Structure and functions of state public health agencies.


OBJECTIVES:We assessed the structure and functions of state health departments throughout the United States and compared our findings with those from a previous national assessment conducted in 1990. METHODS:In 2001, we sent a survey to the state health officers of all 50 states. The survey asked about the structure and functions of the state health agency. RESULTS:The survey was completed by state health officers from 47 states (a 94% response rate). More than half of the states responding had a freestanding state public health agency and a state board or council of health. Forty-four percent had a regional or district structure. Although some traditional public health functions have been curtailed, important new public health functions have emerged since 1990. CONCLUSIONS:Our current findings confirm core changes in the structure and functions of state public health systems over the past decade and emphasize the need for more research into these systems to maximize their organizational performance.


Am J Public Health


Beitsch LM,Brooks RG,Grigg M,Menachemi N




Has Abstract


2006-01-01 00:00:00














  • The costs and effects of cervical and breast cancer screening in a public hospital emergency room. The Cancer Control Center of Harlem.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of cervix and breast cancer screening in a public hospital emergency room. METHODS:Age-eligible women with nonurgent conditions and without recent screening were offered screening by a nurse. A decision analysis compared the costs and outcomes of emergency room scr...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mandelblatt J,Freeman H,Winczewski D,Cagney K,Williams S,Trowers R,Tang J,Gold K,Lin TH,Kerner J

    更新日期:1997-07-01 00:00:00

  • HIV infection in intravenous drug users entering drug treatment, United States, 1988 to 1989. The Field Services Branch of the Centers for Disease Control.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Intravenous drug use has played a key role in the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. Standardized surveillance of HIV infection among intravenous drug users (IVDUs) is needed to determine HIV prevalence rates, to monitor changes in prevalence over time, and to describe behaviors associated with HIV...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Allen DM,Onorato IM,Green TA

    更新日期:1992-04-01 00:00:00

  • Health Behaviors and Outcomes Associated With Personal and Family History of Criminal Justice System Involvement, New York City, 2017.

    abstract::Objectives. To quantify the association between personal and family history of criminal justice system (CJS) involvement (PHJI and FHJI, respectively), health outcomes, and health-related behaviors.Methods. We examined 2017 New York City Community Health Survey data (n = 10 005) with multivariable logistic regression....

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Baquero M,Zweig K,Angell SY,Meropol SB

    更新日期:2020-03-01 00:00:00

  • Occupational health and safety in Brazil.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Brazil is the world's fifth largest and sixth most populous nation. Its economy is varied, with strong manufacturing, agriculture, mining, and service sectors. Therefore, a wide variety of workplace hazards confronts its work force. This paper describes Brazil's occupational safety and health regulatory sche...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Frumkin H,Câmara Vde M

    更新日期:1991-12-01 00:00:00

  • Infant mortality in the United States: trends, differentials, and projections, 1950 through 2010.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study examined long-term trends and differences in infant mortality in the United States from 1950 through 1991 according to race and ethnicity, education, family income, and cause of death. Forecasts are made through the year 2010. METHODS:Log-linear regression models were applied to data from the Nat...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singh GK,Yu SM

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Potential for Lyme disease in Maine: deer survey of distribution of Ixodes dammini, the tick vector.

    abstract::A survey of deer brought to tagging stations at 24 sites in Main revealed the presence of the deer tick, Ixodes dammini, on 5.1 percent of deer. Ticks were found almost exclusively on deer from southwest coastal sites in the state. The potential for endemic Lyme disease in coastal Maine merits further study. ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith RP Jr,Rand PW,Lacombe EH

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • The practice and efficacy of breast self-examination: a critical review.

    abstract::Evaluation of the results of breast self-examination (BSE) is inconclusive. Studies which address the question of proper method of BSE find that most women do not know how to carry out the procedure correctly. Socio-demographic characteristics most consistently related to BSE practice are age and education. New resear...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Holtzman D,Celentano DD

    更新日期:1983-11-01 00:00:00

  • Socioeconomic status and body mass index among Hispanic children of immigrants and children of natives.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined how Hispanic parents' income and education, combined with their nativity status, influenced the body mass index (BMI) of their children, compared with non-Hispanic White children and their parents. METHODS:We used data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Kindergarten Class of 1998-99 to...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Balistreri KS,Van Hook J

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Public health's response to a changed world: September 11, biological terrorism, and the development of an environmental health tracking network.

    abstract::Historically, the importance of public health has often been recognized during or as a result of major tragedy. The attacks that occurred in the United States in 2001 are no exception. These events have raised awareness of our vulnerability and the need for emergency preparedness, the need for a flexible and sustainab...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marmagas SW,King LR,Chuk MG

