The effects of lateral geniculate nucleus, area V4, and middle temporal (MT) lesions on visually guided eye movements.


:Visually guided saccadic eye movements to singly presented stationary targets form a bimodal distribution. After superior colliculus lesions, the so called "express saccades" that form the first mode of the distribution are no longer obtained. The aim of this study was to determine what role several other neural systems play in the generation of express and regular saccades, with the latter being those that form the second mode in the bimodal distribution. Lesions were made in the parvocellular and magnocellular portions of the lateral geniculate nucleus to disrupt either the midget system or the parasol system that originates in the retina and areas V4 and MT. The effects of the lesions were examined on the accuracy and latency of saccadic eye movements made to stationary and to moving visual targets. Following magnocellular and MT lesions deficits were observed in smooth pursuit and in the amplitude of saccades made to moving targets. However, none of the lesions produced significant changes in the bimodal distribution of saccadic latencies to stationary targets. The results suggest that express saccades and regular saccades are not selectively mediated by either the midget or the parasol systems or by areas V4 and MT. Neither are the frontal eye fields involved as had previously been shown. We suggest that the superior colliculus plays a central role in producing both express and regular saccades by virtue of highly convergent input from numerous cortical structures.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Schiller PH,Lee K




Has Abstract


1994-03-01 00:00:00














  • Visual responsiveness and direction selectivity of cells in area 18 during local reversible inactivation of area 17 in cats.

    abstract::We have investigated the effects of inactivation of localized sites in area 17 on the visual responses of cells in visuotopically corresponding regions of area 18. Experiments were performed on adult normal cats. The striate cortex was inactivated by the injection of nanoliters of lidocaine hydrochloride or of gamma-a...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Casanova C,Michaud Y,Morin C,McKinley PA,Molotchnikoff S

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of different forms of monocular deprivation on primary visual cortex maps.

    abstract::Monocular deprivation (MD) by lid suture is one of the classic paradigms for the study of developmental plasticity in the cerebral cortex, and we have detailed knowledge of its anatomical and physiological consequences as well as underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms. However, the effects of other forms of mani...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jaffer S,Vorobyov V,Sengpiel F

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Center/surround organization of retinal bipolar cells: High correlation of fundamental responses of center and surround to sinusoidal contrasts.

    abstract::Receptive field organization of cone-driven bipolar cells was investigated by intracellular recording in the intact light-adapted retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). Centered spots and concentric annuli of optimum dimensions were used to selectively stimulate the receptive field center and surround wi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burkhardt DA,Bartoletti TM,Thoreson WB

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Characteristics of period doubling in the human cone flicker electroretinogram.

    abstract::Electroretinogram (ERG) responses of the cone system to a flickering stimulus can exhibit a cyclic variation in amplitude. This phenomenon of synchronous period doubling has been attributed to a nonlinear feedback mechanism within the retina that alters response gain. The aim of the present study was to investigate in...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Alexander KR,Levine MW,Super BJ

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Depletion of retinal dopamine does not affect the ERG b-wave increment threshold function in goldfish in vivo.

    abstract::Increment threshold functions of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave were obtained from goldfish using an in vivo preparation to study intraretinal mechanisms underlying the increase in perceived brightness induced by depletion of retinal dopamine by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA). Goldfish received unilateral intraocular ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lin ZS,Yazulla S

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • Movement of retinal along cone and rod photoreceptors.

    abstract::Single isolated photoreceptors can be taken through a visual cycle of light adaptation by bleaching visual pigment, followed by dark adaptation when supplied with 11-cis retinal. Light adaptation after bleaching is manifested by faster response kinetics and a permanent reduction in sensitivity to light flashes, presum...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jin J,Jones GJ,Cornwall MC

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Galvanic vestibular stimulation modulates the electrophysiological response during face processing.

    abstract::Although galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is known to affect the speed and accuracy of visual judgments, the underlying electrophysiological response has not been explored. In the present study, we therefore investigated the effect of GVS on the N170 event-related potential, a marker commonly associated with earl...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilkinson D,Ferguson HJ,Worley A

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Development of excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters in transitory cholinergic neurons, starburst amacrine cells, and GABAergic amacrine cells of rabbit retina, with implications for previsual and visual development of retinal ganglion cells.

