Cranial index of symmetry: an objective semiautomated measure of plagiocephaly. Technical note.


OBJECT:The prevalence of deformational, or positional, plagiocephaly has increased during the last decade. Treatments vary among centers, ranging from expectant management to orthotic helmet therapy to craniofacial remodeling. This management variability is partially due to a lack of objective methods with which to measure the severity of plagiocephaly, as well as procedures that are not cumbersome or require radiographic studies. A simple and objective method of determining the degree of cranial deformation has been developed. METHODS:A headband placed around the head was marked with two adjustable points--one denoting the nasion and the other, the inion. A digital camera was used to image the head from a vertex view. The shape of the headband and the area of each hemisphere were then determined by analyzing the image on a personal computer in a semiautomated fashion. A cranial index of symmetry (CIS) was calculated and, by definition, equaled 100% for a perfectly symmetrical head. In this preliminary study, the authors studied eight children referred for evaluation of their plagiocephaly and eight infants referred for noncraniofacial entities. In the unaffected infants the mean CIS was 96.3 +/- 1.3% (+/- standard deviation). In children with clinical evidence of plagiocephaly, however, the CIS was 81.9 +/- 3.4% (p < 0.001). Although the CIS in healthy children was never less than 95%, that in all infants with plagiocephaly was below 90%. CONCLUSIONS:Although preliminary, this objective nonradiographic measurement of cranial symmetry appears to allow grading of the severity of positional plagiocephaly. The aforementioned methodology may potentially be used as an unbiased means of comparing different treatment modalities in longitudinal studies.


J Neurosurg


Journal of neurosurgery


Zonenshayn M,Kronberg E,Souweidane MM




Has Abstract


2004-05-01 00:00:00




5 Suppl Pediatrics








  • Multiple intracranial aneurysms due to Coccidioides immitis infection. Case report.

    abstract::True mycotic (fungal) aneurysms are distinctly uncommon. The case of a young woman with multiple intracranial aneurysms of Coccidioides immitis origin is presented. Coccidioides immitis organisms are not uncommon central nervous system pathogens and usually cause basilar meningitis and hydrocephalus. There are no prev...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hadley MN,Martin NA,Spetzler RF,Johnson PC

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Radiodensity of intraventricular hemorrhage associated with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage may be a negative predictor of outcome.

    abstract::OBJECTIVE The presence, extent, and distribution of intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) have been associated with negative outcomes in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Several qualitative scores (Fisher grade, LeRoux score, and Graeb score) have been established for evaluating SAH and IVH. However, no study has...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nguyen HS,Li L,Patel M,Kurpad S,Mueller W

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Gamma knife surgery for choroidal neovascularization in age-related macular degeneration. Technical note.

    abstract::The authors conducted a study to determine a way of overcoming the poor-quality demonstration of choroidal neovascularization (CNV) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies. The poor MR imaging demonstration of CNV in patients with AMD makes the use...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayashi M,Chernov M,Usukura M,Abe K,Ono Y,Izawa M,Hori S,Hori T,Takakura K

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Extensive arachnoid ossification with associated syringomyelia presenting as thoracic myelopathy. Case report and review of the literature.

    abstract::The authors present the case of progressive thoracic myelopathy caused by the extensive ossification of the arachnoid membrane and associated intramedullary syrinx. Based on their findings and results of the literature search, they describe a pathological basis for this rare condition, discuss its incidence and sympto...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Slavin KV,Nixon RR,Nesbit GM,Burchiel KJ

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Endoscopic endonasal skull base surgery: analysis of complications in the authors' initial 800 patients.

    abstract:OBJECT:The development of endoscopic endonasal approaches, albeit in the early stages, represents part of the continuous evolution of skull base surgery. During this early period, it is important to determine the safety of these approaches by analyzing surgical complications to identify and eliminate their causes. MET...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kassam AB,Prevedello DM,Carrau RL,Snyderman CH,Thomas A,Gardner P,Zanation A,Duz B,Stefko ST,Byers K,Horowitz MB

