Modulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system for the secondary prevention of stroke.


:Recurrent stroke is a major public health concern and new treatment strategies are needed. While modulation of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) has proven effective in reducing recurrent cardiac events, its role in preventing recurrent cerebrovascular events remains unclear. RAAS is both a circulating and tissue based hormonal system that regulates homeostasis and tissue responses to injury in both the CNS and the periphery, via the activity of angiotensin II (Ang II). Vascular and hematologic effects induced by Ang II including endothelial dysfunction, vascular structural changes, inflammation, hemostasis, and fibrinolysis are increasingly linked to the occurrence of cerebrovascular events. Animal models have shown that RAAS modulation may be protective in cerebrovascular disease. The HOPE and LIFE trials support the role of blood pressure independent mechanisms of RAAS modulation for improving outcomes in a broad range of patients with cardiovascular disease but do not specifically address recurrent stroke prevention. PROGRESS, a trial of secondary stroke prevention, demonstrates that blood pressure reduction with a combination strategy including the routine use of ACE inhibitors prevents recurrent stroke. Current evidence suggests that the RAAS plays an important role in the development and progression of cerebrovascular disease. Modulation of the RAAS holds promise for the secondary prevention of stroke, however, ongoing clinical trials will better define the exact role of ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II Type 1 receptor blocker therapy in stroke survivors.






Sokol SI,Portnay EL,Curtis JP,Nelson MA,Hebert PR,Setaro JF,Foody JM




Has Abstract


2004-07-27 00:00:00














  • Pathophysiologic insights into motor axonal function in Kennedy disease.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Kennedy disease (KD), or spinobulbomuscular atrophy, is a slowly progressive inherited neurodegenerative disorder, marked by prominent fasciculations that typically precede the development of other symptoms. Although the genetic basis of KD relates to triplet (CAG) repeat expansion in the androgen receptor (A...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vucic S,Kiernan MC

    更新日期:2007-11-06 00:00:00

  • Somatotopic fascicular organization of the human sciatic nerve demonstrated by MR neurography.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To investigate whether the human sciatic nerve might have a consistent somatotopic organization according to proximal fascicle input by spinal nerves. METHODS:Twelve patients (55.3 ± 15.5 years) with confirmed lesions of either the L5 or S1 spinal nerve root underwent magnetic resonance neurography of sciat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bäumer P,Weiler M,Bendszus M,Pham M

    更新日期:2015-04-28 00:00:00

  • Sample sizes for brain atrophy outcomes in trials for secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Progressive brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) may reflect neuroaxonal and myelin loss and MRI measures of brain tissue loss are used as outcome measures in MS treatment trials. This study investigated sample sizes required to demonstrate reduction of brain atrophy using three outcome measures in a par...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Altmann DR,Jasperse B,Barkhof F,Beckmann K,Filippi M,Kappos LD,Molyneux P,Polman CH,Pozzilli C,Thompson AJ,Wagner K,Yousry TA,Miller DH

    更新日期:2009-02-17 00:00:00

  • Recanalization after thrombolysis in stroke patients: predictors and prognostic implications.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To estimate rates, predictors, and prognostic importance of recanalization in an unselected series of patients with stroke treated with IV thrombolysis. METHODS:We performed a CT angiography or transcranial Doppler (TCD) follow-up examination 24 hours after IV thrombolysis in 64 patients with documented occl...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zangerle A,Kiechl S,Spiegel M,Furtner M,Knoflach M,Werner P,Mair A,Wille G,Schmidauer C,Gautsch K,Gotwald T,Felber S,Poewe W,Willeit J

    更新日期:2007-01-02 00:00:00

  • Branch occlusive disease: clinical and magnetic resonance angiography findings.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We evaluated the clinicoradiologic characteristics of patients with branch occlusive disease (BOD)-type intracranial atherosclerotic stroke (ICAS) compared with those of patients with non-BOD-type ICAS or with small artery disease (SAD). METHODS:We analyzed 201 consecutive patients with acute infarcts withi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ryoo S,Park JH,Kim SJ,Kim GM,Chung CS,Lee KH,Kim JS,Bang OY

