Evaluation and treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus-1--exposed infant.


:In developed countries, care and treatment are available for pregnant women and infants that can decrease the rate of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection to 2% or less. The pediatrician has a key role in prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV-1 by identifying HIV-exposed infants whose mothers' HIV infection was not diagnosed before delivery, prescribing antiretroviral prophylaxis for these infants to decrease the risk of acquiring HIV-1 infection, and promoting avoidance of HIV-1 transmission through human milk. In addition, the pediatrician can provide care for HIV-exposed infants by monitoring them for early determination of HIV-1 infection status and for possible short- and long-term toxicities of antiretroviral exposure, providing chemoprophylaxis for Pneumocystis pneumonia, and supporting families living with HIV-1 infection by providing counseling to parents or caregivers.






King SM,American Academy of Pediatrics Committee on Pediatric AIDS.,American Academy of Pediatrics Infectious Diseases and Immunization Committee.




Has Abstract


2004-08-01 00:00:00














  • Parent-Adolescent Agreement About Adolescents' Suicidal Thoughts.

    abstract::: media-1vid110.1542/5972300121001PEDS-VA_2018-1771Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: To examine agreement between parent and adolescent reports of adolescents' suicidal thoughts and explore demographic and clinical factors associated with agreement in a large community sample. METHODS:Participants included 5137 adolescents ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones JD,Boyd RC,Calkins ME,Ahmed A,Moore TM,Barzilay R,Benton TD,Gur RE

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Successful use of plasma exchange for profound hemolysis in a child with loxoscelism.

    abstract::We describe a 6-year-old boy who presented with massive hemolysis, shock, disseminated intravascular coagulopathy, and acute renal failure after loxosceles envenomation. In this patient, plasma exchange therapy (PEX) successfully cleared the plasma from an initial hemolytic index of 2000 (equivalent to 2 g/dL hemoglob...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Said A,Hmiel P,Goldsmith M,Dietzen D,Hartman ME

    更新日期:2014-11-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of child and adolescent obesity: reports from pediatricians, pediatric nurse practitioners, and registered dietitians.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The primary aim of this study was to identify interventions used by pediatric health care providers in treatment of overweight children and adolescents to identify provider educational needs. A secondary aim was to examine the association of certain provider characteristics with recommended evaluation practic...


    pub_type: 评论,杂志文章


    authors: Barlow SE,Trowbridge FL,Klish WJ,Dietz WH

    更新日期:2002-07-01 00:00:00

  • Pilot interferon-beta trial in children with chronic hepatitis B who had previously not responded to interferon-alpha therapy.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Recombinant interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) treatment is useful in 40% of children with chronic hepatitis B. However, nonresponder children continue to have viral replication and a progressive disease. OBJECTIVE:To administer natural IFN-beta to hepatitis B virus chronic carrier children who had not responded ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ruíz-Moreno M,Fernández P,Leal A,Bartolomé J,Castillo I,Oliva H,Carreño V

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • Health information technology and the medical home.

    abstract::The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) supports development and universal implementation of a comprehensive electronic infrastructure to support pediatric information functions of the medical home. These functions include (1) timely and continuous management and tracking of health data and services over a patient's ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Council on Clinical Information Technology.

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccine.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:We present a long-term safety, immunogenicity, and effectiveness study of a quadrivalent human papillomavirus (HPV4) vaccine. METHODS:Sexually naive boys and girls aged 9 to 15 years (N = 1781) were assigned (2:1) to receive HPV4 vaccine or saline placebo at day 1 and months 2 and 6. At month 30, the placeb...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Ferris D,Samakoses R,Block SL,Lazcano-Ponce E,Restrepo JA,Reisinger KS,Mehlsen J,Chatterjee A,Iversen OE,Sings HL,Shou Q,Sausser TA,Saah A

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of upgraded child restraint law designed to increase booster seat use in New York.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The goal was to examine the association between the New York State (NYS) upgraded child restraint law (UCRL) implemented in 2005 and the traffic injury rate among 4- to 6-year-old children in New York State. METHODS:A before/after comparison study of population-based, traffic injury rates for 4- to 6-year-ol...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sun K,Bauer MJ,Hardman S

    更新日期:2010-09-01 00:00:00

  • Readmissions among children previously hospitalized with pneumonia.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Pneumonia is a leading cause of hospitalization and readmission in children. Understanding the patient characteristics associated with pneumonia readmissions is necessary to inform interventions to reduce avoidable hospitalizations and related costs. The objective of this study was to characte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Neuman MI,Hall M,Gay JC,Blaschke AJ,Williams DJ,Parikh K,Hersh AL,Brogan TV,Gerber JS,Grijalva CG,Shah SS

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cross-Cultural Differences in Communication About a Dying Child.

