A rational basis for the measurement of free phenytoin concentration in critically ill trauma patients.


:Phenytoin binding to serum proteins and factors influencing protein binding were investigated in 38 critically ill trauma patients. In 24% of these patients, the free fraction of phenytoin was < or = 10%, whereas in 76%, the free phenytoin fraction was increased > 10%--up to 24%. Nonantiepileptic comedication, sex, or age had no influence on phenytoin binding in any of the 38 patients. Elevated free phenytoin fraction was found in those with hypoalbuminemia and hepatic and renal impairments. In these patients, the free phenytoin fraction should be measured routinely.


Ther Drug Monit


Zielmann S,Mielck F,Kahl R,Kazmaier S,Sydow M,Kolk J,Burchardi H




Has Abstract


1994-04-01 00:00:00












  • Simultaneous plasma carbamazepine and carbamazepine-epoxide concentrations in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies.

    abstract::A comparative bioavailability study of carbamazepine (CBZ) in tablets and a syrup preparation was carried out in six volunteers, using a crossover design. Plasma and saliva samples were collected at appropriate times, and the plasma specimens were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography for concentrations o...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hooper WD,King AR,Patterson M,Dickinson RG,Eadie MJ

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • A high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method using a novel atmospheric pressure chemical ionization approach for the rapid simultaneous measurement of tacrolimus and cyclosporin in whole blood.

    abstract::Concentration monitoring and dose individualization is required to optimize either tacrolimus or cyclosporin therapy. In this study, the validation of a simple, rapid high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous measurement of tacrolimus and cyclosporin in whole blood is ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salm P,Taylor PJ,Rooney F

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Quality Assessment of Dried Blood Spots from Patients With Tuberculosis from 4 Countries.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is a blood collection tool that uses a finger prick to obtain a blood drop on a DBS card. It can be used for therapeutic drug monitoring, a method that uses blood drug concentrations to optimize individual treatment. DBS sampling is believed to be a simpler way of blood collec...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zuur MA,Veenhof H,Aleksa A,Vanʼt Boveneind-Vrubleuskaya N,Darmawan E,Hasnain MG,Heysell SK,Jongedijk EM,Koster RA,Magis-Escurra C,Martinez N,Molinas G,Mondal D,Mulyani UA,Perwitasari DA,Tsivunchyk A,Touw DJ,Alffenaar JC

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma concentrations of dothiepin and its metabolites are not correlated with clinical efficacy in major depressive illness.

    abstract::Plasma concentration-antidepressant response relationships for dothiepin, nordothiepin, dothiepin-S-oxide, and nordothiepin-S-oxide were investigated in 50 patients (33 women and 17 men), who had had a major depressive episode. Depression and anxiety were assessed at the start of therapy and after 2 and 4 weeks by mea...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Ilett KF,Blythe TH,Hackett LP,Ong RT,Tannenbaum DA,Clarke TM

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with long-term renal allograft survival.

    abstract::Major advances in immunosuppression and reductions in the rates of acute rejection have led to increasing graft and patient survival rates during the past two decades. Chronic dysfunction of the renal allograft, however, remains a major clinical problem and probably represents the end result of the complex interplay b...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kaplan B,Srinivas TR,Meier-Kriesche HU

    更新日期:2002-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic studies of rifampicin in the elderly.

    abstract::The pharmacokinetics of rifampicin (RMP) and its principal active metabolite desacetylrifampicin (DA-RMP) were studied in six subjects, ranging in age from 78 to 95 years, after single oral doses of 10 mg/kg RMP. The maximal plasma concentrations (Cmax) and the elimination half-lives (t 1/2 beta) of RMP are 8.83 +/- 1...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Advenier C,Gobert C,Houin G,Bidet D,Richelet S,Tillement JP

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of plasma exchange on flumequine pharmacokinetics: comparison with control kinetics.

    abstract::The effect of plasma exchange (PE) on the pharmacokinetics of flumequine (Apurone) was studied in eight patients receiving a single oral dose of 800 mg. The maximum concentration (38 micrograms/ml) and time to maximum concentration (2.6 h) values were not significantly altered by PE beginning 3 h after administration ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Royer-Morrot MJ,Gérard A,Zhiri A,Schooneman F,Dureux JB,Royer RJ

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • An LC-MS/MS Method for Absolute Quantification of Nivolumab in Human Plasma: Application to Clinical Therapeutic Drug Monitoring.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Nivolumab is a fully humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody that targets the programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, disrupting PD-1-mediated signaling and restoring antitumor immunity. The objective of this study was to develop a nivolumab quantification method using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Irie K,Okada A,Yamasaki Y,Kokan C,Hata A,Kaji R,Fukushima K,Sugioka N,Okada Y,Katakami N,Fukushima S

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Interference of oleandrin and oleandrigenin in digitoxin immunoassays: minimal cross reactivity with a new monoclonal chemiluminescent assay and high cross reactivity with the fluorescence polarization assay.

