Nuclear localization signals, but not putative leucine zipper motifs, are essential for nuclear transport of hepatitis delta antigen.

Abstract:

:Hepatitis delta antigen (HDAg) is the only known protein of hepatitis delta virus and was previously shown to localize in the nucleoplasm of infected liver cells. In this study, nuclear localization signals of HDAg were defined by expressing various domains of the antigen in both hepatic and nonhepatic cells as beta-galactosidase fusion proteins. A cytochemical staining assay demonstrated that a domain from amino acid residues 35 to 88 of HDAg was able to facilitate transport to the nucleus of the originally cytoplasm-localized protein beta-galactosidase. Two nuclear localization signals, NLS1 and NLS2, which are similar to those of simian virus 40 T antigen and polyomavirus T antigen, respectively, were identified. Either NLS1 or NLS2 alone was sufficient for the nuclear transport of HDAg. However, a fusion protein (N65Z) containing beta-galactosidase and the N-terminal 65 amino acids of HDAg, containing NLS1, was localized exclusively in the cytoplasm and perinuclear region. A possible hydrophobic subdomain between amino acid residues 50 and 65 may block the function of NLS1. Nevertheless, N65Z could enter the nuclei of transfected cells when it was coexpressed with full-length HDAg. Entry into the nucleus may be mediated by the coiled-coil structure rather than the putative leucine zipper motif located between amino acid residues 35 and 65. The existence of two independent nuclear localization signals may ensure the proper functioning of HDAg in the multiplication of delta virus in the nucleus. In addition, two putative casein kinase II sites (SRSE-5 and SREE-126) that may be important in controlling the rate of nuclear transport were found in HDAg.

journal_name

J Virol

journal_title

Journal of virology

authors

Chang MF,Chang SC,Chang CI,Wu K,Kang HY

doi

10.1128/JVI.66.10.6019-6027.1992

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

1992-10-01 00:00:00

pages

6019-27

issue

10

eissn

0022-538X

issn

1098-5514

journal_volume

66

pub_type

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