Speciation of arsenic in biological samples.


:Speciation of arsenicals in biological samples is an essential tool to gain insight into its distribution in tissues and its species-specific toxicity to target organs. Biological samples (urine, hair, fingernail) examined in the present study were collected from 41 people of West Bengal, India, who were drinking arsenic (As)-contaminated water, whereas 25 blood and urine samples were collected from a population who stopped drinking As contaminated water 2 years before the blood collection. Speciation of arsenicals in urine, water-methanol extract of freeze-dried red blood cells (RBCs), trichloroacetic acid treated plasma, and water extract of hair and fingernail was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-inductively coupled argon plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS). Urine contained arsenobetaine (AsB, 1.0%), arsenite (iAs(III), 11.3), arsenate (iAs(V), 10.1), monomethylarsonous acid (MMA(III), 6.6), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA(V), 10.5), dimethylarsinous acid (DMA(III), 13.0), and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA(V), 47.5); fingernail contained iAs(III) (62.4%), iAs(V) (20.2), MMA(V) (5.7), DMA(III) (8.9), and DMA(V) (2.8); hair contained iAs(III) (58.9%), iAs(V) (34.8), MMA(V) (2.9), and DMA(V) (3.4); RBCs contained AsB (22.5%) and DMA(V) (77.5); and blood plasma contained AsB (16.7%), iAs(III) (21.1), MMA(V) (27.1), and DMA(V) (35.1). MMA(III), DMA(III), and iAs(V) were not found in any plasma and RBCs samples, but urine contained all of them. Arsenic in urine, fingernails, and hair are positively correlated with water As, suggesting that any of these measurements could be considered as a biomarker to As exposure. Status of urine and exogenous contamination of hair urgently need speciation of As in these samples, but speciation of As in nail is related to its total As (tAs) concentration. Therefore, total As concentrations of nails could be considered as biomarker to As exposure in the endemic areas.


Toxicol Appl Pharmacol


Mandal BK,Ogra Y,Anzai K,Suzuki KT




Has Abstract


2004-08-01 00:00:00














  • Inhibition of thrombospondin-1 reduces glutathione activity and worsens acute liver injury during acetaminophen hepatotoxicity in mice.

    abstract::Acetaminophen (N-Acetyl-p-Aminophenol or APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity is the most common cause of acute liver failure in the United States and Western Europe. Previous studies have shown that TGFβ1 is elevated during APAP-induced hepatotoxicity and promotes liver injury by reducing liver regeneration while inducing he...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frampton G,Reddy P,Jefferson B,Ali M,Khan D,McMillin M

    更新日期:2020-12-15 00:00:00

  • Benzoquinone inhibits the voltage-dependent induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition caused by redox-cycling naphthoquinones.

    abstract::The mitochondrial permeability pore is subject to regulation by a thiol-dependent voltage sensor (Petronilli, V., Costantini, P., Scorrano, L., Colonna, R., Passamonti, S., and Bernardi, P., J. Biol. Chem. 269, 16638-16642, 1994); thiol oxidation increases the gating potential, which increases the probability of pore ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Palmeira CM,Wallace KB

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Female-specific activation of pregnane X receptor mediates sex difference in fetal hepatotoxicity by prenatal monocrotaline exposure.

    abstract::Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a group of hepatic toxicant widely present in plants. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A plays a key role in metabolic activation of PAs to generate electrophilic metabolites, which is the main cause of hepatotoxicity. We have previously demonstrated the sex difference in developmental toxicity...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiang E,Guo Q,Dai YG,Sun XX,Liu J,Fan CP,Wang YQ,Qiu SK,Wang H,Guo Y

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Reducing the antigen-independent toxicity of antibody-drug conjugates by minimizing their non-specific clearance through PEGylation.

    abstract::Recently, we described a family of non-targeting monomethylauristatin E (MMAE) antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) whose pharmacokinetics could be tuned through incorporation of a short polyethylene glycol (PEG) moiety of up to twelve units into a drug-linker to render the ADC surface more hydrophilic. That work demonstra...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simmons JK,Burke PJ,Cochran JH,Pittman PG,Lyon RP

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in hamster lung lavage fluid after lung injury.