    abstract::Starburst amacrine cells (SACs), the only acetylcholine (ACh)-releasing amacrine cells (ACs) in adult rabbit retina, contain GABA and are key elements in the retina's directionally selective (DS) mechanism. Unlike many other GABAergic ACs, they use glutamic acid decarboxlyase (GAD)(67), not GAD(65), to synthesize GABA...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Famiglietti EV,Sundquist SJ

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Transitions between color categories mapped with a reverse Stroop task.

    abstract::In the reverse Stroop task, observers are instructed to ignore the ink color in which a color word is printed (the distractor color) and to respond to the meaning of the color word (the target). Reaction times (RTs) are faster with congruent combinations when the ink color matches the word than with incongruent combin...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smithson HE,Khan SS,Sharpe LT,Stockman A

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differential induction of gene expression by basic fibroblast growth factor and neuroD in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    abstract::Embryonic chick retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo transdifferentiation upon appropriate stimulation. For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces intact RPE tissue younger than embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) to transdifferentiate into a neural retina. NeuroD, a gene encoding a basic helix-loop...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yan RT,Wang SZ

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Topography of long- and middle-wavelength sensitive cone opsin gene expression in human and Old World monkey retina.

    abstract::The topographical distributions of the relative ratio of long- (L) and middle- (M) wavelength sensitive cone opsin messenger RNA (mRNA) in human and baboon retinas were mapped using real-time polymerase chain reaction. The L:M mRNA ratio increased in a central-to-peripheral gradient in both species, being quite pronou...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neitz M,Balding SD,McMahon C,Sjoberg SA,Neitz J

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Linking perception to neural activity as measured by visual evoked potentials.

    abstract::Linking propositions have played an important role in refining our understanding of the relationship between neural activity and perception. Over the last 40 years, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have been used in many different ways to address questions of the relationship between neural activity and perception. Thi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Norcia AM

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Light-dependent delay in the falling phase of the retinal rod photoresponse.

    abstract::Using suction electrodes, photocurrent responses to 100-ms saturating flashes were recorded from isolated retinal rods of the larval-stage tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). The delay period (Tc) that preceded recovery of the dark current by a criterion amount (3 pA) was analyzed in relation to the flash intensity...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pepperberg DR,Cornwall MC,Kahlert M,Hofmann KP,Jin J,Jones GJ,Ripps H

    更新日期:1992-01-01 00:00:00

  • The determination of total cGMP levels in rod outer segments from intact toad photoreceptors in response to light superimposed on background and to consecutive flashes: a second light flash accelerates the dark recovery rate of cGMP levels in control medi

    abstract::In previous experiments we established that a light flash reduced cGMP levels of toad rod outer segments within the transduction time interval, but that recovery of the dark level of cGMP occurred more slowly than reported electrophysiological recovery of membrane potential. We now report that a second light flash acc...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cohen AI,Blazynski C

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • Changing distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity in pigeon visual areas during the early posthatching period and effects of retinal removal on tectal GABAergic systems.

    abstract::The distribution of GABA-like immunoreactivity in the pigeon visual system was studied during the first 9 days after hatching using a mouse monoclonal antibody, mAb 3A12, to glutaraldehyde linked GABA (Matute & Streit, 1986). GABA-like immunoreactivity was seen in cell bodies as well as in neuropil at the level of bot...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bagnoli P,Fontanesi G,Streit P,Domenici L,Alesci R

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations.

    abstract::Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gaug...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pokorny J,Lutze M,Cao D,Zele AJ

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Color space distortions in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Color vision impairment was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) without retinopathy. We assessed the type and degree of distortions of individual color spaces. DM2 patients (n = 32), and age-matched controls (n = 20) were tested using the Farnsworth D-15 and the Lanthony D-15d tests. In addition, ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feitosa-Santana C,Oiwa NN,Paramei GV,Bimler D,Costa MF,Lago M,Nishi M,Ventura DF

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cue-dependent deficits in grating orientation discrimination after V4 lesions in macaques.

    abstract::To examine the role of visual area V4 in pattern vision, we tested two monkeys with lesions of V4 on tasks that required them to discriminate the orientation of contours defined by several different cues. The cues used to separate the contours from their background included luminance, color, motion, and texture, as we...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Weerd P,Desimone R,Ungerleider LG

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate neurons in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::Studies of the numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in primates suggest that the numbers of both types of neurons may vary over a two-fold range from one individual to another. This raises the question of whether the numbers of ganglion cells and LGN neurons are related or var...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spear PD,Kim CB,Ahmad A,Tom BW