    abstract::Toxicity from ingestion of the oleander plant is common. Oleandrin, the oleander glycoside, has structural similarity to cardiac glycoside digoxin and is known to cross react with various digoxin immunoassays. The authors studied the cross reactivity of oleandrin and its deglycosylated congener oleandrigenin with a fl...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Datta P,Dasgupta A

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics of cocaine and metabolites in human oral fluid and correlation with plasma concentrations after controlled administration.

    abstract:UNLABELLED:Oral fluid is an attractive alternative matrix for drug testing with a noninvasive and directly observed collection, but there are few controlled cocaine administration studies to guide interpretation. MATERIALS AND METHODS:While residing on a closed research unit for up to 10 weeks under constant medical s...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scheidweiler KB,Spargo EA,Kelly TL,Cone EJ,Barnes AJ,Huestis MA

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Fluorescence polarization immunoassay: can it result in an overestimation of vancomycin in patients not suffering from renal failure?

    abstract::It has been reported in scientific data that fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) results in overestimation of vancomycin in patients with renal failure. This overestimation is caused by interference of the degradation product, CDP-1, in this assay. Increases in vancomycin levels have also been reported in pat...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sym D,Smith C,Meenan G,Lehrer M

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Experience with cost-effective in-house reagents for the assay of carbamazepine in serum, using the Abbott TDx.

    abstract::The development of inexpensive in-house reagents for the assay of carbamazepine in serum, using a commercially available derivative and antiserum is described. They were adapted for use on the Abbott TDx as direct replacements for commercial reagents. Comparison with a high-performance liquid chromatography method is ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colbert DL,Turner GJ

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Establishing Serum Reference Ranges for Antihypertensive Drugs.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) involves the measurement of serum drug concentrations to optimize pharmacotherapy. Traditionally, blood pressure measurements alone, and not TDM, have been used to evaluate the antihypertensive drug response. However, approximately 50% of hypertensive patients treated with l...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rognstad S,Søraas CL,Bergland OU,Høieggen A,Strømmen M,Helland A,Opdal MS

    更新日期:2021-02-01 00:00:00

  • Population Pharmacokinetics of Hydroxychloroquine in Japanese Patients With Cutaneous or Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is an effective treatment for patients with cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) or systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and has been used for these patients in more than 70 nations. However, in Japan, HCQ has not been approved for CLE or SLE. To establish an appropriate therapeutic reg...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morita S,Takahashi T,Yoshida Y,Yokota N

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Procainamide-induced myasthenia-like weakness and dysphagia.

    abstract::A 64-year-old man with chronic renal insufficiency was hospitalized with dysphagia and inability to keep his head erect 11 months after beginning procainamide hydrochloride (PA) for control of atrial flutter. Evaluation revealed esophageal dysmotility, worsening renal function, and elevated serum PA and N-acetylprocai...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller CD,Oleshansky MA,Gibson KF,Cantilena LR

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Radioimmunoassay of zidovudine: extended use and potential application.

    abstract::When first approved, the dosing regimens for zidovudine were 1,200-1,500 mg/day; however, because toxicity developed, the daily dose had to be reduced to 500-600 mg/day. At these lower doses, plasma concentrations for a considerable segment of the dosing interval are often below the assay sensitivity for the high-perf...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: DeRemer M,D'Ambrosio R,Bartos L,Cousins S,Morse GD

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography for therapeutic monitoring of haloperidol levels.

    abstract::This laboratory has developed a simple and efficient solid-phase extraction method that is combined with a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for rapid and precise therapeutic monitoring of haloperidol (Haldol) blood levels. The solid-phase extraction utilizes a mixed bed column. Sensitivity of the chromat...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffman DW,Edkins RD

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of midazolam and metabolites in plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography: probe of CYP3A.

    abstract::Hydroxylation of midazolam (MDZ) is mediated almost exclusively by CYP3A isoforms. The authors describe a high-performance liquid chromatography assay involving MDZ, 1'-hydroxymidazolam, and 4-hydroxymidazolam in plasma. The compounds were eluted on an Ultrasphere ODS, 3-microm particle size, 7.5 cm x 4.6 mm reversed-...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carrillo JA,Ramos SI,Agundez JA,Martinez C,Benitez J

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of rapamycin in whole blood by HPLC.

    abstract::Sirolimus (rapamycin, RAPA) is a natural fermentation product (macrolide antibiotic) that has demonstrated potent immunosuppressive activity. A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method is described for analysis of the drug in whole blood. The samples are purified by using liquid-liquid extra...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Svensson JO,Brattström C,Säwe J

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • The evolution of therapeutic immunosuppression and the potential impact of drug concentration monitoring.

    abstract::The major goal of immunosuppressive development is improved selectivity of the drug's inhibitory action against T and B cell-mediated as opposed to nonspecific granulocyte-, monocyte-, and macrophage-mediated resistance. This enterprise demands increased knowledge of alloantigen-induced stimulation, signal transductio...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Kahan BD

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Overview of sotrastaurin clinical pharmacokinetics.

