Galanin-like peptide mRNA alterations in arcuate nucleus and neural lobe of streptozotocin-diabetic and obese zucker rats. Further evidence for leptin-dependent and independent regulation.


:Galanin-like peptide (GALP) is a 60-amino-acid peptide with structural similarities to galanin and a high affinity for galanin receptors. GALP is expressed by a discrete population of neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and median eminence of the hypothalamus of several species, including the rat. GALP neurons express leptin receptors and GALP mRNA levels are decreased slightly in fasted rats and stimulated significantly by acute leptin treatment in combination with fasting. In studies to further explore the leptin dependence of GALP expression, we examined GALP mRNA levels in the hypothalamus of obese Zucker and streptozotocin-induced diabetic (STZ-DM) rats. In leptin receptor-deficient obese Zucker rats, with 75% higher body weight than lean littermates, GALP mRNA levels in the ARC were decreased by 75%, while neuropeptide Y (NPY) mRNA levels were increased 7-fold (n = 5, p < 0.001), consistent with earlier reports. In hypoleptinemic diabetic rats with 4.5-fold higher blood glucose and 15% lower body weight than controls, GALP mRNA levels in the ARC were decreased by 90%, while NPY mRNA levels were increased 9-fold (n = 5, p < 0.001). GALP is also expressed by pituicytes in the neural lobe of the rat pituitary gland and GALP expression is increased by osmotic stimulation such as dehydration and salt loading. Thus, in STZ-DM rats that are in a hyperosmotic state with elevated plasma vasopressin levels, GALP mRNA levels were increased by approximately 20-fold in the neural lobe relative to control (n = 4, p < 0.001). The current findings are consistent with a strong tonic influence of leptin receptor signalling on hypothalamic GALP expression under normal conditions, and possible abnormalities in GALP neuronal signalling and their putative targets, thyrotropin-releasing hormone and gonadotropin hormone-releasing hormone neurons, under pathophysiological conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Our data in STZ-DM rats also clearly demonstrate that GALP gene expression is differentially regulated in neurons and pituicytes.






Shen J,Gundlach AL




Has Abstract


2004-01-01 00:00:00














  • Potential Clinical Use of Kisspeptin.

    abstract::Over the last 10 years, kisspeptins--peptide products of varying lengths encoded by the KISS1 gene--have been found to be key regulators of normal reproductive function throughout life in animals and humans. By activating the kisspeptin receptor [previously known as orphan G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54)], they ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Prague JK,Dhillo WS

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Increased response of plasma allopregnanolone to corticotropin-releasing hormone in obese patients.

    abstract::Allopregnanolone is a neuroactive steroid present in the brain, but also measurable in systemic circulation. It exhibits anxiolytic and anticonvulsant effects and is able to produce hyperphagia. Since eating behavior disturbances and increased peripheral basal sympathetic activity have been reported in obese subjects,...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Menozzi R,Florio P,Bondi M,Luisi S,Cobellis L,Genazzani AR,Del Rio G,Petraglia F

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory properties of a bovine pineal tripeptide, threonylseryllysine, on serum follicle-stimulating hormone.

    abstract::Administration of the bovine pineal peptide threonylseryllysine (TSL) to unilaterally ovariectomized (UO) mice as a single intraperitoneal injection on the day of UO reduced the 5-day compensatory ovarian hypertrophy. The same dose of TSL (175 ng/animal) significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced serum follicle stimulat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orts RJ,Bruot BC,Sartin JL

    更新日期:1980-08-01 00:00:00

  • Adolescent Inhalant Abuse Results in Adrenal Dysfunction and a Hypermetabolic Phenotype with Persistent Growth Impairments.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Abuse of toluene products (e.g., glue-sniffing) primarily occurs during adolescence and has been associated with appetite suppression and weight impairments. However, the metabolic phenotype arising from adolescent inhalant abuse has never been fully characterised, and its persistence during abstinence ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crossin R,Andrews ZB,Sims NA,Pang T,Mathai M,Gooi JH,Stefanidis A,Oldfield BJ,Lawrence AJ,Duncan JR