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Parasellar epidermoid tumor presenting as painful ophthalmoplegia.

    abstract::In 1964, a 51-year-old man experienced a right abducens nerve palsy, which resolved spontaneously. In 1978, he developed painful ophthalmoplegia on the right with paresis of the right oculomotor and trigeminal nerves. Neuroradiographic evaluation was reported unremarkable, and the painful ophthalmoplegia was attribute...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kline LB,Galbraith JG

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Contralateral vertebral approach for stenting and coil embolization of a large, thrombosed vertebral-posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm. Case report.

    abstract::The authors report the successful staged stenting and coil embolization of a large vertebral artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery (VA-PICA) aneurysm using the contralateral VA for access. A 67-year-old woman presented with a large ruptured VA-PICA aneurysm. Initial attempts to stent the wide-necked aneurysm fro...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ecker RD,Hanel RA,Levy EI,Hopkins LN

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Punctate midline myelotomy for the relief of visceral cancer pain.

    abstract:OBJECT:This study offers clinical support for the concept that neurosurgical interruption of a midline posterior column pathway by performing a punctate midline myelotomy (PMM) provides significant pain relief without causing adverse neurological sequelae in cancer patients with visceral pain refractory to other therap...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nauta HJ,Soukup VM,Fabian RH,Lin JT,Grady JJ,Williams CG,Campbell GA,Westlund KN,Willis WD Jr

    更新日期:2000-04-01 00:00:00

  • Engorged epidural venous plexus and cervical myelopathy due to cerebrospinal fluid overdrainage: a rare complication of ventricular shunts. Case report.

    abstract::The authors report on a 17-year-old boy with cervical myelopathy from dilated epidural veins due to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) overdrainage. The patient had a long-standing subdural-peritoneal shunt and presented with incapacitating spastic tetraparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed significant cervical spinal c...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolfe SQ,Bhatia S,Green B,Ragheb J

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Fibroblastic tumor of the abducens nerve. Case report.

    abstract::Tumors of the cranial nerves are uncommon, and are usually schwannomas or neurofibromas. The authors describe a case of a fibroblastic tumor involving the sixth cranial nerve. Based upon electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry, the tumor was not of nerve-sheath origin, but was comprised of fibroblasts. Clinical, ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nehls DG,Sonntag VK,Murphy AR,Johnson PC,Waggener JD

    更新日期:1985-02-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical use of pre- and postsurgical evaluation of abnormal GH responses in acromegaly.

    abstract::The criteria by which acromegalic patients are considered "cured" after surgical therapy are still controversial. Since the abnormal growth hormone (GH) increase after the administration of some agents has been demonstrated to be characteristic of the tumoral somatotrophs, its disappearance after surgery may be taken ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arosio M,Giovanelli MA,Riva E,Nava C,Ambrosi B,Faglia G

    更新日期:1983-09-01 00:00:00

  • Analysis of treatment failure after radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations.

    abstract:OBJECT:The aim of this study was to evaluate the causes of treatment failure in patients with arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) who underwent radiosurgery, which is increasingly used as a treatment method for selected, surgically high-risk AVMs. Unfortunately, radiosurgical treatment fails in a small but significant p...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ellis TL,Friedman WA,Bova FJ,Kubilis PS,Buatti JM

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Tuberculous brain abscess. Case report.

    abstract::An abscess was removed from the left occipital region in a 73-year-old woman with no previous history of tuberculosis. The patient later died from aspiration bronchopneumonia. Autopsy revealed a basilar tuberculous meningitis and miliary tuberculosis in the peritracheal lymphatic glands, the liver, the spleen, and in ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: González PR,Herrero CV,Joachim GF,Ocaña CR,Sevilla GC,Loyzaga PG

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Intraoperative nerve action and compound motor action potential recordings in patients with obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    abstract:OBJECT:A typical finding in supraclavicular exploration of infants with severe obstetric brachial plexus lesions (OBPLs) is a neuroma-in-continuity with the superior trunk and/or a root avulsion at C-5, C-6, or C-7. The operative strategy in these cases is determined by the intraoperative assessment of the severity of ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pondaag W,van der Veken LP,van Someren PJ,van Dijk JG,Malessy MJ