    更新日期:2012-03-20 00:00:00

  • Reduction in voice tremor under thalamic stimulation.

    abstract::We studied the effect of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the ventral intermediate thalamic nucleus on voice symptoms in seven patients with essential tremor. All had undergone DBS for management of hand tremor. Five of the patients had received unilateral implants; two were treated bilaterally. Each reported improveme...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Carpenter MA,Pahwa R,Miyawaki KL,Wilkinson SB,Searl JP,Koller WC

    更新日期:1998-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of intellectual enrichment on AD biomarker trajectories: Longitudinal imaging study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the effect of age, sex, APOE4 genotype, and lifestyle enrichment (education/occupation, midlife cognitive activity, and midlife physical activity) on Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarker trajectories using longitudinal imaging data (brain β-amyloid load via Pittsburgh compound B PET and neurodegene...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vemuri P,Lesnick TG,Przybelski SA,Knopman DS,Machulda M,Lowe VJ,Mielke MM,Roberts RO,Gunter JL,Senjem ML,Geda YE,Rocca WA,Petersen RC,Jack CR Jr

    更新日期:2016-03-22 00:00:00

  • The value of informant versus individual's complaints of memory impairment in early dementia.

    abstract::Self-reported versus informant-reported memory problems in nondemented elderly adults and in individuals with very mild and mild dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT) were correlated with cognitive outcomes. No significant correlations were found between self-reported memory complaints and cognitive performance or (in ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Carr DB,Gray S,Baty J,Morris JC

    更新日期:2000-12-12 00:00:00

  • Neurologic complications of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09: surveillance in 6 pediatric hospitals.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We sought to determine the range and extent of neurologic complications due to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection (pH1N1'09) in children hospitalized with influenza. METHODS:Active hospital-based surveillance in 6 Australian tertiary pediatric referral centers between June 1 and September 30, 2009, f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Khandaker G,Zurynski Y,Buttery J,Marshall H,Richmond PC,Dale RC,Royle J,Gold M,Snelling T,Whitehead B,Jones C,Heron L,McCaskill M,Macartney K,Elliott EJ,Booy R

    更新日期:2012-10-02 00:00:00

  • Tuberculous meningitis in the southwest United States: a community-based study.

    abstract::This community-based study analyzed 54 patients with definite or probable tuberculous meningitis (TBM) in New Mexico from 1970 through 1990. Patients ranged in age from 4 months to 86 years. The highest age-specific incidence occurred in the elderly, but 22% of patients were less than 10 years old. Native American pat...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Davis LE,Rastogi KR,Lambert LC,Skipper BJ

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacology of dopamine agonists in the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::There is now increasing use of dopamine agonists as effective early monotherapy in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). Dopamine agonists can induce an antiparkinsonian effect through actions on either D(1)-like or D(2)-like dopamine receptors, and the multiple receptor subtypes present in the brain may provide ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Jenner P

    更新日期:2002-02-26 00:00:00

  • Improvement of multifocal motor neuropathy during long-term weekly treatment with human immunoglobulin.

    abstract::In multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), little is known of the long-term effect of human immunoglobulin (HIG) infusions as a maintenance therapy. We report a patient who improved after an initial HIG infusion of 2 g/kg and continued to improve both clinically and electrophysiologically during maintenance HIG treatment c...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van den Berg LH,Franssen H,Wokke JH

    更新日期:1995-05-01 00:00:00

  • Perfusion MRI (Tmax and MTT) correlation with xenon CT cerebral blood flow in stroke patients.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:While stable xenon CT (Xe-CT) cerebral blood flow (CBF) is an accepted standard for quantitative assessment of cerebral hemodynamics, the accuracy of magnetic resonance perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI-MRI) is unclear. The Improved PWI Methodology in Acute Clinical Stroke Study compares PWI findings with Xe-C...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olivot JM,Mlynash M,Zaharchuk G,Straka M,Bammer R,Schwartz N,Lansberg MG,Moseley ME,Albers GW

    更新日期:2009-03-31 00:00:00

  • The 5-year risk of MS after optic neuritis. Experience of the optic neuritis treatment trial.

    abstract::The objective of our study was to assess the 5-year risk of and prognostic factors for the development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis (CDMS) following optic neuritis. In a prospective cohort study design, 388 patients, who did not have probable or definite MS at study entry enrolled in the Optic Neuritis Tr...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Optic Neuritis Study Group.

