Incidence of Norwalk virus infections during a prospective epidemiological study of drinking water-related gastrointestinal illness.


:To determine the seroprevalence of Norwalk virus and whether Norwalk virus contributed to an observed increase in illness in tap water drinkers participating in a prospective epidemiological study, sera collected during the study were examined for changes in Norwalk virus antibody titer, using a specific enzyme immunoassay. Antibodies to Norwalk virus were measured in sera collected in March, June and September 1988 and in June 1989, and antibodies were found in 79% of the individuals. Seroprevalence increased with age, being 55% (ages 9-19), 79% (20-39), 87% (40-49), 84% (50-59), and 100% (60 and older). Norwalk infections occurred in 33% of the individuals during the course of the study. The highest rate of infection (expressed as a monthly rate) was observed during the summer of 1988. These results confirm that a large number of infections owing to Norwalk viruses occur throughout the year. A previous seroconversion or a high serum titer were not always protective. Finally, there was no detectable difference in infection rate between consumers of tap water and consumers of water treated by reverse-osmosis units, suggesting that Norwalk virus infections were not responsible for the excess of gastrointestinal illness observed in tap water drinkers during this epidemiological study.


Can J Microbiol


Payment P,Franco E,Fout GS




Has Abstract


1994-10-01 00:00:00












  • Comparison of selective media for the enumeration and identification of fecal streptococci from natural sources.

    abstract::Five media and procedures were compared for their recovery of fecal streptococci on membrane filters. Growth and numbers of a variety of pure cultures were compared, and recoveries from raw sewage and sewage effluent were determined on the five media. A total of 512 isolates were identified and the specificity of each...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pagel JE,Hardy GM

    更新日期:1980-11-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation and transcriptional regulation of the Kluyveromyces lactis FBA1 (fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase) gene.

    abstract::Cloning and transcriptional regulation of the KlFBA1 gene that codes for the class II fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase of the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis are described. KlFBA1 mRNA diminishes transiently during the shift from hypoxic to fully aerobic conditions and increases in the reversal shift. This regulation is ...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Prado SM,Cerdán ME,González Siso MI

    更新日期:2004-08-01 00:00:00

  • Protein analysis in a pleomorphically deteriorated strain of the insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae.

    abstract::Pleomorphic deterioration is a process where a fungal isolate loses the ability to produce conidia during repeated subculturing. We have previously isolated strains of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae that have irreversibly lost the ability to produce conidia and only produce mycelia when grown on ag...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kamp AM,Bidochka MJ

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Physical, chemical, and microbiological characteristics of microbial mats (kopara) in the South Pacific atolls of French Polynesia.

    abstract::Microbial mats that develop in shallow brackish and hyposaline ponds in the rims of two French polynesian atolls (Rangiroa and Tetiaroa) were intensively investigated during the past three years. Comparative assessment of these mats (called kopara in polynesian language) showed remarkable similarities in their composi...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Che LM,Andréfouët S,Bothorel V,Guezennec M,Rougeaux H,Guezennec J,Deslandes E,Trichet J,Matheron R,Le Campion T,Payri C,Caumette P

    更新日期:2001-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of antibacterial activity of the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare colonizing wood.

    abstract::In a previous study it was shown that the number of wood-inhabiting bacteria was drastically reduced after colonization of beech (Fagus sylvatica) wood blocks by the white-rot fungus Hypholoma fasciculare, or sulfur tuft (Folman et al. 2008). Here we report on the mechanisms of this fungal-induced antibacterial activi...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Boer W,Folman LB,Gunnewiek PJ,Svensson T,Bastviken D,Oberg G,del Rio JC,Boddy L

    更新日期:2010-05-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of a plasmid in isolates of Corynebacterium sepedonicum.

    abstract::Lysis of mid-log phase cells of the Gram-positive bacterium, Corynebacterium sepedonicum, by a combination of lysozyme treatment and incubation with alkaline sodium dodecyl sulfate at 56 degrees C led to the recovery of a single plasmid. The plasmid was purified in CsCl density gradients, and its molecular weight esti...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clark MC,Lawrence CH

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with Orchidaceae in Brazil.

    abstract::The purpose of this study was to examine antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves, stems, and roots of 54 species of Orchidaceae collected in a Brazilian tropical ecosystem. In total, 382 filamentous fungi and 13 yeast isolates were obtained and cultured to examine the production of crude ex...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaz AB,Mota RC,Bomfim MR,Vieira ML,Zani CL,Rosa CA,Rosa LH

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Alterations in plant growth and in root hormone levels of lodgepole pines inoculated with rhizobacteria.

    abstract::The presence of other soil microorganisms might influence the ability of rhizobacterial inoculants to promote plant growth either by reducing contact between the inoculant and the plant root or by interfering with the mechanism(s) involved in rhizobacterially mediated growth promotion. We conducted the following exper...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bent E,Tuzun S,Chanway CP,Enebak S

    更新日期:2001-09-01 00:00:00

  • Competition among Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains for nodulation of common bean.

