The skin barrier as an innate immune element.


:Since life in a terrestrial environment threatens mammals continuously with desiccation, the structural, cellular, biochemical, and regulatory mechanisms that sustain permeability barrier homeostasis have justifiably comprised a major thrust of prior and recent research on epidermal barrier function. Yet, the epidermis mediates a broad set of protective 'barrier' functions that includes defense against pathogen challenges. Permeability and antimicrobial function are both co-regulated and interdependent, overlapping through the dual activities of their lipid/protein constituents. Most of the defensive (barrier) functions of the epidermis localize to the stratum corneum (SC), which limits pathogen colonization through its low water content, acidic pH, resident (normal) microflora, and surface-deposited antimicrobial lipids (1 degree free fatty acid). These various barrier functions are largely mediated by either the corneocyte or the extracellular matrix, and it is both the localization and the organization of secreted hydrophobic lipids into characteristic lamellar bilayers that is critical not only for permeability barrier function, but also for antimicrobial function through its contribution to the maintenance of SC integrity. Low constitutive levels of antimicrobial peptides under basal conditions emphasize the key role of epithelial structure in antimicrobial defense. But antimicrobial peptide synthesis and delivery to the SC interstices accelerates after external insults to the barrier.


Semin Immunopathol


Elias PM




Has Abstract


2007-04-01 00:00:00












  • Drosophila as a model system to study autophagy.

    abstract::Originally identified as a response to starvation in yeast, autophagy is now understood to fulfill a variety of roles in higher eukaryotes, from the maintenance of cellular homeostasis to the cellular response to stress, starvation, and infection. Although genetics and biochemical studies in yeast have identified many...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zirin J,Perrimon N

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Interference of Aspergillus fumigatus with the immune response.

    abstract::Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprotrophic filamentous fungus and also the most prevalent airborne fungal pathogen of humans. Depending on the host's immune status, the variety of diseases caused by A. fumigatus ranges from allergies in immunocompetent hosts to life-threatening invasive infections in patients with impair...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Heinekamp T,Schmidt H,Lapp K,Pähtz V,Shopova I,Köster-Eiserfunke N,Krüger T,Kniemeyer O,Brakhage AA

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Omics for the future in asthma.

    abstract::Asthma is a common, complex, multifaceted disease. It comprises multiple phenotypes, which might benefit from treatment with different types of innovative targeted therapies. Refining these phenotypes and understanding their underlying biological structure would help to apply precision medicine approaches. Using diffe...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abdel-Aziz MI,Neerincx AH,Vijverberg SJ,Kraneveld AD,Maitland-van der Zee AH

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Effector CD8 T cell immunity in microsporidial infection: a lone defense mechanism.

    abstract::Microsporidia is a group of pathogens, which can pose severe risks to the immunocompromised population such as HIV-infected individuals. The expertise to diagnose these pathogens is limited and therefore their prevalence is believed to be much higher than what is currently known. In a mouse model of infections, it has...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Moretto MM,Harrow DI,Khan IA

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Resolution of Crohn's disease.

    abstract::Crohn's disease (CD) is characterized by chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract and represents one of the main inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) forms. The infiltration of immune cells into the mucosa and uncontrolled production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and other mediators trigger the chronic inflammat...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Schmitt H,Neufert C,Neurath MF,Atreya R

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • The procoagulant and proinflammatory plasma contact system.

    abstract::The contact system is a plasma protease cascade that is initiated by coagulation factor XII activation on cardiovascular cells. The system starts procoagulant and proinflammatory reactions, via the intrinsic pathway of coagulation or the kallikrein-kinin system, respectively. The biochemistry of the contact system in ...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Renné T

    更新日期:2012-01-01 00:00:00

  • Recipe for IBD: can we use food to control inflammatory bowel disease?

    abstract::The mucosal immune system and the microbiota in the intestinal tract have recently been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Both of these can be influenced by food. Thus, we propose dietary intervention as a therapeutic option for IBD. In this review, we discuss the intera...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Witkowski M,Witkowski M,Gagliani N,Huber S

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Mononuclear cells in liver fibrosis.

    abstract::Fibrosis is a multicellular wound healing process, where myofibroblasts that express extracellular matrix components extensively cross-talk with other cells resident in the liver or recruited from the bloodstream. Macrophages and infiltrating monocytes participate in the development of fibrosis via several mechanisms,...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Marra F,Aleffi S,Galastri S,Provenzano A