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regenerating axons from adult chick retinal ganglion cells recognize topographic cues from embryonic central targets.

    abstract::We investigated whether regenerating mature axons recapitulate embryonic features essential to successful reconnectivity within the injured nervous system. Strips from embryonic and adult chick retinae were cultured, and outgrowing axons were examined morphometrically and immunohistochemically. In addition, the target...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vanselow J,Müller B,Thanos S

    更新日期:1991-06-01 00:00:00

  • Vision in mice with neuronal redundancy due to inhibition of developmental cell death.

    abstract::Transgenic mice overexpressing bcl-2, due to inhibition of naturally occurring cell death, have much larger brains and optic nerves as compared to wild-type mice. Since developmental cell death is believed to exert a crucial role in establishing the mature neural circuitry and function, we asked the question of whethe...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Porciatti V,Pizzorusso T,Maffei L

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of dendritic arbors of native and regenerated ganglion cells in the goldfish retina.

    abstract::The retinas of adult teleost fish can regenerate following injury, but little is known about the neuronal integration of the visual scene that is performed by the regenerated retina. Using goldfish retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) as the experimental system, an evaluation of dendritic arbor structure and passive electrot...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cameron DA,Vafai H,White JA

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • FDA regulation of labeling and promotional claims in therapeutic color vision devices: a tutorial.

    abstract::The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for determining whether medical device manufacturers have provided reasonable assurance, based on valid scientific evidence, that new devices are safe and effective for their intended use before they are introduced into the U.S. market. Most existing color vision d...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Drum B

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • Simulation of an anatomically defined local circuit: the cone-horizontal cell network in cat retina.

    abstract::The outer plexiform layer of the retina contains a neural circuit in which cone synaptic terminals are electrically coupled and release glutamate onto wide-field and narrow-field horizontal cells. These are also electrically coupled and feed back through a GABAergic synapse to cones. In cat this circuit's structure is...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith RG

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Radial motion bias in macaque frontal eye field.

    abstract::The visual responsiveness and spatial tuning of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons were determined using a delayed memory saccade task. Neurons with visual responses were then tested for direction selectivity using moving random dot patterns centered in the visual receptive field. The preferred axis of motion showed a si...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao Q,Barborica A,Ferrera VP

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Two types of cone bipolar cells express voltage-gated Na+ channels in the rat retina.

    abstract::Two groups of retinal cone bipolar cells (CBCs) in rats were found to express voltage-gated Na+ channels. The axon terminals of the first group stratify in sublamina 2 of the inner plexiform layer (IPL) and partially overlap with the OFF-cholinergic band. This group was identified as type 3 CBCs. The axon terminals of...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cui J,Pan ZH

    更新日期:2008-09-01 00:00:00

  • The morphology of the dorsal eye of the hydrothermal vent shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata.

    abstract::The bresiliid shrimp, Rimicaris exoculata, lives in large masses on the sides of hydrothermal vent chimneys at two sites on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Although essentially no daylight penetrates to depths of 3500 m, very dim light is emitted from the hydrothermal vents themselves. To exploit this light, R. exoculata has ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Neill PJ,Jinks RN,Herzog ED,Battelle BA,Kass L,Renninger GH,Chamberlain SC

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Variability in mitochondria of zebrafish photoreceptor ellipsoids.

    abstract::Ultrastructural examination of photoreceptor inner segment ellipsoids in larval (4, 8, and 15 days postfertilization; dpf) and adult zebrafish identified morphologically different types of mitochondria. All photoreceptors had mitochondria of different sizes (large and small). At 4 dpf, rods had small, moderately stain...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tarboush R,Novales Flamarique I,Chapman GB,Connaughton VP

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Expression of CB2 cannabinoid receptor mRNA in adult rat retina.

    abstract::To date, two cannabinoid receptors, CB1 and CB2, have been cloned. The CB1 receptor has been found in a variety of tissues, particularly in the brain. CB2 receptor mRNA is mainly expressed in the immune system, though one group has found it in mouse cerebellum. Previous immunostaining studies in our lab demonstrated t...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lu Q,Straiker A,Lu Q,Maguire G

    更新日期:2000-01-01 00:00:00

  • The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.

    abstract::Eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, contain the greatest diversity of visual pigments yet described in any species, with as many as ten or more spectral classes present in a single retina. In this study, the eyes of seven species of mantis shrimp from three superfamilies of stomatopods were examined for...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldsmith TH,Cronin TW

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00