    更新日期:2003-08-01 00:00:00

  • Getting beyond "Don't ask; don't tell": an evaluation of US Veterans Administration postdeployment mental health screening of veterans returning from Iraq and Afghanistan.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We sought to evaluate outcomes of the Veterans Administration (VA) Afghan and Iraq Post-Deployment Screen for mental health symptoms. METHODS:Veterans Administration clinicians were encouraged to refer Iraq or Afghanistan veterans who screened positive for posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, or high-...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seal KH,Bertenthal D,Maguen S,Gima K,Chu A,Marmar CR

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Feeling bad: exploring sources of distress among pre-adolescent children.

    abstract::Previous studies of stress in childhood have used instruments containing items describing events/conditions thought by adults to be stressful for children. In interviews with 5th- and 6th-grade children, we asked them to describe circumstances that would make or had made them feel bad, nervous, or worried. After prete...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewis CE,Siegel JM,Lewis MA

    更新日期:1984-02-01 00:00:00

  • The immediate and subsequent outcomes of nursing home care.

    abstract::To determine the relationship between admission status and subsequent outcomes, 563 patients discharged during 1980 from 24 nursing homes were followed through 1982. Only 28 per cent of patients were discharged to their homes. Reconstructed life histories of 529 discharges for the two-year follow-up revealed only 38 p...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewis MA,Kane RL,Cretin S,Clark V

    更新日期:1985-07-01 00:00:00

  • Convenience Sampling of Children Presenting to Hospital-Based Outpatient Clinics to Estimate Childhood Obesity Levels in Local Surroundings.

    abstract::Childhood obesity is a critical public health matter associated with numerous pediatric comorbidities. Local-level data are required to monitor obesity and to help administer prevention efforts when and where they are most needed. We hypothesized that samples of children visiting hospital clinics could provide represe...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gilliland J,Clark AF,Kobrzynski M,Filler G

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Deaths in New York City jails, 2001-2009.

    abstract::Approximately 90,000 inmates are admitted annually to the New York City jail system, many of whom require a high level of medical or mental health services. According to our analysis of deaths in custody from 2001 to 2009, crude death rates have dropped significantly despite the increasing age of the population. Falli...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brittain J,Axelrod G,Venters H

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Intradermal immunization with human diploid cell rabies vaccine: serological and clinical responses of immunized persons to intradermal booster vaccination.

    abstract::Rabies antibody titers ranged from 0-9.3 IU/mL in 117 human volunteers one year after intradermal vaccination with one or two doses of human diploid cell rabies vaccine (HDCV). At that time, each volunteer received one 0.1-mL booster dose of HDCV intradermally. All 117 volunteers showed good anamnestic responses, with...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Burridge MJ,Sumner JW,Baer GM

    更新日期:1984-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of a Dutch work-site wellness-health program: the Brabantia Project.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study examined a project designed to improve the health and wellness of employees of Brabantia, a Dutch manufacturer of household goods, by means of lifestyle changes and changes in working conditions. METHODS:The workers at one Brabantia site constituted the experimental group, and the workers from tw...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Maes S,Verhoeven C,Kittel F,Scholten H

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Beyond Nazi War Crimes Experiments: The Voluntary Consent Requirement of the Nuremberg Code at 70.

    abstract::The year 2017 marks both the 70th anniversary of the Nuremberg Code and the first major revisions of federal research regulations in almost 3 decades. I suggest that the informed consent provisions of the federal research regulations continue to follow the requirements of the Nuremberg Code. However, modifications are...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Annas GJ

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Symptoms of depression among blacks and whites.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We sought to examine relationships between sociodemographic indicators of risk and depression symptoms within the Black and White populations. METHODS:In a national probability sample, differences in sex, age, marital status, religion, social class, employment status, urbanicity, and region were evaluated a...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones-Webb RJ,Snowden LR

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • The Rates and Medical Necessity of Cesarean Delivery in the Era of the Two-Child Policy in Hubei and Gansu Provinces, China.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To describe the cesarean rates in different child policy periods and assess the medical necessity of cesareans during the 2-child policy period. METHODS:We collected hospital-level aggregate data on 93 745 deliveries and individual-level data on 27 977 deliveries from 6 hospitals in the Hubei and Gansu prov...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Liao Z,Zhou Y,Li H,Wang C,Chen D,Liu J

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Factors associated with birthweight: an exploration of the roles of prenatal care and length of gestation.

