Simulation of an anatomically defined local circuit: the cone-horizontal cell network in cat retina.


:The outer plexiform layer of the retina contains a neural circuit in which cone synaptic terminals are electrically coupled and release glutamate onto wide-field and narrow-field horizontal cells. These are also electrically coupled and feed back through a GABAergic synapse to cones. In cat this circuit's structure is known in some detail, and much of the chemical architecture and neural responses are also known, yet there has been no attempt to synthesize this knowledge. We constructed a large-scale compartmental model (up to 50,000 compartments) to incorporate the known anatomical and biophysical facts. The goal was to discover how the various circuit components interact to form the cone receptive field, and thereby what possible function is implied. The simulation reproduced many features known from intracellular recordings: (1) linear response of cone and horizontal cell to intensity, (2) some aspects of temporal responses of cone and horizontal cell, (3) broad receptive field of the wide-field horizontal cell, and (4) center-surround cone receptive field (derived from a "deconvolution model"). With the network calibrated in this manner, we determined which of its features are necessary to give the cone receptive field a Gaussian center-surround shape. A Gaussian-like center that matches the center derived from the ganglion cell requires both optical blur and cone coupling: blur alone is too narrow, coupling alone gives an exponential shape without a central dome-shaped peak. A Gaussian-like surround requires both types of horizontal cell: the narrow-field type for the deep, proximal region and the wide-field type for the shallow, distal region. These results suggest that the function of the cone-horizontal cell circuit is to reduce the influence of noise by spatio-temporally filtering the cone signal before it passes through the first chemical synapse on the pathway to the brain.


Vis Neurosci


Visual neuroscience


Smith RG




Has Abstract


1995-05-01 00:00:00














  • A common contrast pooling rule for suppression within and between the eyes.

    abstract::Recent work has revealed multiple pathways for cross-orientation suppression in cat and human vision. In particular, ipsiocular and interocular pathways appear to assert their influence before binocular summation in human but have different (1) spatial tuning, (2) temporal dependencies, and (3) adaptation after-effect...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meese TS,Challinor KL,Summers RJ

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cell density ratios in a foveal patch in macaque retina.

    abstract::We examine the assumptions that the fovea contains equal numbers of inner (invaginating or ON) and outer (flat or OFF) midget bipolar cells and equal numbers of inner and outer diffuse bipolar cells. Based on reconstruction from electron photomicrographs of serial thin sections through the fovea of a macaque monkey, w...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ahmad KM,Klug K,Herr S,Sterling P,Schein S

    更新日期:2003-03-01 00:00:00

  • The interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior bundle (INSFp) in the guinea pig: another nucleus of the accessory optic system processing the vertical retinal slip signal.

    abstract::As in rabbit, gerbil, and rat, the guinea pig interstitial nucleus of the superior fasciculus, posterior bundle (INSFp) is a sparse assemblage of neurons scattered among the fibers forming the fasciculus bearing this name. Most of the INSFp neurons are small and are ovoid in shape. Interspersed among these, are a few ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Benassi C,Biral GP,Lui F,Porro CA,Corazza R

    更新日期:1989-01-01 00:00:00

  • Radial motion bias in macaque frontal eye field.

    abstract::The visual responsiveness and spatial tuning of frontal eye field (FEF) neurons were determined using a delayed memory saccade task. Neurons with visual responses were then tested for direction selectivity using moving random dot patterns centered in the visual receptive field. The preferred axis of motion showed a si...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xiao Q,Barborica A,Ferrera VP

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Intact "biological motion" and "structure from motion" perception in a patient with impaired motion mechanisms: a case study.

    abstract::A series of psychophysical tests examining early and later aspects of image-motion processing were conducted in a patient with bilateral lesions involving the posterior visual pathways, affecting the lateral parietal-temporal-occipital cortex and the underlying white matter (as shown by magnetic resonance imaging stud...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Vaina LM,Lemay M,Bienfang DC,Choi AY,Nakayama K

    更新日期:1990-10-01 00:00:00

  • Contributions of GABAA receptors and GABAC receptors to acetylcholine release and directional selectivity in the rabbit retina.

    abstract::GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian retina and it acts at many different sites via a variety of postsynaptic receptors. These include GABAA receptors and bicuculline-resistant GABAC receptors. The release of acetylcholine (ACh) is inhibited by GABA and strongly potentiated by GABA antagonists....

