Galanin-like peptide mRNA alterations in arcuate nucleus and neural lobe of streptozotocin-diabetic and obese zucker rats. Further evidence for leptin-dependent and independent regulation.

Abstract:

:Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60-amino-acid peptide with structural similarities to galanin and a high affinity for galanin receptors. GALP is expressed by a discrete population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence of the hypothalamus of several species, including the rat. GALP neurons express leptin receptors and GALP mRNA levels are decreased slightly in fasted rats and stimulated significantly by acute leptin treatment in combination with fasting. In studies to further explore the leptin dependence of GALP expression, we examined GALP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of obese Zucker and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-DM) rats. In leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats, with 75% higher body weight than lean littermates, GALP mRNA levels in the ARC were decreased by 75%, while neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were increased 7-fold (n = 5, p < 0.001), consistent with earlier reports. In hypoleptinemic diabetic rats with 4.5-fold higher blood glucose and 15% lower body weight than controls, GALP mRNA levels in the ARC were decreased by 90%, while NPY mRNA levels were increased 9-fold (n = 5, p < 0.001). GALP is also expressed by pituicytes in the neural lobe of the rat pituitary gland and GALP expression is increased by osmotic stimulation such as dehydration and salt loading. Thus, in STZ-DM rats that are in a hyperosmotic state with elevated plasma vasopressin levels, GALP mRNA levels were increased by approximately 20-fold in the neural lobe relative to control (n = 4, p < 0.001). The current findings are consistent with a strong tonic influence of leptin receptor signalling on hypothalamic GALP expression under normal conditions, and possible abnormalities in GALP neuronal signalling and their putative targets, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone neurons, under pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Our data in STZ-DM rats also clearly demonstrate that GALP gene expression is differentially regulated in neurons and pituicytes.

journal_name

Neuroendocrinology

journal_title

Neuroendocrinology

authors

Shen J,Gundlach AL

doi

10.1159/000079752

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2004-01-01 00:00:00

pages

327-37

issue

6

eissn

0028-3835

issn

1423-0194

pii

79752

journal_volume

79

pub_type

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