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Immunopathogenesis of idiopathic nephrotic syndrome with relapse.

    abstract::Idiopathic change nephrotic syndrome (INS), the most frequent glomerular disease in children and young adults, is characterized by heavy proteinuria and a relapsing remitting course. Although the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of proteinuria remain unclear, clinical and experimental observations suggest tha...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sahali D,Sendeyo K,Mangier M,Audard V,Zhang SY,Lang P,Ollero M,Pawlak A

    更新日期:2014-07-01 00:00:00

  • Microbiota and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis.

    abstract::The recent rise in obesity-related diseases, such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and its strong association with microbiota, has elicited interest in the underlying mechanisms of these pathologies. Experimental models have highlighted several mechanisms connecting microbiota to the development of liver dysfunctio...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Imajo K,Yoneda M,Ogawa Y,Wada K,Nakajima A

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • The thymus and the science of self.

    abstract::The conventional perception asserts that immunology is the science of 'discrimination' between self and non-self. This concept is however no longer tenable as effector cells of the adaptive immune system are first conditioned to be tolerant to the body's own antigens, collectively known as self until now. Only then at...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Geenen V

    更新日期:2021-01-07 00:00:00

  • Myeloproliferation and hematopoietic stem cell dysfunction due to defective Notch receptor modification by O-fucose glycans.

    abstract::O-fucosylglycans on Notch extracellular domain epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats are critical in modulating Notch signaling by altering the sensitivity of Notch receptors to activation by Notch ligands. Mice lacking Notch O-fucosylglycans display granulo-monocytic myeloproliferation, hematopoietic stem cell dysfun...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhou L

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • TRPs and pain.

    abstract::Nociception is the process of transmission of painful signals by nociceptors in the primary afferent nerve fibers, which specifically respond to noxious stimuli. These noxious stimuli are detected by nociceptors and converted into electrical signals, which are then transmitted to the spinal cord, thalamus, and the cer...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dai Y

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Trp channels and itch.

    abstract::Itch is a unique sensation associated with the scratch reflex. Although the scratch reflex plays a protective role in daily life by removing irritants, chronic itch remains a clinical challenge. Despite urgent clinical need, itch has received relatively little research attention and its mechanisms have remained poorly...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sun S,Dong X

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • Microbial regulation of allergic responses to food.

    abstract::The incidence of food allergy in developed countries is rising at a rate that cannot be attributed to genetic variation alone. In this review, we discuss the environmental factors that may contribute to the increasing prevalence of potentially fatal anaphylactic responses to food. Decreased exposure to enteric infecti...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Feehley T,Stefka AT,Cao S,Nagler CR

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Immune response in pemphigus and beyond: progresses and emerging concepts.

    abstract::Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) and pemphigus foliaceus (PF) are two severe autoimmune bullous diseases of the mucosae and/or skin associated with autoantibodies directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 3 and/or Dsg1. These two desmosomal cadherins, typifying stratified epithelia, are components of cell adhesion complexes called des...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Di Zenzo G,Amber KT,Sayar BS,Müller EJ,Borradori L

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lung transplantation: infection, inflammation, and the microbiome.

    abstract::Lung transplantation is the only therapeutic option for patients with end-stage pulmonary disorders. Despite the improvements in surgical techniques and immunosuppressive therapy, allograft function and long-term survival are limited by the development of chronic lung transplant rejection. In this review, we focus on ...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nakajima T,Palchevsky V,Perkins DL,Belperio JA,Finn PW

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Sex differences in autoimmune disorders of the central nervous system.

    abstract::Stronger adaptive immune responses in females can be observed in different mammals, resulting in better control of infections compared to males. However, this presumably evolutionary difference likely also drives higher incidence of autoimmune diseases observed in humans. Here, we summarize sex differences in the most...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gold SM,Willing A,Leypoldt F,Paul F,Friese MA

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Host-directed therapy targeting the Mycobacterium tuberculosis granuloma: a review.

    abstract::Infection by the intracellular bacterial pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Slow progress has been made in lessening the impact of tuberculosis (TB) on human health, especially in parts of the world where Mtb is endemic. Due to the complexity of TB disease,...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kiran D,Podell BK,Chambers M,Basaraba RJ

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Lupus erythematosus revisited.

