Menstrual cycle patterns and risk of breast cancer.


:Menstrual cycle characteristics may reflect underlying endocrine patterns that influence the risk of breast cancer. Most previous studies of menstrual function and breast cancer risk have used retrospective reports of menstrual bleeding, which may be unreliable. To examine this association, the authors conducted a mail survey among 997 women who had recorded menstrual events prospectively over as many as 50 years, beginning in 1934. Compared with women with a median menstrual cycle length of 26-29 days, women who had cycles of extreme length at ages 25-29 years had a nearly twofold increased incidence of breast cancer (for a median cycle length of less than 26 days, adjusted relative risk (RR) = 1.9, 95% CI 0.9-4.1; for > or = 34 days, RR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.9-3.9). Statistical adjustment was made for age, family history of breast cancer, parity, age at menopause, age at first pregnancy, and Quetelet index (weight (kg)/height (m)2). Adjusting for age and other potential confounders and restricting the analysis to women who did not use hormones, women who experienced either a lesser (< 150) or a greater (> 350) cumulative number of cycles had an increased incidence of breast cancer (adjusted RR = 1.9, 95% CI 0.3-10.6, and RR = 1.8, 95% CI 0.5-6.0, respectively) compared with women who experienced 150-350 cycles. The findings are discussed in the context of current hormonal theories of breast cancer etiology.


Am J Epidemiol


Whelan EA,Sandler DP,Root JL,Smith KR,Weinberg CR




Has Abstract


1994-12-15 00:00:00












  • Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis at a Vietnamese refugee camp in Florida.

    abstract::During the summer of 1975 an ongoing outbreak of conjunctivitis occurred among Vietnamese refugees temporarily housed at a U.S. mainland camp. Twenty-two per cent of surveyed refugees gave a history of the disease and 10% were documented as having clinical conjunctivitis at the time of the survey. Fifty-six per cent o...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zweighaft RM,Hierholzer JC,Bryan JA

    更新日期:1977-11-01 00:00:00

  • Is illicit drug use harmful to cognitive functioning in the midadult years? A cohort-based investigation.

    abstract::From March to July of 2011, the authors investigated the prospective association between illicit drug use and cognitive functioning during the midadult years. A total of 8,992 participants who were surveyed at 42 years of age in the National Child Development Study (1999-2000) were included. The authors analyzed data ...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dregan A,Gulliford MC

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence of Lyme Disease Diagnosis in a Maryland Medicaid Population, 2004-2011.

    abstract::The epidemiology of Lyme disease has been examined utilizing insurance claims from privately insured individuals; however, it is unknown whether reported patterns vary among the publicly insured. We examined trends in incidence rates of first Lyme disease diagnosis among 384,652 Maryland Medicaid recipients enrolled f...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rebman AW,Wang L,Yang T,Marsteller JA,Murphy SME,Uriyo M,Mihm EA,Weinstein ER,Fagan P,Aucott JN

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Invited commentary: a sunbed epidemic?

    abstract::The Icelandic study of melanoma trends by Héry et al. in this issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol. 2010;172(7):762-767) is a fascinating analysis of an ecologic association. The authors noted a sharp increase in melanoma incidence that appeared to lag a few years behind the increased prevalence of sunbeds in Iceland....

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章,评审


    authors: Berwick M

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

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    abstract::Skin lesions are classic clinical signs of toxicity due to long-term exposure to arsenic, and they are considered precursors to arsenic-related skin cancer. The authors prospectively evaluated synergisms between effects of arsenic exposure and those of tobacco use, sun exposure, and pesticide and fertilizer use on inc...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melkonian S,Argos M,Pierce BL,Chen Y,Islam T,Ahmed A,Syed EH,Parvez F,Graziano J,Rathouz PJ,Ahsan H

    更新日期:2011-01-15 00:00:00

  • Outbreak of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis in a New York State prison, 1991.

    abstract::In the summer of 1991, four inmates from prison A in Upstate New York died of multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis. To determine the extent of resistant tuberculosis at prison A and transmission patterns, the authors interviewed staff and reviewed medical records and inmate movement histories. Contact investigation resul...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Valway SE,Richards SB,Kovacovich J,Greifinger RB,Crawford JT,Dooley SW

    更新日期:1994-07-15 00:00:00

  • Trends in the incidence of cancer of the corpus uteri in Denmark, 1943-1980.

    abstract::The occurrence of cancer of the corpus uteri in Denmark is examined by the use of data from the Danish Cancer Registry. The study population consists of 14,149 cases diagnosed with cancer of the corpus uteri between 1943 and 1980. Since 1943, the incidence has been steadily increasing. The trend in the incidence rates...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ewertz M,Jensen OM

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Limitations of the case-only design for identifying gene-environment interactions.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albert PS,Ratnasinghe D,Tangrea J,Wacholder S

    更新日期:2001-10-15 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perkins NJ,Schisterman EF,Vexler A

    更新日期:2007-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barrett-Connor E

    更新日期:2007-09-01 00:00:00

  • A case-control study of leukemia at a naval nuclear shipyard.

    abstract::A matched case-control study was conducted of 53 leukemia deaths and of 212 controls within a previously studied cohort of 24,545 on-shore workers employed between January 1, 1952 and August 15, 1977 at the Portsmouth (New Hampshire) Naval Shipyard. The study sought to ascertain a priori whether there was an associati...