    更新日期:1997-11-01 00:00:00

  • Longitudinal ocular motor study in corticobasal degeneration and progressive supranuclear palsy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the usefulness of ocular motor information in the early diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration (CBD) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS:Seven PSP patients, six CBD patients, and three atypical CBD patients were followed longitudinally with repeated electrooculographic (EOG) recordi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rivaud-Péchoux S,Vidailhet M,Gallouedec G,Litvan I,Gaymard B,Pierrot-Deseilligny C

    更新日期:2000-03-14 00:00:00

  • The use of mitoxantrone (Novantrone) for the treatment of multiple sclerosis: report of the Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    abstract::Mitoxantrone is the first drug approved for the treatment of secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) in the United States. This assessment considers use of mitoxantrone in the treatment of MS. Mitoxantrone probably reduces the clinical attack rate and reduces attack-related MRI outcomes in patients with relaps...


    pub_type: 指南,杂志文章,实务指引,评审


    authors: Goodin DS,Arnason BG,Coyle PK,Frohman EM,Paty DW,Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology.

    更新日期:2003-11-25 00:00:00

  • Acute and prophylactic treatment of migraine: practical approaches and pharmacologic rationale.

    abstract::The antimigraine efficacy of many drugs may be mediated less through their primary modes of action than through the common pathway of serotonergic transmission stabilization. Migraine treatment may be symptomatic, acute/abortive, or prophylactic. Because oral drug absorption is impaired during attacks, parenteral agen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Raskin NH

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Histochemistry and acetylcholine receptor distribution in normal and denervated monkey extraocular muscles.

    abstract::In monkey extraocular muscles (EOM), a battery of histochemical reactions delineates three muscle fiber types, coarse, fine, and granular. Normal EOM are compared with EOM denervated by intracranial oculomotor nerve section. The experimentally denervated EOM fibers did not show the constellation of histologic response...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ringel SP,Engel WK,Bender AN,Peters ND,Yee RD

    更新日期:1978-01-01 00:00:00

  • A case-control study of HIV-1-related dementia and co-infection with HHV-8.

    abstract::This nested case-control study assessed the putative protective effect of human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8) against HIV-1-related dementia (dementia). The HHV-8 seropositivity of 210 male age- and HIV disease stage-matched cases and controls was compared. The overall HHV-8 seropositivity of 66% was similar among demented HI...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Polk S,Muñoz A,Sacktor NC,Jenkins FJ,Cohen B,Miller EN,Jacobson LP

    更新日期:2002-09-24 00:00:00

  • Visual agnosia without alexia.

    abstract::A 41-year-old man presented with bilateral posterior cerebral artery infarcts. He had visual object agnosia and prosopagnosia with preservation of reading abilities. There was also defective visual memory, topographic orientation, and color perception, as well as simultanagnosia. From the clinical facts and CT finding...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gomori AJ,Hawryluk GA

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Continuous and routine EEG in intensive care: utilization and outcomes, United States 2005-2009.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effect of intensive care unit continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring on inpatient mortality, hospital charges, and length of stay. METHODS:A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, a dataset representing 20% of inpatient discharges in nonfederal US ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ney JP,van der Goes DN,Nuwer MR,Nelson L,Eccher MA

    更新日期:2013-12-03 00:00:00

  • Anticardiolipin antibodies and the risk of recurrent thrombo-occlusive events and death. The Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Stroke Study Group (APASS).

    abstract::We tested the hypothesis that an anticardiolipin antibody (aCL) titer of > or = 10 IgG phospholipid (GPL) at the time of an index ischemic stroke is associated with an increased risk of subsequent thrombo-occlusive events or death. First-time ischemic stroke patients from the Antiphospholipid Antibodies and Stroke Stu...


