have classically been categorized as phytoestrogens because these environmentally derived substances bind to the estrogen receptor (ER) and increase uterine wet weight in immature rats and mice. Assessment of the binding affinities of isoflavonoids for ER and subs...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Markaverich BM,Webb B,Densmore CL,Gregory RR

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Human cell exposure assays of Bacillus thuringiensis commercial insecticides: production of Bacillus cereus-like cytolytic effects from outgrowth of spores.

    abstract::Most contemporary bioinsecticides are derived from scaled-up cultures of Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies israelensis (Bti) and kurstaki (Btk), whose particulate fractions contain mostly B. thuringiensis spores (> 10(12)/L) and proteinaceous aggregates, including crystal-like parasporal inclusion bodies (PIB). Based ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tayabali AF,Seligy VL

    更新日期:2000-10-01 00:00:00

  • Lack of synergy by mixtures of weakly estrogenic hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls and pesticides.

    abstract::We examined the estrogenicity of binary mixtures of the hydroxylated polychlorinated biphenyls (OHPCBs) 2,4,6-trichloro-4'-biphenylol (2,4,6-TCB-4'-OH) and 2,3,4,5-tetrachloro-4'-biphenylol and the pesticides endosulfan and dieldrin. The OHPCBs and pesticides were tested in both the MCF-7 focus assay and a competitive...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arcaro KF,Vakharia DD,Yang Y,Gierthy JF

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • A time-series analysis of air pollution and preterm birth in Pennsylvania, 1997-2001.

    abstract::Preterm delivery can lead to serious infant health outcomes, including death and lifelong disability. Small increases in preterm delivery risk in relation to spatial gradients of air pollution have been reported, but previous studies may have controlled inadequately for individual factors. Using a time-series analysis...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sagiv SK,Mendola P,Loomis D,Herring AH,Neas LM,Savitz DA,Poole C

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo imaging of activated estrogen receptors in utero by estrogens and bisphenol A.

    abstract::Environmental estrogens are of particular concern when exposure occurs during embryonic development. Although there are good models to study estrogenic activity of chemicals in adult animals, developmental exposure is much more difficult to test. The weak estrogenic activity of the environmental estrogen bisphenol A (...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lemmen JG,Arends RJ,van der Saag PT,van der Burg B

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cigarette smoking on metabolic events in the lung.

    abstract::Nicotine and cigarette smoke extract show acute physiological effects: increasing tracheal pressure (PTR), pulmonary artery pressure (PPA), systemic blood pressure (PSYST), and left atrium pressure (PLA); and decreasing cardiac output (QAORTA) and blood flow to the left lower lobe (QLLL). In addition, cigarette smokin...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kitamura S

    更新日期:1987-06-01 00:00:00

  • Aquatic toxicology: fact or fiction?

    abstract::A brief history of the development of the field of aquatic toxicology is provided. In order to provide a perspective on the state-of-the-art in aquatic toxicology relative to classical toxicology, the two fields are compared from the standpoint of the type of scientist practicing each field, the respective objectives ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Macek KJ

    更新日期:1980-02-01 00:00:00

  • Lessons from a Danish study on neuropsychological impairment related to lead exposure.

    abstract::Serious problems emerge when evaluating evidence on lead neurotoxicity in children. The extent of these problems and ways to control them were explored in a study of 1291 children from the first class in the schools of Aarhus municipality, Denmark. The lead retention in circumpulpal dentin in shed deciduous teeth was ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grandjean P,Lyngbye T,Hansen ON

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Road Traffic and Railway Noise Exposures and Adiposity in Adults: A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the Danish Diet, Cancer, and Health Cohort.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Traffic noise has been associated with cardiovascular and metabolic disorders. Potential modes of action are through stress and sleep disturbance, which may lead to endocrine dysregulation and overweight. OBJECTIVES:We aimed to investigate the relationship between residential traffic and railway noise and a...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Christensen JS,Raaschou-Nielsen O,Tjønneland A,Overvad K,Nordsborg RB,Ketzel M,Sørensen TIa,Sørensen M

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • The characterization of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation in inactivating airborne microorganisms.

    abstract::In this study, we explored the efficacy of upper-room ultraviolet germicidal irradiation (UVGI) in reducing the concentration of Serratia marcescens and Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) aerosols in enclosed places. We constructed a facility (4.5 m x 3 m x 2.9 m) in which both ceiling- and wall-mounted...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ko G,First MW,Burge HA

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

  • Criteria air pollutants and toxic air pollutants.

    abstract::This review presents a brief overview of the health effects and exposures of two criteria pollutants--ozone and particulate matter--and two toxic air pollutants--benzene and formaldehyde. These pollutants were selected from the six criteria pollutants and from the 189 toxic air pollutants on the basis of their prevale...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Suh HH,Bahadori T,Vallarino J,Spengler JD

    更新日期:2000-08-01 00:00:00

  • Field concentrations and persistence of polybrominated biphenyls in soils and solubility of PBB in natural waters.