    abstract::Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzymes in Hamster Lung Lavage Fluid after Lung Injury. Beck, B. D., Gerson, B., Feldman, H. A., and Brain, J. D. (1983). Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 71, 59-71. Lactate dehydrogenase (LD) levels and isoenzyme patterns were determined in the cell-free supernatant fractions of lung lavage fluid fr...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beck BD,Gerson B,Feldman HA,Brain JD

    更新日期:1983-10-01 00:00:00

  • Metabolism of [14C]benzene by cynomolgus monkeys and chimpanzees.

    abstract::Rodent bioassays indicate that B6C3F1 mice are more sensitive to the carcinogenicity of benzene than are rats. The urinary profile of benzene metabolites is different in rats vs mice. Mice produce higher proportions of hydroquinone conjugates and muconic acid, indicators of metabolism via pathways leading to putative ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sabourin PJ,Muggenburg BA,Couch RC,Lefler D,Lucier G,Birnbaum LS,Henderson RF

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of chronic exposure to ozone on collagen in rat lung.

    abstract::Pulmonary fibrosis is a consequence of severe injury from some toxic agents including high doses of ozone. It is not known, however, whether chronic exposure to low doses of ozone, such as those encountered in polluted ambient atmospheres, could also result in abnormal accumulations of lung collagen. Rats were exposed...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wright ES,Kehrer JP,White DM,Smiler KL

    更新日期:1988-03-15 00:00:00

  • Neocarzinostatin-induced Rad51 nuclear focus formation is cell cycle regulated and aberrant in AT cells.

    abstract::DNA double-stranded breaks are the most detrimental form of DNA damage and, if not repaired properly, may lead to an accumulation of chromosomal aberrations and eventually tumorigenesis. Proteins of the Rad51/Rad52 epitasis group are crucial for the recombinational repair of DNA double-stranded breaks, whereas the Rad...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yuan SS,Yang YK,Chen HW,Chung YF,Chang HL,Su JH

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

  • Differential sensitivity of normal and H-ras oncogene-transformed rat kidney epithelial cells to okadaic acid-induced apoptosis.

    abstract::H-ras oncogenes have been identified in greater than 50% of the most common forms of human neoplasia. Ras-related proteins have been postulated to mediated signal transduction pathways involving mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases and nuclear responses that may be involved in the induction of apoptosis. We examine...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis MA,Chang SH,Trump BF

    更新日期:1996-11-01 00:00:00

  • Mechanism of chemical-induced toxicity. I. Use of a rapid centrifugation technique for the separation of viable and nonviable hepatocytes.

    abstract::A major obstacle in defining the mechanism of chemical-induced toxicity has been the inability to distinguish between events that cause cell death and those that result from cell death. This problem results from measuring biochemical parameters in tissues or cell pellets containing both viable and nonviable cells. In ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fariss MW,Brown MK,Schmitz JA,Reed DJ

    更新日期:1985-06-30 00:00:00

  • Airway fibrosis in a mouse model of airway inflammation.

    abstract::BALB/c mice were sensitized to ovalbumin by systemic injection and then exposed for up to 8 weeks to ovalbumin aerosols in whole body chambers. A pattern of airway inflammation, mucous cell hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and airway remodeling with submucosal fibrosis was observed as lesions evolved over time. Larger con...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kenyon NJ,Ward RW,Last JA

    更新日期:2003-01-15 00:00:00

  • Moving into advanced nanomaterials. Toxicity of rutile TiO2 nanoparticles immobilized in nanokaolin nanocomposites on HepG2 cell line.

    abstract::Immobilization of nanoparticles on inorganic supports has been recently developed, resulting in the creation of nanocomposites. Concerning titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs1), these have already been developed in conjugation with clays, but so far there are no available toxicological studies on these nanocompos...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bessa MJ,Costa C,Reinosa J,Pereira C,Fraga S,Fernández J,Bañares MA,Teixeira JP

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of murine splenic cell type metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene and functionality in vitro following repeated in vivo exposure to benzo[a]pyrene.

    abstract::Recent studies have demonstrated that macrophages are the cell types capable of metabolizing benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) within the spleens of untreated mice. Since repeated exposure to B(a)P results in immunosuppression and B(a)P is known to induce cytochrome P450 levels, the first objective of this study was to investiga...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ladics GS,Kawabata TT,Munson AE,White KL Jr