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


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    更新日期:1986-06-01 00:00:00

  • Hispanic origin and neural tube defects in Houston/Harris County, Texas. I. Descriptive epidemiology.

    abstract::High prevalences of anencephaly and neural tube defects (NTDs) have recently been recorded for several Texas counties bordering Mexico. In addition, a few investigators have reported Hispanics to be at elevated risk for NTDs (anencephaly and spina bifida). Factors contributing to this risk have not been established. T...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Canfield MA,Annegers JF,Brender JD,Cooper SP,Greenberg F

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • Symptoms of wheeze and persistent cough in the first year of life: associations with indoor allergens, air contaminants, and maternal history of asthma.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belanger K,Beckett W,Triche E,Bracken MB,Holford T,Ren P,McSharry JE,Gold DR,Platts-Mills TA,Leaderer BP

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ritz B,Yu F,Fruin S,Chapa G,Shaw GM,Harris JA

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ryder RW,Reeves WC,Sack RB

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic variance of weight and length in infant twins.

    abstract::A population-based cohort of 166 twin pairs (67 monozygotic and 99 dizygotic) born at the Jackson Memorial Hospital/University of Miami Medical Center, from July 1, 1976 to December 31, 1980 was identified. Body weight and length were measured at 14 days and at one, three, six, nine, and 12 months of age. Statisticall...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Levine RS,Hennekens CH,Jesse MJ

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Breast Cancer Incidence and Exposure to Metalworking Fluid in a Cohort of Female Autoworkers.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garcia E,Bradshaw PT,Eisen EA

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  • Diet and physical activity as determinants of hyperinsulinemia: the Zutphen Elderly Study.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feskens EJ,Loeber JG,Kromhout D

    更新日期:1994-08-15 00:00:00

  • Antibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase and diabetes mellitus in the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial.

    abstract::Diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease. The better classification of types of diabetes mellitus among adults will improve epidemiologic studies of determinants of risk factors and genetic host susceptibility. Recently, an antibody to a specific enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, has been closely linked to insu...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimmet PZ,Shaten BJ,Kuller LH,Rowley MJ,Knowles WJ,Mackay IR

    更新日期:1994-10-15 00:00:00

  • Maternal exercise during pregnancy, physical fitness, and fetal growth.

    abstract::The value of exercise during pregnancy is controversial; both benefits and risks have been hypothesized. As empiric evidence is scant, the issue was investigated in a prospective study that assessed the impact on fetal growth of maternal exercise in each trimester of pregnancy. A cohort of over 800 prenatal patients w...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hatch MC,Shu XO,McLean DE,Levin B,Begg M,Reuss L,Susser M

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  • Prevention of perinatal transmission of hepatitis B virus: the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the recommended screening questions to detect high-risk women in an obstetric population.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McQuillan GM,Townsend TR,Johannes CB,Dillard T,Molteni RA,Ness PM,Niebyl JR

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  • Association of ambient fine particles with out-of-hospital cardiac arrests in New York City.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

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    authors: Silverman RA,Ito K,Freese J,Kaufman BJ,De Claro D,Braun J,Prezant DJ

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ioannidis JP,Cappelleri JC,Schmid CH,Lau J

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  • Air pollution and respiratory morbidity among adults in southern California.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ostro BD,Lipsett MJ,Mann JK,Krupnick A,Harrington W

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • Boys from populations with high-carbohydrate intake have higher fasting triglyceride levels than boys from populations with high-fat intake.

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: West CE,Sullivan DR,Katan MB,Halferkamps IL,van der Torre HW

    更新日期:1990-02-01 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Osaki Y,Minowa M

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mølbak K,Lisse IM,Aaby P

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yu T,Lien YJ,Liang FW,Kuo PL

    更新日期:2020-10-31 00:00:00

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    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vernon SW,Roberts RE,Lee ES

    更新日期:1984-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regression toward the mean in a two-stage selection program.

    abstract::A model for a two-stage selection program based upon normally distributed variables is examined. Subjects in the upper part of the distribution of first-stage observations are retained and subsequently observed an additional number of times in a second stage. Subjects in the upper part of the distribution of second-st...

    journal_title:American journal of epidemiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: McMahan CA

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00