    abstract::To assess the association with birthweight of prenatal medical care, length of gestation, and other prenatal factors, birth certificate data were studied for babies born in 1978 to mothers who were residents of Alameda or Contra Costa counties, California. Using multiple regression data analytic techniques, adequate p...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Showstack JA,Budetti PP,Minkler D

    更新日期:1984-09-01 00:00:00

  • Secular trends of obesity in early life: the Bogalusa Heart Study.

    abstract::Secular changes in height and weight measurements were examined in five- to 14-year-olds from 1973 to 1984. The age-sex specific 85th percentile was used to classify persons as overweight (based on ponderal index; kg/m3). Secular increases in weight (2.5 kg), and ponderosity (0.5-0.7 kg/m3) were found. Gains in ponder...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shear CL,Freedman DS,Burke GL,Harsha DW,Webber LS,Berenson GS

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • The association between occupational lead exposure and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study sought to clarify the possible associations between blood lead level and serum cholesterol and lipoprotein levels in subjects occupationally exposed to lead. METHODS:Levels of blood lead, serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kristal-Boneh E,Coller D,Froom P,Harari G,Ribak J

    更新日期:1999-07-01 00:00:00

  • Relay: A Peer-Delivered Emergency Department-Based Response to Nonfatal Opioid Overdose.

    abstract::Relay, a peer-delivered response to nonfatal opioid overdoses, provides overdose prevention education, naloxone, support, and linkage to care to opioid overdose survivors for 90 days after an overdose event. From June 2017 to December 2018, Relay operated in seven New York City emergency departments and enrolled 649 o...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Welch AE,Jeffers A,Allen B,Paone D,Kunins HV

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Asthma among homeless children in New York City: an update.

    abstract::Homeless children in New York City had an extremely high asthma prevalence-40%-in a cross-sectional study at 3 shelters (n=740) during 1998 to 1999. We used the same protocol to summarize subsequent data through December 2002. Asthma prevalence was 33% (n=1636); only 15% of the children previously diagnosed were takin...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grant R,Bowen S,McLean DE,Berman D,Redlener K,Redlener I

    更新日期:2007-03-01 00:00:00

  • Prejudice as stress: conceptual and measurement problems.

    abstract::In the field of social sciences, there has been a renewed interest in studying prejudice and discrimination as stressors and assessing their impact on various health outcomes. This raises a need for theoretically based and psychometrically sound measures of prejudice. As researchers approach this task, there are sever...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Meyer IH

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Fall-induced deaths among elderly people.

    abstract::Falls and fall-induced injuries in older people are a major public health problem in modern societies with aging populations. Injury is the fifth leading cause of death in older adults, and most of these fatal injuries are related to falls. We have assessed the nationwide trends in fall-induced deaths of older people ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kannus P,Parkkari J,Niemi S,Palvanen M

    更新日期:2005-03-01 00:00:00

  • Mortality and cancer incidence among sawmill workers exposed to chlorophenate wood preservatives.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study examined the association between exposure to chlorophenates and the risk of soft tissue sarcoma; non-Hodgkin's lymphoma; Hodgkin's disease; and cancers of the lung, nose, and nasopharynx. METHODS:A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 26487 workers employed for at least 1 year between 1950...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hertzman C,Teschke K,Ostry A,Hershler R,Dimich-Ward H,Kelly S,Spinelli JJ,Gallagher RP,McBride M,Marion SA

    更新日期:1997-01-01 00:00:00

  • Too poor to leave, too rich to stay: developmental and global health correlates of physician migration to the United States, Canada, Australia, and the United kingdom.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We analyzed the relationship between physician migration from developing source countries to more developed host countries (brain drain) and the developmental and global health profiles of source countries. METHODS:We used a cross-section of 141 countries that lost emigrating physicians to the 4 major desti...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arah OA,Ogbu UC,Okeke CE

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic stressors and maternal depression: implications for prevention.

    abstract::We report on the use of an instrument to measure exposure to stressors among 149 women presenting with their children for pediatric care at an urban primary care center. Overall, 38.3 percent of the women had significant levels of depressive symptoms; 71.4 percent of those in the "high stress" group had an adjusted pr...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Orr ST,James SA,Burns BJ,Thompson B

    更新日期:1989-09-01 00:00:00

  • Triple comorbid trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use as predictors of antisocial personality disorder and generalized anxiety disorder among urban adults.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We modeled triple trajectories of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use from adolescence to adulthood as predictors of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS:We assessed urban African American and Puerto Rican participants (n = 816) in the Harlem Longitudinal De...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brook JS,Lee JY,Rubenstone E,Brook DW,Finch SJ

    更新日期:2014-08-01 00:00:00