    abstract::Soil samples were collected from 28 fields which had received manure from Michigan's most highly contaminated dairy herds. The number of fields in each concentration range of PBB in soil were: 2, not detectable; 15, 0.0 to 8.0 ppb; 6, 14-102 ppb, and 5, 153 to 371 ppb. Plant tissue sampled from the 10 most highly cont...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobs LW,Chou SF,Tiedje JM

    更新日期:1978-04-01 00:00:00

  • Elemental modifications and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolism in human fibroblasts.

    abstract::Mineral fibers and particulates represent one of the best documented, economically important, and ubiquitously occurring categories of human carcinogens. Yet, while a wealth of information exists concerning the mechanism of action of physical, chemical, and viral carcinogens, virtually nothing is known relative to the...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hart RW,Daniel FB,Kindig OR,Beach CA,Joseph LB,Wells RC

    更新日期:1980-02-01 00:00:00

  • Bisphenol A and Dental Sealants: Olea's Response.

    abstract::Comments on "Determination of bisphenol A and related aromatic compounds released from Bis-GMA-based composites and sealants by high performance liquid chromatography." by ulgar R, Olea-Serrano MF, Novillo-Fertrell A, Rivas A, Pazos P, Pedraza V, Navajas J-M, Olea N. Environ Health Perspect 108:21-27 (2000). ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olea N

    更新日期:2000-12-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary intake and its contribution to longitudinal organophosphorus pesticide exposure in urban/suburban children.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The widespread use of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides has led to frequent exposure in adults and children. Because such exposure may cause adverse health effects, particularly in children, the sources and patterns of exposure need to be studied further. OBJECTIVES:We assessed young urban/suburban children'...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu C,Barr DB,Pearson MA,Waller LA

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Deposit and mobility of cadmium in a marsh-cove ecosystem and the relation to cadmium concentration in biota.

    abstract::The study reported here presents the results of an investigation of a marsh-cove ecosystem heavily contaminated by cadmium. The most contaminated aquatic sediments were dredged in 1972-73, but the resuspension of the sediments and recycle of water from the dredge spoil resulted in reestablishment of a large contaminat...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kneip TJ,Hazen RE

    更新日期:1979-02-01 00:00:00

  • Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case-Control Study in Spain and Italy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. OBJECTIVES:We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. ME...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Villanueva CM,Gracia-Lavedan E,Bosetti C,Righi E,Molina AJ,Martín V,Boldo E,Aragonés N,Perez-Gomez B,Pollan M,Acebo IG,Altzibar JM,Zabala AJ,Ardanaz E,Peiró R,Tardón A,Chirlaque MD,Tavani A,Polesel J,Serraino D,Pi

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolism of the food mutagen 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b] pyridine (PhIP) in isolated liver cells from guinea pig, hamster, mouse, and rat.

    abstract::The metabolism of 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), the most abundant compound of the aminoimidazoazaarens (AIA) group of mutagens/carcinogens isolated from the crust of fried and broiled meat, was examined in freshly isolated hepatocytes from untreated rat, mouse, hamster, and guinea pig. Activa...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alexander J,Fossum BH,Holme JA

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of mutagenicity testing with Salmonella typhimurium TA102 in three different laboratories.

    abstract::Thirty compounds of various chemical classes were investigated for mutagenicity in a collaborative study (three laboratories) using Salmonella typhimurium TA102. With five compounds, hydrazine sulfate, phenylhydrazine, hydralazine, glutardialdehyde, and glyoxal, mutagenicity was detected by all laboratories. Formaldeh...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Müller W,Engelhart G,Herbold B,Jäckh R,Jung R

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term, low-dose lead exposure alters the gonadotropin-releasing hormone system in the male rat.

    abstract::Lead is a male reproductive toxicant. Data suggest that rats dosed with relatively high levels of lead acetate for short periods of time induced changes in the hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the molecular level, but these changes were attenuated with increased concentration of exposure. The curr...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sokol RZ,Wang S,Wan YJ,Stanczyk FZ,Gentzschein E,Chapin RE

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cell signaling pathways elicited by asbestos.

    abstract::In recent years, it has become apparent that minerals can trigger alterations in gene expression by initiating signaling events upstream of gene transactivation. These cascades may be initiated at the cell surface after interaction of minerals with the plasma membrane either through receptorlike mechanisms or integrin...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mossman BT,Faux S,Janssen Y,Jimenez LA,Timblin C,Zanella C,Goldberg J,Walsh E,Barchowsky A,Driscoll K

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of gas-phase free-radical populations in tobacco smoke and model systems by HPLC.

    abstract::We used an improved method for trapping carbon-centered radicals (.R) from the gas-phase to compare radical suites trapped from various tobacco smoke and model smoke systems. Using a nitroxide trap, 3-amino-2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-pyrrolidinyloxy (3AP), on solid support, we trapped radicals directly from the gas phase, ...

    journal_title:Environmental health perspectives

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Flicker TM,Green SA

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00