    更新日期:1992-10-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress might be responsible for defective autophagy in cadmium-induced prostate carcinogenesis.

    abstract::Earlier, we reported that chronic cadmium (Cd)-exposure to prostate epithelial (RWPE-1) cells causes defective autophagy, which leads to the transformation of a malignant phenotype in both in vitro and in vivo models. However, the upstream events responsible for defective autophagy are yet to be delineated. The presen...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kolluru V,Tyagi A,Chandrasekaran B,Ankem M,Damodaran C

    更新日期:2019-06-15 00:00:00

  • Protective effects of ursodeoxycholic acid against 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin-induced testicular damage in mice.

    abstract::The protective effect of ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a biliary component found in bears, on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced testicular damage in mice was investigated. Fifty C57BL/6J mice were equally divided into five groups. The mice in the control group received the vehicle and standard chow. Th...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kwon YI,Yeon JD,Oh SM,Chung KH

    更新日期:2004-02-01 00:00:00

  • The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress.

    abstract::Apocynin (acetovanillone) is often used as a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In N11 glial cells, apocynin induced, in a dose-dependent way, a significant increase of both malonyldialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) and lactate dehydrogenase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Apocynin evoked also, in...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Riganti C,Costamagna C,Bosia A,Ghigo D

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of two routes of chemical administration on the lung adenoma response in strain A/J mice.

    abstract::This study was undertaken to determine the ability of a series of 19 compounds representing different chemical classes of carcinogens to induce lung tumors in strain A/J mice after either ip or po administration. Aflatoxin B1, dibutylnitrosamine, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, and methylnitrosourea induced a significant incre...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stoner GD,Conran PB,Greisiger EA,Stober J,Morgan M,Pereira MA

    更新日期:1986-01-01 00:00:00

  • The effect of cadmium chloride in vitro on sodium-glutamate cotransport in brush border membrane vesicles isolated from rabbit kidney.

    abstract::To further elucidate the mechanism of cadmium inhibition of renal amino acid transport, brush border membrane vesicles were isolated from rabbit renal cortex and the effect of cadmium on the uptake of L-glutamate into the vesicles was investigated. Preincubation of the membranes with CdCl2 decreased sodium-dependent L...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kinne RK,Schütz H,Kinne-Saffran E

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Contact sensitivity by diisocyanates: potencies and cross-reactivities.

    abstract::The dermal sensitizing potencies of four diisocyanates were investigated using the mouse ear-swelling test (MEST) with BALB/cBy mice. Mice were administered topical doses of diisocyanates to the abdomen and were challenged on the ear 4 days later with a nonirritating dose of chemical. The increase in ear thickness at ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thorne PS,Hillebrand JA,Lewis GR,Karol MH

    更新日期:1987-01-01 00:00:00

  • SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    abstract::The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transfo...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wu F,Jordan A,Kluz T,Shen S,Sun H,Cartularo LA,Costa M

    更新日期:2016-02-15 00:00:00

  • Differential transcriptional regulation of IL-8 expression by human airway epithelial cells exposed to diesel exhaust particles.

    abstract::Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induces inflammatory signaling characterized by MAP kinase-mediated activation of NFkB and AP-1 in vitro and in bronchial biopsies obtained from human subjects exposed to DEP. NFkB and AP-1 activation results in the upregulation of genes involved in promoting inflammation in ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tal TL,Simmons SO,Silbajoris R,Dailey L,Cho SH,Ramabhadran R,Linak W,Reed W,Bromberg PA,Samet JM

    更新日期:2010-02-15 00:00:00

  • Tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone induces hepatic oxidative damage and inflammatory response, but not apoptosis in mouse: the prevention of curcumin.

    abstract::This study investigated the protective effects of curcumin on tetrachloro-p-benzoquinone (TCBQ)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice. TCBQ-treatment causes significant liver injury (the elevation of serum AST and ALT activities, histopathological changes in liver section including centrilobular necrosis and inflammatory cel...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu D,Hu L,Su C,Xia X,Zhang P,Fu J,Wang W,Xu D,Du H,Hu Q,Song E,Song Y

    更新日期:2014-10-15 00:00:00

  • Ovotoxicity in female Fischer rats and B6 mice induced by low-dose exposure to three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: comparison through calculation of an ovotoxic index.