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Massey SC,Linn DM,Kittila CA,Mirza W

    更新日期:1997-09-01 00:00:00

  • Computation of motion direction by quail retinal ganglion cells that have a nonconcentric receptive field.

    abstract::One type of retinal ganglion cells prefers object motion in a particular direction. Neuronal mechanisms for the computation of motion direction are still unknown. We quantitatively mapped excitatory and inhibitory regions of receptive fields for directionally selective retinal ganglion cells in the Japanese quail, and...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Uchiyama H,Kanaya T,Sonohata S

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Dopaminergic amacrine cells express opioid receptors in the mouse retina.

    abstract::The presence of opioid receptors has been confirmed by a variety of techniques in vertebrate retinas including those of mammals; however, in most reports, the location of these receptors has been limited to retinal regions rather than specific cell types. Concurrently, our knowledge of the physiological functions of o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gallagher SK,Anglen JN,Mower JM,Vigh J

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Absolute and relative sensitivity of the scotopic system of rat: electroretinography and behavior.

    abstract::The goal of the present study was to relate the dark and light-adapted flash sensitivity of the scotopic threshold response (STR) and rod b-wave of the electroretinogram (ERG) to behaviorally measured rod increment threshold responses. Small amplitudes of the dark-adapted STR and b-wave, the latter after application o...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Naarendorp F,Sato Y,Cajdric A,Hubbard NP

    更新日期:2001-07-01 00:00:00

  • Robust directional computation in on-off directionally selective ganglion cells of rabbit retina.

    abstract::The spatial and temporal interactions in the receptive fields of On-Off directionally selective (DS) ganglion cells endow them with directional selectivity. Using a variety of stimuli, such as sinusoidal gratings, we show that these interactions make directional selectivity of the DS ganglion cell robust with respect ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grzywacz NM,Amthor FR

    更新日期:2007-07-01 00:00:00

  • Cone synapses in macaque fovea: I. Two types of non-S cones are distinguished by numbers of contacts with OFF midget bipolar cells.

    abstract::L and M cones, divided into two groups by absorption spectra, have not been distinguished by structure. Here, we report what may be such a difference. We reconstructed the synaptic terminals of 16 non-S cones and the dendritic arbors of their ON and OFF midget bipolar cells from high-magnification electron micrographs...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schein S,Ngo IT,Huang TM,Klug K,Sterling P,Herr S

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Electrophysiological sensitivity of carotenoid deficient and replaced Drosophila.

    abstract::R1-6 dominated electroretinographic (ERG) spectral sensitivities were determined as a function of days posteclosion from carotenoid deprived and replaced white-eyed Drosophila. The sensitivity of flies deprived from egg to adult waxed (about 1.5 log units by day 3), and then waned gradually from 3-11 days (over 2 log ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chen DM,Stark WS

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • The fate of the oculomotor system in clinical bilateral anophthalmia.

    abstract::The interdependence of the development of the eye and oculomotor system during embryogenesis is currently unclear. The occurrence of clinical anophthalmia, where the globe fails to develop, permits us to study the effects this has on the development of the complex neuromuscular system controlling eye movements. In thi...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bridge H,Ragge N,Jenkinson N,Cowey A,Watkins KE

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Cue-dependent deficits in grating orientation discrimination after V4 lesions in macaques.

    abstract::To examine the role of visual area V4 in pattern vision, we tested two monkeys with lesions of V4 on tasks that required them to discriminate the orientation of contours defined by several different cues. The cues used to separate the contours from their background included luminance, color, motion, and texture, as we...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Weerd P,Desimone R,Ungerleider LG

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Differential induction of gene expression by basic fibroblast growth factor and neuroD in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells.

    abstract::Embryonic chick retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells can undergo transdifferentiation upon appropriate stimulation. For example, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces intact RPE tissue younger than embryonic day 4.5 (E4.5) to transdifferentiate into a neural retina. NeuroD, a gene encoding a basic helix-loop...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yan RT,Wang SZ

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • FDA regulation of labeling and promotional claims in therapeutic color vision devices: a tutorial.

    abstract::The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is responsible for determining whether medical device manufacturers have provided reasonable assurance, based on valid scientific evidence, that new devices are safe and effective for their intended use before they are introduced into the U.S. market. Most existing color vision d...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Drum B

    更新日期:2004-05-01 00:00:00

  • The color of night: Surface color perception under dim illuminations.

    abstract::Several studies document rudimentary color vision under dim illumination. Here, hue perceptions of paper color samples were determined for a wide range of light levels, including very low light levels where rods alone mediate vision. The appearances of 24 paper color samples from the OSA Uniform Color Scales were gaug...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pokorny J,Lutze M,Cao D,Zele AJ

    更新日期:2006-05-01 00:00:00

  • Optimal design of photoreceptor mosaics: why we do not see color at night.

    abstract::While color vision mediated by rod photoreceptors in dim light is possible (Kelber & Roth, 2006), most animals, including humans, do not see in color at night. This is because their retinas contain only a single class of rod photoreceptors. Many of these same animals have daylight color vision, mediated by multiple cl...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Manning JR,Brainard DH

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Projection status of calbindin- and parvalbumin-immunoreactive neurons in the superficial layers of the rat's superior colliculus.

    abstract::Immunocytochemistry and retrograde labeling were used to define the thalamic projections of calbindin- and parvalbumin-containing cells in superficial layers of the rat's superior colliculus (SC). Quantitative analysis revealed that 90.8 +/- 2.2% (mean +/- standard deviation) of the calbindin-immunoreactive neurons in...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lane RD,Allan DM,Bennett-Clarke CA,Howell DL,Rhoades RW

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate neurons in the rhesus monkey.