    abstract::There are more migrants, refugees, and immigrants adrift in the world today than at any time in the recent past. Doctors and hospitals must care for people from many different cultures, countries, and religious backgrounds. We sometimes find our own deeply held beliefs and values challenged. In this "Ethics Rounds," w...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cochran D,Saleem S,Khowaja-Punjwani S,Lantos JD

    更新日期:2017-11-01 00:00:00

  • Lowered electroencephalographic spectral edge frequency predicts the presence of cerebral white matter injury in premature infants.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Current methods for early identification of cerebral white matter injury in the premature infant at the bedside are inadequate. This study investigated the utility of advanced spectral analysis of the neonatal electroencephalogram (EEG) in the early diagnosis of white matter injury in the premature infant. Th...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Inder TE,Buckland L,Williams CE,Spencer C,Gunning MI,Darlow BA,Volpe JJ,Gluckman PD

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Premedication for nonemergent neonatal intubations: a randomized, controlled trial comparing atropine and fentanyl to atropine, fentanyl, and mivacurium.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this work was to investigate whether using a muscle relaxant would improve intubation conditions in infants, thereby decreasing the incidence and duration of hypoxia and time and number of attempts needed to successfully complete the intubation procedure. PATIENTS/METHODS:This was a prospectiv...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Roberts KD,Leone TA,Edwards WH,Rich WD,Finer NN

    更新日期:2006-10-01 00:00:00

  • Cobalamin C defect presenting with isolated pulmonary hypertension.

    abstract::Cobalamin C (cblC) defect is the most common inborn error of vitamin B12 metabolism. Clinical features vary as does the severity of the disease. In most cases, the clinical symptoms of cblC defect tend to appear during infancy or early childhood as a multisystem disease with severe neurologic, ocular, hematologic, ren...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Iodice FG,Di Chiara L,Boenzi S,Aiello C,Monti L,Cogo P,Dionisi-Vici C

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • A systematic review of treatments for infant colic.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To conduct a systematic review of rigorously evaluated treatments for infant colic. METHODS:Online bibliographic databases were searched for the term "colic" in articles classified as clinical trials or randomized controlled trials and conducted in infants. Reference lists from review articles, meta-analyses...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析


    authors: Garrison MM,Christakis DA

    更新日期:2000-07-01 00:00:00

  • Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Reference Ranges for Preterm Infants.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Many newborn screening (NBS) programs now perform repeat or serial NBS to detect congenital hypothyroidism. There is wide variation in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) cutoffs used by NBS programs. Data on TSH reference ranges in preterm infants at increasing postnatal age are limited. Our st...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kaluarachchi DC,Allen DB,Eickhoff JC,Dawe SJ,Baker MW

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Primary varicella and herpes zoster among HIV-infected children from 1989 to 2006.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes zoster in perinatally HIV-infected children. Secondary objectives included assessing the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and varicella zoster virus immunization on primary varicella and herpes zoster incidence and ide...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wood SM,Shah SS,Steenhoff AP,Rutstein RM

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • A Framework for Evaluation of the Higher-Risk Infant After a Brief Resolved Unexplained Event.

    abstract::In 2016, the American Academy of Pediatrics published a clinical practice guideline that more specifically defined apparent life-threatening events as brief resolved unexplained events (BRUEs) and provided evidence-based recommendations for the evaluation of infants who meet lower-risk criteria for a subsequent event ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Merritt JL 2nd,Quinonez RA,Bonkowsky JL,Franklin WH,Gremse DA,Herman BE,Jenny C,Katz ES,Krilov LR,Norlin C,Sapién RE,Tieder JS

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Autistic and dysphasic children. II: Epilepsy.

    abstract::In a previously described population of 314 autistic and 237 dysphasic nonautistic children, after exclusion of 12 autistic girls with Rett syndrome, 14% (42 of 302) of autistic children and 8% (19 of 237) of dysphasic children had epilepsy (P = .03). The major risk factors for epilepsy were severe mental deficiency a...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tuchman RF,Rapin I,Shinnar S

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • Early-Onset Sepsis Risk Calculator Integration Into an Electronic Health Record in the Nursery.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:An early-onset sepsis (EOS) risk calculator tool to guide evaluation and treatment of infants at risk for sepsis has reduced antibiotic use without increased adverse outcomes. We performed an electronic health record (EHR)-driven quality improvement intervention to increase calculator use for ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stipelman CH,Smith ER,Diaz-Ochu M,Spackman J,Stoddard G,Kawamoto K,Shakib JH

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric advance care planning: a systematic review.

    abstract:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:Advance care planning (ACP) is increasingly regarded as the gold standard in the care of patients with life-limiting illnesses. Research has focused on adults, but ACP is also being practiced in pediatrics. We conducted a systematic review on empirical literature on pediatric ACP (pACP) to ass...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lotz JD,Jox RJ,Borasio GD,Führer M