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of hippocampal glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptor mRNA expression by amygdaloid kindling.

    abstract::In situ hybridization was used to examine the effects of amygdala kindling on the expression of mRNAs for mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the rat hippocampus. Kindling increased MR mRNA levels in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus 4 h after the last seizure, and these levels rem...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clark M,Smith MA,Weiss SR,Post RM

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Different isoforms of nitric oxide synthase are involved in angiotensin-(1-7)-mediated plasticity changes in the amygdala in a gender-dependent manner.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:The amygdala receives afferent sensory input and processes information related to hydromineral balance. Angiotensin acts on and through the amygdala to stimulate thirst and sodium appetite. In addition, different angiotensins seem to play a role in cognition and learning mechanisms by acting on and through t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Staschewski J,Kulisch C,Albrecht D

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Thymic Neuroendocrine Neoplasms: Biological Behaviour and Therapy.

    abstract::Thymic neuroendocrine neoplasms are rare tumours, but their management can often be highly problematic. While previously assumed to be essentially variants of bronchopulmonary (lung) carcinoids, they are generally more aggressive and more difficult to treat. Some 25% are associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia-1,...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jia R,Sulentic P,Xu JM,Grossman AB

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changes in dopamine, noradrenaline and adrenaline in specific septal and preoptic nuclei after acute immobilization stress.

    abstract::Acute immobilization stress results in changes in the concentration of both dopamine and noradrenaline in specific forebrain limbic system areas, whereas the adrenaline levels remain unchanged. Changes in dopamine concentrations are more restricted than those in noradrenaline concentrations. Dopamine levels are increa...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saavedra JM

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Primary cultures from fetal rat brain incorporate [3H]-isoleucine and [3H]-valine into immunoprecipitable angiotensin II.

    abstract::Primary cultures from fetal rat brain contain angiotensin II immunoreactivity in neurons. To study the origin of this immunoreactivity, primary cultures were incubated with [3H]-valine or [3H]-isoleucine. A time-dependent incorporation of radioactivity into immunoprecipitable angiotensin II was observed. Incubation of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Raizada MK,Phillips MI,Gerndt JS

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Role of hypothermia in the pentobarbital-induced blockade of luteinizing hormone secretion in female rats.

    abstract::Studies were conducted to determine if the hypothermic effects of barbiturates were responsible for their ability to suppress luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion in rats following ovariectomy or treatment with gonadal steroids. In both ovariectomized rats and rats treated with estradiol and progesterone, pentobarbital ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpkins JW,Katovich MJ

    更新日期:1987-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cells of proopiomelanocortin lineage from the rodent anterior pituitary lack sexually dimorphic expression of neurofilaments.

    abstract::Lactotrophs, gonadotrophs, thyrotrophs and somatotrophs of the rat anterior pituitary (AP) express 68-kDa neurofilaments (NF68) and other neuronal markers. NF68 expression in the AP appears to be estrogen-dependent, but its significance is unknown. The aims of this work were: (1) to establish the expression pattern of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fiordelisio T,Millán-Aldaco D,Hernández-Cruz A

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory effect of amylin on growth hormone responsiveness to growth-hormone-releasing hormone in the rat.

    abstract::The effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) or intracarotid (i.a.) administration of amylin (AMY) on growth hormone (GH) release induced by GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) were examined in conscious male rats. Amylin (25 ng-5 micrograms/rat, i.c.v. or 10 micrograms/rat, i.a.) was administered 10 min before GHRH (2 mic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Netti C,Sibilia V,Pagani F,Lattuada N,Coluzzi M,Pecile A,Guidobono F

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of tumor-induced hyperprolactinemia on LH secretion following stimulation of the medial preoptic area, pituitary responsiveness and the estrogen-induced LH surge.

    abstract::In the present study we utilized the 7315a PRL- and ACTH-secreting tumor to induce a hyperprolactinemic (HP) state sufficient to profoundly suppress the postcastration LH rise in female rats. Tumor-induced prolactin levels which ranged 2,000-3,000 ng/ml substantially reduced the LH rise in both ovariectomized (OVX) an...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shu C,Selmanoff M