    abstract::Sotrastaurin (AEB071) is an investigational immunosuppressant that blocks T-lymphocyte activation through protein kinase C inhibition. It is currently in Phase II of clinical development for the prevention of acute rejection after solid organ transplantation. In renal transplant clinical trials, sotrastaurin has been ...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kovarik JM,Slade A

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy of low-dose boosted saquinavir once daily plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in pregnant HIV-1-infected women with a therapeutic drug monitoring strategy.

    abstract::The efficacy of low-dose, ritonavir-boosted saquinavir (SQV/rtv) once daily plus 2 nucleoside retrotranscriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in pregnant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1-infected women was prospectively evaluated, ensuring a SQV minimum concentration (Cmin) >/=100 ng/mL with a therapeutic drug monitoring st...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Lopez-Cortes LF,Ruiz-Valderas R,Rivero A,Camacho A,Marquez-Solero M,Santos J,García-Lazaro M,Viciana P,Rodriguez-Baños J,Ocampo A

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of gentamicin pharmacokinetic parameters determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay and latex agglutination methods.

    abstract::Fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) (TDx, Abbott Laboratories Diagnostics, Irvin, TX, U.S.A.) is commonly utilized for quantitative determination of gentamicin serum concentrations. Recently, automated homogeneous latex agglutination (LA) (Technicon Immuno-1, Miles Diagnostics Division, Tarrytown, NY, U.S.A.)...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Madaras-Kelly KJ,Mihalovic S,Zittel D,Ehresman D,Lakatua DJ,Rotschafer JC

    更新日期:1994-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pentobarbital quantitation using EMIT serum barbiturate assay reagents: application to monitoring of high-dose pentobarbital therapy.

    abstract::Pentobarbital serum concentrations associated with a high-dose therapeutic regimen were determined using EMIT immunoassay reagents. Replicate analyses of serum controls resulted in a within-assay coefficient of variation of 5.0% and a between-assay coefficient of variation of 10%. Regression analysis of 44 serum sampl...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pape BE,Cary PL,Clay LC,Godolphin W

    更新日期:1983-01-01 00:00:00

  • Combined therapy with thioridazine decreases plasma levels of quetiapine inTaiwanese schizophrenic patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:In this study, the authors studied the effect of thioridazine (TDZ) on the pharmacokinetic profile of quetiapine (QTP) in Taiwanese patients with schizophrenia. METHODS:Sixteen subjects with schizophrenia were recruited for this study. The authors pretreated 8 patients with TDZ 50 mg daily continuously give...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Chang SC,Lu ML,Wang YC,Lin FW,Huang SH,Kuo PH,Ho HO,Wu TH

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Determination of linezolid in human plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detection.

    abstract::A high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of linezolid in human plasma was developed and validated. After precipitation of plasma proteins with perchloric acid, the protein-free supernatant was separated by isocratic reverse-phase chromatography on a X Bridge C18 column. The mobile phase c...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cattaneo D,Baldelli S,Conti F,Cozzi V,Clementi E

    更新日期:2010-08-01 00:00:00

  • A simple method to calculate cyclosporine dosage to obtain a target C2 drug level.

    abstract::C(2) Cyclosporine (CsA) level, as a surrogate of area under the time-concentration curve (AUC) 0-4 hours, is a good predictor of drug absorption and clinical outcome after kidney transplantation. It has been difficult to define the optimal C(2) level in the individual case and given the broad range of C(2) due to inte...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Morales J,Buckel E,Fierro A,Zehnder C,Herzog C,Mañalich J

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Application of the Empore solid-phase extraction membrane to the isolation of drugs from blood: II. Mexiletine and flecainide.

    abstract::A stabilized therapeutic drug monitoring procedure incorporating the novel Empore solid-phase extraction membrane (SPEM) for isolation of the antiarrhythmic drugs mexiletine (MEX) and flecainide (FLEC) from serum is described. Routinely, serum (0.5 ml), adjusted to pH 4.5, is passed through an octyl (C8) SPEM to extra...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lensmeyer GL,Wiebe DA,Doran TC

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling of psychomotor impairment induced by oral clonazepam in healthy volunteers.

    abstract::This study was undertaken to model the relationship between clonazepam plasma concentrations and a central nervous system adverse effect (impairment of the psychomotor performance) following the oral administration of immediate-release tablets of clonazepam in healthy volunteers. Such a (P)pharmacokinetic/(P)pharmacod...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: dos Santos FM,Gonçalves JC,Caminha R,da Silveira GE,Neves CS,Gram KR,Ferreira CT,Jacqmin P,Noël F

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal hair analysis for the detection of illicit drugs, medicines, and alcohol exposure during pregnancy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Drug of abuse consumption throughout pregnancy is a serious public health problem and an important economic cost to the health system. The aim of this work was to compare maternal interview and hair analysis to determine drug consumption throughout pregnancy and to study relations among maternal i...

    journal_title:Therapeutic drug monitoring

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lendoiro E,González-Colmenero E,Concheiro-Guisán A,de Castro A,Cruz A,López-Rivadulla M,Concheiro M

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00