    abstract::Studies of the numbers of retinal ganglion cells and lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) neurons in primates suggest that the numbers of both types of neurons may vary over a two-fold range from one individual to another. This raises the question of whether the numbers of ganglion cells and LGN neurons are related or var...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Spear PD,Kim CB,Ahmad A,Tom BW

    更新日期:1996-01-01 00:00:00

  • A comparison of receptive field and tracer coupling size of horizontal cells in the rabbit retina.

    abstract::The large receptive fields of retinal horizontal cells are thought to reflect extensive electrical coupling via gap junctions. It was shown recently that the biotinylated tracers, biocytin and Neurobiotin, provide remarkable images of coupling between many types of retinal neuron, including horizontal cells. Further, ...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bloomfield SA,Xin D,Persky SE

    更新日期:1995-09-01 00:00:00

  • Multifocal visual evoked potential responses to pattern-reversal, pattern-onset, pattern-offset, and sparse pulse stimuli.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to compare standard multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) pattern-reversal responses with those produced by pattern-onset, pattern-offset, and pulsed pattern stimuli. mfVEP recordings were obtained from five normal subjects using VERIS and a 4-electrode array. The standard rev...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fortune B,Demirel S,Bui BV

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • A phenomenological model of visually evoked spike trains in cat geniculate nonlagged X-cells.

    abstract::The visual information that first-order cortical cells receive is contained in the visually evoked spike trains of geniculate relay cells. To address functional issues such as the ON/OFF structure of visual cortical receptive fields with modelling studies, a geniculate cell model is needed where the spatial and tempor...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gazères N,Borg-Graham LJ,Frégnac Y

    更新日期:1998-11-01 00:00:00

  • Cortical projections to anterior inferior temporal cortex in infant macaque monkeys.

    abstract::Inferior temporal (IT) cortex is a "high-order" region of extrastriate visual cortex important for visual form perception and recognition in adult primates. The pattern of cortical afferents from both ipsilateral and contralateral hemispheres to anterior IT cortex was determined in infant macaque monkeys 7-18 weeks of...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodman HR,Consuelos MJ

    更新日期:1994-01-01 00:00:00

  • The retinal targets of centrifugal neurons and the retinal neurons projecting to the accessory optic system.

    abstract::In birds, neurons of the isthmo-optic nucleus (ION), as well as "ectopic" neurons, send axons to the retina, where they synapse on cells in the inner nuclear layer (INL). Previous work has shown that centrifugal axons can be divided into two anatomically distinct types depending on their model of termination: either "...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nickla DL,Gottlieb MD,Marin G,Rojas X,Britto LR,Wallman J

    更新日期:1994-03-01 00:00:00

  • Psychophysical analysis of contrast processing segregated into magnocellular and parvocellular systems in asymptomatic carriers of 11778 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy.

    abstract::We examined achromatic contrast discrimination in asymptomatic carriers of 11778 Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON 18 controls) and 18 age-match were also tested. To evaluate magnocellular (MC) and Parvocellular (PC) contrast discrimination, we used a version of Pokorny and Smith's (1997) pulsed/steady-pedesta...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gualtieri M,Bandeira M,Hamer RD,Costa MF,Oliveira AG,Moura AL,Sadun F,De Negri AM,Berezovsky A,Salomão SR,Carelli V,Sadun AA,Ventura DF

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • The retinoids of seven species of mantis shrimp.

    abstract::Eyes of stomatopod crustaceans, or mantis shrimps, contain the greatest diversity of visual pigments yet described in any species, with as many as ten or more spectral classes present in a single retina. In this study, the eyes of seven species of mantis shrimp from three superfamilies of stomatopods were examined for...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Goldsmith TH,Cronin TW

    更新日期:1993-09-01 00:00:00

  • Contributions of cat posterior parietal cortex to visuospatial discrimination.

    abstract::The purpose of the present study was to examine the contributions made by cat posterior parietal cortex to the analyses of the relative position of objects in visual space. Two cats were trained on a landmark task in which they learned to report the position of a landmark object relative to a right or left food-reward...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lomber SG,Payne BR

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibitory components of retinal bipolar cell receptive fields are differentially modulated by dopamine D1 receptors.

    abstract::During adaptation to an increase in environmental luminance, retinal signaling adjustments are mediated by the neuromodulator dopamine. Retinal dopamine is released with light and can affect center-surround receptive fields, the coupling state between neurons, and inhibitory pathways through inhibitory receptors and n...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mazade RE,Eggers ED

    更新日期:2020-02-12 00:00:00

  • Immunocytochemical and histochemical localization of nitric oxide synthase in the turtle retina.

    abstract::Recent interest in nitric oxide and its relationship to cGMP has produced many attempts to anatomically localize the enzyme synthesizing nitric oxide, nitric oxide synthase. In the retina, numerous previous studies have used the NADPH-diaphorase enzyme activity of nitric oxide synthase as a histochemical method to loc...

    journal_title:Visual neuroscience

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blute TA,Mayer B,Eldred WD

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00