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Hyperacute measurement of intracranial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, jugular venous oxygen saturation, and laser Doppler flowmetry, before and during removal of traumatic acute subdural hematoma.

    abstract:OBJECT:The poor prognosis for traumatic acute subdural hematoma (ASDH) might be due to underlying primary brain damage, ischemia, or both. Ischemia in ASDH is likely caused by increased intracranial pressure (ICP) leading to decreased cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP), but the degree to which these phenomena occur is u...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Verweij BH,Muizelaar JP,Vinas FC

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Does adjuvant external-beam radiotherapy improve outcomes for nonbenign meningiomas? A Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-based analysis.

    abstract:OBJECT:The aim of this study was to examine the effect of postoperative external-beam radiation therapy (EBRT) on disease-specific survival in patients with nonbenign meningiomas. METHODS:The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database from 1988 to 2007 was queried for cases of resected Grades II (atyp...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stessin AM,Schwartz A,Judanin G,Pannullo SC,Boockvar JA,Schwartz TH,Stieg PE,Wernicke AG

    更新日期:2012-10-01 00:00:00

  • Giant suprasellar aneurysm associated with optic stalk agenesis and unilateral anophthalmos. Case report.

    abstract::The authors report a patient with unilateral anophthalmos who had a large suprasellar aneurysm associated with aplasia of an optic nerve and the chiasmal commissure. The anatomical findings at craniotomy are described. ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoff J,Winestock D,Hoyt WF

    更新日期:1975-10-01 00:00:00

  • Presence of immunosuppressive factors in brain-tumor cyst fluid.

    abstract::The present investigation was conducted to examine the effects upon normal lymphocyte activation of the addition of brain-tumor cyst fluid or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to an in vitro culture system. It was believed that factors present in these fluids may play a role in local and systemic immunosuppression in brain-tu...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kikuchi K,Neuwelt EA

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • Transluminal angioplasty for treatment of intracranial arterial vasospasm.

    abstract::Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for treatment of intracerebral arterial vasospasm is now being performed in selected cases. Thirty-six vascular territories in 13 patients, ranging in age from 15 to 73 years, have been treated with a new silicone microballoon device. This balloon has allowed mechanical dilatation...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Higashida RT,Halbach VV,Cahan LD,Brant-Zawadzki M,Barnwell S,Dowd C,Hieshima GB

    更新日期:1989-11-01 00:00:00

  • Immunobiology of primary intracranial tumors. Part 4: levamisole as an immune stimulant in patients and in the ASV glioma model.

    abstract::Levamisole was evaluated as an immune stimulant in a randomized controlled study of patients with anaplastic gliomas, who had undergone surgical resection and who were also treated with radiotherapy and BCNU chemotherapy. Of 102 patients placed into the study, 85 were determined to comprise the adequately treated grou...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Mahaley MS Jr,Steinbok P,Aronin P,Dudka L,Zinn D

    更新日期:1981-02-01 00:00:00

  • Subthalamic nucleus stimulation for Parkinson disease: benefits observed in levodopa-intolerant patients.

    abstract:OBJECT:A blinded evaluation of the effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation was performed in levodopa-intolerant patients with Parkinson disease (PD). These patients (Group I, seven patients) were moderately or severely disabled (Hoehn and Yahr Stages III-V during the off period), but were receiving only a smal...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Katayama Y,Kasai M,Oshima H,Fukaya C,Yamamoto T,Ogawa K,Mizutani T

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Indwelling double-balloon shunt for carotid endarterectomy. Technical note.

    abstract::The authors describe an indwelling intraluminal shunt for carotid endarterectomy. The device is equipped with balloons at both ends to prevent bleeding and to hold the tube in place. The design permits use of a small tube which facilitates insertion, and prevents intimal damage and limitation of exposure of arterial p...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Furui T,Hasuo M