    更新日期:2013-03-01 00:00:00

  • Multidisciplinary Engagement Increases Medications in-Hand for Patients Hospitalized With Asthma.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Asthma exacerbations in children are a leading cause of missed school days and health care use. Patients discharged from the hospital often do not fill discharge prescriptions and are at risk for future exacerbations. METHODS:A multidisciplinary team aimed to increase the percentage of patients discharged f...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Parikh K,Perry K,Pantor C,Gardner C

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • Occult spinal dysraphism: a series of 73 cases.

    abstract::The subject of occult spinal dysraphism or myelodysplasia is reviewed from standpoints of embryology, clinical manifestations, and treatment, and the management of 73 cases summarized. In general, these concealed lesions arise from developmental variants in the most distal part of the neural tube, a situation which ma...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Anderson FM

    更新日期:1975-06-01 00:00:00

  • Perinatal human immunodeficiency virus-1 transmission and intrauterine growth: a cohort study in Butare, Rwanda.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the association of perinatal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 transmission with birth outcomes, including birth weight, gestational age, ponderal index, head circumference, and weight/head ratio. METHODS:Data from a prospective cohort study of 627 pregnant women and their infants in Butare, Rwan...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weng S,Bulterys M,Chao A,Stidley CA,Dushimimana A,Mbarutso E,Saah A

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence of retinal hemorrhages and child abuse in children who present with an apparent life-threatening event.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Child abuse (CA) can present with a spectrum of signs and symptoms. Apparent life-threatening events (ALTEs) may be a subtle presentation of CA. Retinal hemorrhages (RHs) are a well-described finding in some patients with CA. We hypothesized that screening children who present with a chief complaint of an ALT...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pitetti RD,Maffei F,Chang K,Hickey R,Berger R,Pierce MC

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Has prenatal screening influenced the prevalence of comorbidities associated with Down syndrome and subsequent survival rates?

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:With this study we aimed to compare survival rates for children with Down syndrome in 2 time periods, 1 before prenatal screening (1988-1990) and 1 contemporaneous with screening (1998-2000), and to examine the frequency of comorbidities and their influence on survival rates. METHODS:Record-linkage was perf...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Halliday J,Collins V,Riley M,Youssef D,Muggli E

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Health care transition: destinations unknown.

    abstract::The movement of young adults with special health care needs from pediatric-oriented care to adult-oriented care has been a growing concern in the health care literature over the past 20 years. This article reviews the development and evaluation of health care transition policy over that period of time. These health ca...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reiss J,Gibson R

    更新日期:2002-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cultivating Research Skills During Clinical Training to Promote Pediatric-Scientist Development.

    abstract::Physician-scientists represent a critical component of the biomedical and health research workforce. However, the proportion of physicians who spend a significant amount of effort on scientific research has declined over the past 40 years. This trend has been particularly noticeable in pediatrics despite recent scient...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hurst JH,Barrett KJ,Kelly MS,Staples BB,McGann KA,Cunningham CK,Reed AM,Gbadegesin RA,Permar SR

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of prenatal chlorpyrifos exposure on neurodevelopment in the first 3 years of life among inner-city children.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of prenatal exposure to chlorpyrifos on 3-year neurodevelopment and behavior in a sample of inner-city minority children. METHODS:As part of an ongoing prospective cohort study in an inner-city minority population, neurotoxicant effects of prenatal expo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rauh VA,Garfinkel R,Perera FP,Andrews HF,Hoepner L,Barr DB,Whitehead R,Tang D,Whyatt RW

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • Sleep duration and adolescent obesity.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Short sleep has been associated with adolescent obesity. Most studies used a cross-sectional design and modeled BMI categories. We sought to determine if sleep duration was associated with BMI distribution changes from age 14 to 18. METHODS:Adolescents were recruited from suburban high schools in Philadelph...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mitchell JA,Rodriguez D,Schmitz KH,Audrain-McGovern J

    更新日期:2013-05-01 00:00:00

  • Association of race and ethnicity with management of abdominal pain in the emergency department.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine if race/ethnicity-based differences exist in the management of pediatric abdominal pain in emergency departments (EDs). METHODS:Secondary analysis of data from the 2006-2009 National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey regarding 2298 visits by patients ≤ 21 years old who presented to EDs wit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Johnson TJ,Weaver MD,Borrero S,Davis EM,Myaskovsky L,Zuckerbraun NS,Kraemer KL

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Growth and fat-free mass gain in preterm infants after discharge: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate whether the consumption of a nutrient-enriched formula after hospital discharge determines different growth and weight gain composition in preterm infants according to intra- and extrauterine growth pattern. METHODS:Two hundred seven preterm infants were randomized at term-corrected age to rec...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Roggero P,Giannì ML,Amato O,Liotto N,Morlacchi L,Orsi A,Piemontese P,Taroni F,Morniroli D,Bracco B,Mosca F

    更新日期:2012-11-01 00:00:00