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Dual action of GABAA receptors on the secretory process of melanotrophs of Xenopus laevis.

    abstract::The effects of GABAa receptor activation on the secretion of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) from the superfused pars intermedia of the amphibian Xenopus laevis were examined. The GABAa receptor agonist isoguvacine inhibited secretion of alpha-MSH from the pars intermedia, an action completely antagon...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jenks BG,de Koning HP,Valentijn K,Roubos EW

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Blockade of estrogen receptors decreases CNS and pituitary prostaglandin synthase expression in fetal sheep.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/AIMS:Both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and estradiol stimulate fetal ACTH secretion and augment fetal ACTH responses to stress. We have reported that estradiol increases prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase-2 (PGHS-2), and we have proposed that there is a positive feedback relationship between estrogen and fetal h...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schaub CE,Keller-Wood M,Wood CE

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Type I gastric carcinoids: a prospective study on endoscopic management and recurrence rate.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Type I gastric carcinoids (TIGCs) are neuroendocrine neoplasms arising from enterochromaffin-like cells in atrophic body gastritis. Data regarding their evolution in prospective series are scarce, thus treatment and follow-up are not codified. Our aim was to evaluate clinical outcome and recurrence in TIGCs ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merola E,Sbrozzi-Vanni A,Panzuto F,D'Ambra G,Di Giulio E,Pilozzi E,Capurso G,Lahner E,Bordi C,Annibale B,Delle Fave G

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vasectomy modulates the local effect of intratesticular opioids on the gonad of immature rats.

    abstract::Previous studies indicate that 7 days after testicular administration of naloxone, serum testosterone (T) concentration and basal T secretion in vitro decrease significantly. In neonatal rats, short-term (2 h) intratesticular treatment with 0.3 micrograms (D-Met2-Pro5)-enkephalinamide suppresses steroidogenesis. In th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gerendai I,Nemeskéri A,Csernus V

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Corticosteroids influence the action potential firing pattern of hippocampal subfield CA3 pyramidal cells.

    abstract::Corticosteroids regulate gene expression through the activation of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors. The hippocampus contains the highest density of mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid receptors in the central nervous system. The modulation of neuron excitability by corticosteroids in hippocampal subfie...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Okuhara DY,Beck SG

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of the Tryptophan Hydroxylase Inhibitor Telotristat on Growth and Serotonin Secretion in 2D and 3D Cultured Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor Cells.

    abstract::Serotonin, a biologically active amine, is related to carcinoid syndrome in functioning neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Telotristat ethyl is a novel inhibitor of the tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), a key enzyme in the production of serotonin. While its use in patients with carcinoid syndrome and uncontrolled diarrhea unde...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Herrera-Martínez AD,Feelders RA,Van den Dungen R,Dogan-Oruc F,van Koetsveld PM,Castaño JP,de Herder WW,Hofland LJ

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Properties and distribution of glucocorticoid-binding sites in cytosol of the spinal cord.

    abstract::We have examined the spinal cord for the presence of glucocorticoid-binding sites. For this purpose, cytosol from the spinal cord of adrenalectomized rats was incubated with (3H)-dexamethasone. Maximal binding was obtained after 20 h of incubation at 0 degree C in the presence of 20 mM molybdate, whereas at 20 degrees...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orti E,Coirini H,De Nicola AF

    更新日期:1985-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of melatonin on thyroid physiology of female hamsters.

    abstract::The effects of melatonin administration on thyroid physiology of female hamsters was investigated. A protocol of 25 micrograms given daily as subcutaneous injections late in the light period was found to inhibit blood levels of thyroxin (T4), triiodothyronine (T3) and thyrotropin (TSH). The free T4 index (FT4I) and th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vriend J,Richardson BA,Vaughan MK,Johnson LY,Reiter RJ