    pub_type: 杂志文章



    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Outcome prediction in mechanically ventilated neurologic patients by junior neurointensivists.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Physician prediction of outcome in critically ill neurologic patients impacts treatment decisions and goals of care. In this observational study, we prospectively compared predictions by neurointensivists to patient outcomes at 6 months. METHODS:Consecutive neurologic patients requiring mechanical ventilatio...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Finley Caulfield A,Gabler L,Lansberg MG,Eyngorn I,Mlynash M,Buckwalter MS,Venkatasubramanian C,Wijman CA

    更新日期:2010-04-06 00:00:00

  • Hearing impairment in essential tremor.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess hearing in patients with essential tremor (ET) vs patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and normal controls. METHODS:The authors assessed demographic and clinical information including use of hearing aids in 250 patients with ET, 127 patients with PD, and 127 normal controls. The authors administere...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ondo WG,Sutton L,Dat Vuong K,Lai D,Jankovic J

    更新日期:2003-10-28 00:00:00

  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and mutations in children with acquired central demyelination.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We investigated mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants in children with a first episode of acquired demyelinating syndromes (PD-ADS) of the CNS and their relationship to disease phenotype, including subsequent diagnosis of multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS:This exploratory analysis included the initial 213 childr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Venkateswaran S,Zheng K,Sacchetti M,Gagne D,Arnold DL,Sadovnick AD,Scherer SW,Banwell B,Bar-Or A,Simon DK,Canadian Pediatric Demyelinating Disease Network.

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Low-dose clozapine in the treatment of levodopa-induced mental disturbances in Parkinson's disease.

    abstract::Delusions and other manifestations of psychotic behavior are common side effects in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients chronically treated with dopaminergic drugs. Clozapine, a dibenzodiazepine derivative, is an antipsychotic drug largely devoid of extrapyramidal side effects. We evaluated the effects of low doses of c...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Rabey JM,Treves TA,Neufeld MY,Orlov E,Korczyn AD

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Seizure outcome and hippocampal atrophy in familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical, genetic and MR characteristics of patients with familial mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). DESIGN/METHODS:The familial occurrence of MTLE was identified by a systematic search of family history of seizures in patients followed in the authors' epilepsy clinic. All probands and, w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kobayashi E,Lopes-Cendes I,Guerreiro CA,Sousa SC,Guerreiro MM,Cendes F

    更新日期:2001-01-23 00:00:00

  • Assessment of motor function after stereotactic pallidotomy.

    abstract::Despite a paucity of controlled data, stereotactic pallidotomy is increasingly used for the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease (PD). To study the efficacy of the procedure on the cardinal PD features of rigidity, tremor, bradykinesia, and postural instability, we blindly rated randomized videos of 34 patients r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ondo WG,Jankovic J,Lai EC,Sankhla C,Khan M,Ben-Arie L,Schwartz K,Grossman RG,Krauss JK

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • Homonymous hemianopias: clinical-anatomic correlations in 904 cases.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To describe the clinical characteristics and clinical-anatomic correlations of homonymous hemianopia (HH). BACKGROUND:Homonymous hemianopia impairs visual function and frequently precludes driving. Most knowledge of HH is based on relatively few cases with clinical-anatomic correlations. METHODS:The authors...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhang X,Kedar S,Lynn MJ,Newman NJ,Biousse V

    更新日期:2006-03-28 00:00:00

  • Demyelinating neuropathy due to primary IgM kappa B cell lymphoma of peripheral nerve.

    abstract::A 53-year-old man presented with a painful, demyelinating sensorimotor peripheral neuropathy with lymphomatous infiltration on sural nerve biopsy, but no evidence of systemic lymphoma. The neuropathy responded to cytotoxic therapy. Seven years later he developed generalized lymphadenopathy due to B cell lymphoplasmacy...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ince PG,Shaw PJ,Fawcett PR,Bates D

    更新日期:1987-07-01 00:00:00