    abstract::Six effective Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli strains were examined for nodulation competitiveness on common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), using all possible two-strain combinations of inoculum. Nodule occupancy was determined with strain-specific fluorescent antibodies. The strains were divided into three groups...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: George ML,Robert FM

    更新日期:1992-02-01 00:00:00

  • Composts containing fluorescent pseudomonads suppress fusarium root and stem rot development on greenhouse cucumber.

    abstract::Three composts (Ball, dairy, and greenhouse) were tested for the ability to suppress the development of Fusarium root and stem rot (caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-cucumerinum) on greenhouse cucumber. Dairy and greenhouse composts significantly reduced disease severity (P = 0.05), while Ball compost had no...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bradley GG,Punja ZK

    更新日期:2010-11-01 00:00:00

  • Diversification of Pseudomonas corrugata 2140 produces new phenotypes altered in GC-FAME, BIOLOG, and in vitro inhibition profiles and taxonomic identification.

    abstract::Bacteria are known to rapidly produce new phenotypes, but it is unclear how phenotype "plasticity" relates to studies on the population ecology of bacteria in complex environments. We characterised a collection of 14 spontaneous phenotype variants, derived from in vitro and in vivo cultures (wheat roots) of Pseudomona...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barnett SJ,Alami Y,Singleton I,Ryder MH

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Oxidation and amidation of salicylate by Streptomyces species.

    abstract::Seven streptomycete strains were tested for biotransformation of salicylate. The products were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and three types of conversion were found. Streptomyces cinnamonensis and Streptomyces spectabilis formed gentisate and salicylamide concurrently. Streptomyces rimosus tra...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pospíšil S,Přikrylová V,Němeček J,Spížek J

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Environmental scanning electron microscopic observation of the hyphal sheath and mycofibrils in Postia placenta.

    abstract::Environmental scanning electron microscopic observations of Postia placenta grown on a defined medium and on red spruce wood allowed for the examination of the hydrated sheath of P. placenta. In the wood environment, mature hyphae that were not adhering to the substrate were observed to have a mycofibrillar morphology...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Connolly JH,Chen Y,Jellison J

    更新日期:1995-04-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of bactericidal assay in serotyping Neisseria meningitidis group A.

    abstract::Seventeen of 22 group A meningococcal strains were separated into four serotypes by a microbactericidal assay using group A antisera. In addition, 6 of 19 of these strains were killed by a group B antiserum and similar cidal patterns were obtained with a group C antiserum. There was little correlation between type and...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Quan AL,Sippel JE

    更新日期:1979-08-01 00:00:00

  • Direct lymphocytotoxicity against herpes simplex virus infected cells.

    abstract::This study was undertaken to determine if direct cytotoxicity (DC) against herpes simplex virus infected cells, perhaps mediated by T cells, could be demonstrated in individuals subject to recurrent herpes labialis. The mononuclear cells from 7 out of 17 individuals with recurrent herpes expressed DC whereas no DC was...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fujimiya Y,Babiuk LA,Rouse BT

    更新日期:1978-09-01 00:00:00

  • Complete genome sequence of Paracoccus denitrificans ATCC 19367 and its denitrification characteristics.

    abstract::Studies show that Paracoccus denitrificans can denitrify nitrogen sources under aerobic conditions. However, the lack of data on its genome sequence has restricted molecular studies and practical applications. In this study, the complete genome of P. denitrificans ATCC 19367 was sequenced and its nitrogen metabolism p...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Si YY,Xu KH,Yu XY,Wang MF,Chen XH

    更新日期:2019-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cold shock proteins and cold acclimation proteins in the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas putida Q5 and its transconjugant.

    abstract::The production of cold shock proteins (csps) and cold acclimation proteins (caps) was characterized in the psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas putida Q5 and its transconjugant P. putida Q5T which contains the toluene-degradative TOL (pWWO) plasmid, using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and computing scanning lase...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gumley AW,Inniss WE

    更新日期:1996-08-01 00:00:00

  • Dietary supplementation with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ameliorates acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae in BALB/c mice.

    abstract::The immune benefits associated with the optimal intake of dietary fatty acids are widely known. The objective of the present investigation was to elucidate the role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) food source on acute pneumonia induced by Klebsiella pneumoniae. Three different n-3 PUFA preparations (...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sharma S,Chhibber S,Mohan H,Sharma S

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Evidence for independent binding domains within a group A streptococcal type IIo IgG-binding protein.

    abstract::The gene for a type IIo IgG-binding protein has previously been cloned and sequenced. The approximately 60,000 M(r) recombinant gene product binds all four human IgG subclasses and fibrinogen. Treatment of this recombinant protein with CNBr results in generation of a series of fragments. One fragment, an approximately...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tsivitse M,Boyle MD

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Kodamaea kakaduensis and Candida tolerans, two new ascomycetous yeast species from Australian Hibiscus flowers.

    abstract::Two new yeast species were isolated from flowers of Hibiscus species in Eastern and Northern Australia. Kodamaea kakaduensis is heterothallic, haploid, and similar to other Kodamaea species and to Candida restingae. Buds are often produced on short protuberances, and a true mycelium is formed. The new species differs ...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lachance MA,Bowles JM,Starmer WT,Barker JS