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of potassium channel-blocking agents on spontaneous discharges from neuromas in rats.

    abstract::Thirty-five Sprague-Dawley rats with saphenous neuromas underwent acute microfilament recording in the proximal nerve. The effect of the potassium channel-blocking agents, tetraethylammonium bromide (TEA) and 4-aminopyridine, on spontaneous activity in A fibers terminating in the neuroma was observed. The effects of g...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burchiel KJ,Russell LC

    更新日期:1985-08-01 00:00:00

  • Association of a younger age with an increased risk of angiographic and symptomatic vasospasms following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    abstract:OBJECT:Vasospasm is a leading cause of morbidity and death following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). It is important to predict which patients are at risk for vasospasm so that interventions can be made. There are several potential risk factors for vasospasm, one of which is age. However, the effect of age on...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Magge SN,Chen HI,Ramakrishna R,Cen L,Chen Z,Elliott JP,Winn HR,Le Roux PD

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • The surgical approach to arteriovenous malformations of the lateral and sigmoid dural sinuses.

    abstract::Arteriovenous malformations (AVM's) of lateral and sigmoid sinuses are acquired lesions evolving from a previously thrombosed dural sinus. Their natural history is usually that of gradual progression and hence surgery is frequently necessary. The preferred surgical treatment is complete excision coupled with packing o...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sundt TM Jr,Piepgras DG

    更新日期:1983-07-01 00:00:00

  • Human caudate nucleus subdivisions in tinnitus modulation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The object of this study was to define caudate nucleus locations responsive to intraoperative direct electrical stimulation for tinnitus loudness modulation and relate those locations to functional connectivity maps between caudate nucleus subdivisions and auditory cortex. METHODS:Six awake study participant...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perez PL,Wang SS,Heath S,Henderson-Sabes J,Mizuiri D,Hinkley LB,Nagarajan SS,Larson PS,Cheung SW

    更新日期:2019-02-08 00:00:00

  • Corpus callosotomy performed with laser interstitial thermal therapy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Corpus callosotomy is a palliative procedure that is effective at reducing seizure burden in patients with medically refractory epilepsy. The procedure is traditionally performed via open craniotomy with interhemispheric microdissection to divide the corpus callosum. Concerns for morbidity associated with cra...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roland JL,Akbari SHA,Salehi A,Smyth MD

    更新日期:2019-12-13 00:00:00

  • Malignant glioma-induced neuronal cell death in an organotypic glioma invasion model. Technical note.

    abstract::Rapid growth and diffuse brain infiltration are hallmarks of malignant gliomas. The underlying molecular pathomechanisms of these tumors, however, remain to be determined. The authors present a novel glioma invasion model that allows researchers to monitor consecutively tumor cell proliferation and migration in an org...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eyüpoglu IY,Hahnen E,Heckel A,Siebzehnrübl FA,Buslei R,Fahlbusch R,Blümcke I

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • Traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the computerized tomography scan obtained at admission: a multicenter assessment of the accuracy of diagnosis and the potential impact on patient outcome.

    abstract:OBJECT:The goal of this study was fourfold: 1) to determine the incidence of traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (tSAH) in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI); 2) to verify agreement in the diagnosis of tSAH in a multicenter study; 3) to assess the incidence of tSAH on the outcome of the patient; and 4) to establi...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Mattioli C,Beretta L,Gerevini S,Veglia F,Citerio G,Cormio M,Stocchetti N

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebral tissue PO2 and SjvO2 changes during moderate hyperventilation in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

    abstract:OBJECT:The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of moderate hyperventilation on intracranial pressure (ICP), jugular venous oxygen saturation ([SjvO2], an index of global cerebral perfusion), and brain tissue PO2 (an index of local cerebral perfusion). METHODS:Ninety-four tests consisting of 20-minute peri...

    journal_title:Journal of neurosurgery

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Imberti R,Bellinzona G,Langer M

    更新日期:2002-01-01 00:00:00