    abstract::Extensive destruction of primordial follicles by exposure to ovarian toxicants can cause early menopause in women. Primordial follicle destruction is known to result from dosing of mice and rats with three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), contaminants commonly found in cigarette smoke. Therefore, the purpose o...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borman SM,Christian PJ,Sipes IG,Hoyer PB

    更新日期:2000-09-15 00:00:00

  • Effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin on initiation and promotion of GST-P-positive foci in rat liver: A quantitative analysis of experimental data using a stochastic model.

    abstract::We use a stochastic model describing initiation and clonal growth of altered cells to analyze data from an initiation-promotion hepatocarcinogenesis experiment in female Wistar rats. Starting at 7 weeks of age, the animals were treated for 10 days with the initiating agent diethylnitrosamine (DEN, 10 mg/kg body wt per...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Luebeck EG,Buchmann A,Stinchcombe S,Moolgavkar SH,Schwarz M

    更新日期:2000-08-15 00:00:00

  • Knockout of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor results in distinct hepatic and renal phenotypes in rats and mice.

    abstract::The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which plays a role in the development of multiple tissues and is activated by a large number of ligands, including 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). In order to examine the roles of the AHR in both normal biological development an...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrill JA,Hukkanen RR,Lawson M,Martin G,Gilger B,Soldatow V,Lecluyse EL,Budinsky RA,Rowlands JC,Thomas RS

    更新日期:2013-10-15 00:00:00

  • Trichostatin A, a critical factor in maintaining the functional differentiation of primary cultured rat hepatocytes.

    abstract::Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDI) have been shown to increase differentiation-related gene expression in several tumor-derived cell lines by hyperacetylating core histones. Effects of HDI on primary cultured cells, however, have hardly been investigated. In the present study, the ability of trichostatin A (TSA), a ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Henkens T,Papeleu P,Elaut G,Vinken M,Rogiers V,Vanhaecke T

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Microarray analysis of altered gene expression in murine fibroblasts transformed by nickel(II) to nickel(II)-resistant malignant phenotype.

    abstract::B200 cells are Ni(II)-transformed mouse BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts displaying a malignant phenotype and increased resistance to Ni(II) toxicity. In an attempt to find genes whose expression has been altered by the transformation, the Atlas Mouse Stress/Toxicology cDNA Expression Array (Clontech Laboratories, Inc., Palo Al...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kowara R,Karaczyn A,Cheng RY,Salnikow K,Kasprzak KS

    更新日期:2005-05-15 00:00:00

  • Co-exposure to PCB126 and PFOS increases biomarkers associated with cardiovascular disease risk and liver injury in mice.

    abstract::Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)126 and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) are halogenated organic pollutants of high concern. Exposure to these chemicals is ubiquitous, and can lead to potential synergistic adverse effects in individuals exposed to both classes of chemicals. The present study was designed to identify...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deng P,Wang C,Wahlang B,Sexton T,Morris AJ,Hennig B

    更新日期:2020-12-15 00:00:00

  • Gender-specific impairment of in vitro sinoatrial node chronotropic responses and of myocardial ischemia tolerance in rats exposed prenatally to betamethasone.

    abstract::Excessive fetal glucocorticoid exposure has been linked to increased susceptibility to hypertension and cardiac diseases in the adult life, a process called fetal programming. The cardiac contribution to the hypertensive phenotype of glucocorticoid-programmed progeny is less known, therefore, we investigated in vitro ...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kiguti LRA,Borges CS,Mueller A,Silva KP,Polo CM,Rosa JL,Silva PV,Missassi G,Valencise L,Kempinas WG,Pupo AS

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ferritin and in vivo beryllium toxicity.

    abstract::Beryllium (Be+2), a divalent metal ion, is toxic to both man and animal. Although the molecular basis for its toxicity is unknown, it is well established that micromolar concentrations of beryllium specifically inhibit certain enzymes. Previous in vitro studies have shown that the presence of ferritin, an iron-storage...

    journal_title:Toxicology and applied pharmacology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lindenschmidt RC,Sendelbach LE,Witschi HP,Price DJ,Fleming J,Joshi JG

    更新日期:1986-02-01 00:00:00