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

  • Bacillus subtilis SL-13 biochar formulation promotes pepper plant growth and soil improvement.

    abstract::The use of microbial fertilizers can help to avoid the harmful effects of traditional agricultural fertilizers and pesticides; however, there are many constraints on the practical application of such fertilizers. In this study, microbial biochar formulations (MBFs) were obtained by loading biochar, created from agricu...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tao S,Wu Z,Wei M,Liu X,He Y,Ye BC

    更新日期:2019-05-01 00:00:00

  • Isolation of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria from rhizospheric soil of halophytes and their impact on maize (Zea mays L.) under induced soil salinity.

    abstract::The present investigation was aimed to scrutinize the salt tolerance potential of plant-growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) isolated from rhizospheric soil of selected halophytes (Atriplex leucoclada, Haloxylon salicornicum, Lespedeza bicolor, Suaeda fruticosa, and Salicornica virginica) collected from high-saline f...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ullah S,Bano A

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Colony counts and characterization of bacteria adherent to the rumen wall and desquamated epithelial cells in conventional young lambs.

    abstract::Characterization and enumeration of the adherent epimural community of the rumen wall of young, conventionally reared lambs were carried out from 2 to 21 days after birth. Three hundred strains were isolated by anaerobic procedures from three sites: dorsal, ventral, and caudal sacs, and from the sloughed epithelial ce...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rieu F,Fonty G,Gouet P

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Aerobic adaptation in yeast. I. Changes in metabolic intermediates during a step-down anaerobic-aerobic transfer.

    abstract::Early investigation into the mechanism of mitochondriogenesis in the facultative anaerobe Saccharomyces cerevisiae used anaerobic-aerobic transitions as model systems to study the in vivo assembly of these oxidative organelles. This methodology has become entrenched in the early literature and as a result a definitive...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bruver RM,Ball JS,Tustanoff ER

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • The nonrandom binding distribution of Streptococcus pneumoniae to type II pneumocytes in culture is dependent on the relative distribution of cells among the phases of the cell cycle.

    abstract::The adherence of Streptococcus pneumoniae to epithelial (A549) lung cells was studied and the bacterial binding distribution was found to be nonrandom (non-Gaussian). Analysis of the dependency of bacterial binding on the cell cycle of A549 cells revealed that approximately 1.8 times more bacteria bind to G2 cells tha...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bérubé LR,Jouishomme H,Jarrell HC

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Outgrowth and sporulation studies on Clostridium botulinum type E: influence of isoleucine.

    abstract::A defined medium (CDM) is described which supported growth and sporulation of type E strains of Clostridium botulinum, but not sporulation of other serotypes of C. botulinum or C. sporogenes. As compared to growth in complex medium, spore outgrowth was delayed and both the growth rate and the cell yield was reduced. H...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hawirko RZ,Naccarato CA,Lee RP,Maeba PY

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00

  • Persistence of introduced Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains in forming nodules in subsequent years after inoculation in Wisconsin soils.

    abstract::Nodulation of soybeans by indigenous and inoculum strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum was studied in field experiments in Wisconsin from 1983 to 86. Aqueous suspensions of bacteria were applied to seeds at the time of planting at levels of 7 × 10(7)-10(10) bacteria per 2.5-cm row. The predominant indigenous serogroup ...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McLoughlin TJ,Alt SG,Merlo PA

    更新日期:1990-11-01 00:00:00

  • A tentative direct microscopic method for counting living marine bacteria.

    abstract::Yeast extract (0.025%) and nalidixic acid (0.002%) were added to seawater samples and the samples were incubated for 6 h at 20 degrees C in the dark. Under these conditions, bacterial cells did not divide but grew to form elongated cells that are easily recognized by a direct microscopic method and epifluorescent micr...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kogure K,Simidu U,Taga N

    更新日期:1979-03-01 00:00:00

  • Morphological modifications of cells of Clostridium pasteurianum caused by growth on sulfite.

    abstract::The morphology of Clostridium pasteurianum cells grown on 10(-2) M SO32- showed significant alteration in cell shape and the absence of the electron translucent reserve polysaccharide (amylopectin) when compared to sulfate-grown cells. At the lower sulfite concentrations (10(-3) and 10(-4)M SO32-) the cells showed the...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McCready RG,Costerton JW,Laishley EJ

    更新日期:1976-02-01 00:00:00

  • Importance of the icmN gene in the growth of Legionella pneumophila in amoebic cells at low temperature.

    abstract::Legionella pneumophila grows in amoebae and has achieved the ability to grow at various temperatures, although the mechanisms controlling this ability remain poorly understood. The Icm/Dot type IVB secretion system is composed of more than 25 proteins and is known to be essential for intracellular growth. The role of...

    journal_title:Canadian journal of microbiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Qin T,Iida K,Piao Z,Shiota S,Ren H,Shao Z,Yoshida S

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00