    abstract::Lupus erythematosus (LE) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease with clinical manifestations of differing severity. The exact pathomechanisms and interactions resulting in the inflammatory and immunological processes of this heterogeneous disease remain elusive. Approaches in the understanding of the pathomechanisms r...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kuhn A,Wenzel J,Bijl M

    更新日期:2016-01-01 00:00:00

  • Regulating the mucosal immune system: the contrasting roles of LIGHT, HVEM, and their various partners.

    abstract::LIGHT and herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM) comprise a ligand-receptor pair in the tumor necrosis factor superfamily. These molecules play an important role in regulating immunity, particularly in the intestinal mucosa. LIGHT also binds the lymphotoxin beta receptor, and HVEM can act as a ligand for immunoglobulin fa...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Steinberg MW,Shui JW,Ware CF,Kronenberg M

    更新日期:2009-07-01 00:00:00

  • The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor in normal and malignant B cell development.

    abstract::The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor historically studied for its role in environmental chemical-mediated toxicity and carcinogenicity. In the last 5 years, however, it has become clear that the AhR, presumably activated by endogenous ligand(s), plays an important role in immu...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sherr DH,Monti S

    更新日期:2013-11-01 00:00:00

  • Commensal microbiota regulates T cell fate decision in the gut.

    abstract::Commensal microbiota shapes the intestinal immune system by regulating T helper (TH) cell lineage differentiation. For example, Bacteroides fragilis colonization not only optimizes the systemic TH1/TH2 balance, but also can induce regulatory T (Treg) cell differentiation in the gut. In addition, segmented filamentous ...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Furusawa Y,Obata Y,Hase K

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cytokines in the immunopathology of systemic sclerosis.

    abstract::Cytokines and growth factors are key regulators of immune activation, vascular alteration and excessive production of extracellular matrix which are hallmark events in the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc). They modulate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. In particular, cytokines play a central role in the...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Raja J,Denton CP

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Targeting the host-pathogen interface for treatment of Staphylococcus aureus infection.

    abstract::Recent emergence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus both within and outside healthcare settings has accelerated the use of once reserved last line antibiotics such as vancomycin. With increased use of antibiotics, there has been a rapid rise in the rate of resistance development to the anti-MRSA drugs. As ...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Park B,Liu GY

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Toll like receptor-5: protecting the gut from enteric microbes.

    abstract::The intestine is normally colonized by a large and diverse commensal microbiota and is occasionally exposed to a variety of potential pathogens. In recent years, there has been substantial progress made in identifying molecular mechanisms that normally serve to protect the intestine from such enteric bacteria and whic...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Vijay-Kumar M,Aitken JD,Gewirtz AT

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • IL-9-producing cells in the development of IgE-mediated food allergy.

    abstract::Food allergy is a harmful immune reaction driven by uncontrolled type 2 immune responses. Considerable evidence demonstrates the key roles of mast cells, IgE, and TH2 cytokines in mediating food allergy. However, this evidence provides limited insight into why only some, rather than all, food allergic individuals are ...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shik D,Tomar S,Lee JB,Chen CY,Smith A,Wang YH

    更新日期:2017-01-01 00:00:00

  • Lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase and autoimmunity: human genetics rediscovers tyrosine phosphatases.

    abstract::A relatively large number of protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are known to regulate signaling through the T cell receptor (TCR). Recent human genetics studies have shown that several of these PTPs are encoded by major autoimmunity genes. Here, we will focus on the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP), a critical ne...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stanford SM,Mustelin TM,Bottini N

    更新日期:2010-06-01 00:00:00

  • CAPS--pathogenesis, presentation and treatment of an autoinflammatory disease.

    abstract::The cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome (CAPS) is a severity spectrum of rare diseases. CAPS comprises the three conditions previously described as familial cold autoinflammatory syndrome (FCAS), Muckle-Wells syndrome (MWS), and neonatal-onset multisystem inflammatory disorder (NOMID), also known as chronic infanti...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kuemmerle-Deschner JB

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Novel insights into host-fungal pathogen interactions derived from live-cell imaging.

    abstract::The theoretical physicist and Nobel laureate Richard Feynman outlined in his 1959 lecture, "There's plenty of room at the bottom", the enormous possibility of producing and visualising things at smaller scales. The advent of advanced scanning and transmission electron microscopy and high-resolution microscopy has begu...

    journal_title:Seminars in immunopathology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bain J,Gow NA,Erwig LP

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00