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

  • Central electrophysiologic correlates of pulsatile luteinizing hormone secretion in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::Characteristic increases in neuronal activity coincident with the pulsatile release of luteinizing hormone from the pituitary gland have been recorded from electrodes chronically implanted in the medial basal hypothalamus of the rhesus monkey. This electrophysiologic manifestation of the hypothalamic 'pulse generator'...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson RC,Kesner JS,Kaufman JM,Uemura T,Akema T,Knobil E

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Histamine-induced prolactin release: pharmacological characterization of receptors in male rats.

    abstract::Studies were undertaken to investigate the nature of receptors involved in the prolactin-releasing action of histamine in male rats. The increase of plasma prolactin levels induced by third-ventricle injection of histamine was blocked by intraventricular injection of ranitidine, an H2-antagonist, but not by systemic a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donoso AO,Zárate MB,Seltzer A

    更新日期:1983-06-01 00:00:00

  • A role for neurokinin B in pulsatile GnRH secretion in the ewe.

    abstract::The recent description of infertility in humans with loss-of-function mutations in genes for neurokinin B (NKB) or its receptor (NK3R) has focused attention on the importance of this tachykinin in the control of GnRH secretion. In a number of species, NKB neurons in the arcuate nucleus also produce two other neuropept...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goodman RL,Coolen LM,Lehman MN

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of the neonatal pituitary and adrenocortical responses to stress by thyroid hormones in the rat: effects of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.

    abstract::Neonatal rats exhibit a period of diminished pituitary and adrenocortical responses to stress during the first 2 weeks of life. Since thyroid hormones are known to affect brain development, modulation of these responses to stress by alterations in thyroid hormone status have been investigated in hypothyroid (Hypo) and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walker CD,Sizonenko PC,Aubert ML

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Substance P-containing neurons innervating LHRH-containing neurons in the septo-preoptic area of rats.

    abstract::Neuroanatomical attempts have been made to determine the synapses between luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH)-containing neurons and substance P (SP)-containing neurons in the hypothalamus of female rats. Wheat germ agglutinin was injected into the septo-preoptic area (SPA) and found to be incorporated into c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsuruo Y,Kawano H,Hisano S,Kagotani Y,Daikoku S,Zhang T,Yanaihara N

    更新日期:1991-03-01 00:00:00

  • Biphasic changes in anterior pituitary Met-enkephalin concentration following reserpine treatment.

    abstract::Met-enkephalin concentrations in the anterior pituitary gland were shown to decline dramatically within the first 24 h after reserpine treatment, with effects apparent as early as 6 h. This was followed by subsequent repletion and late augmentation of Met-enkephalin levels 3 weeks following reserpine. Treatment with t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: George SR,Kertesz M

    更新日期:1988-02-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization and distribution of receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone in the rat hippocampus.

    abstract::Distribution and properties of receptors for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were analyzed in the brain of adult male rats. Binding of the iodinated GnRH agonist Des-Gly10-(D-Ala6)-GnRH ethylamide was studied in hippocampus and anterior pituitary using three convergent approaches: quantitative autoradiography on...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leblanc P,Crumeyrolle M,Latouche J,Jordan D,Fillion G,L'Heritier A,Kordon C,Dussaillant M,Rostène W,Haour F

    更新日期:1988-11-01 00:00:00

  • New insights into the role of chronic inflammation and cytokines in the etiopathogenesis of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

    abstract::Although previously considered rare, recent epidemiological studies have revealed that the incidence (3.6/100,000) and prevalence (35/100,000) of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) has increased over the past few decades. Despite the progress in the understanding of GEP-NET molecular biology, ther...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Cigrovski Berkovic M,Cacev T,Catela Ivkovic T,Zjacic-Rotkvic V,Kapitanovic S

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differential regulation of the two forms of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (mGnRH and cGnRH-II) by sex steroids in the European female silver eel (Anguilla anguilla).

    abstract::The effect of steroids on the two gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) forms present in the eel (mammalian GnRH, mGnRH and chicken GnRH-II, cGnRH-II), as well as on gonadotropin (GTH), was studied using specific radioimmunoassays. Female silver eels received chronic treatments with various steroids (estradiol, testos...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Montero M,Le Belle N,King JA,Millar RP,Dufour S

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00