Diagnosing acute encephalitis in patients with hematological disorders: caveats and pitfalls.


:The aim of this study was to review the quality of the diagnostic work-up for acute encephalitis carried out at our center in a cohort of patients with hematological disorders. Our data showed substantial heterogeneity in investigating patients. Not all patients had their CSF tested for viruses commonly responsible for encephalitis in immunocompetent individuals (e.g., VZV, enterovirus). A blood sample for the calculation of the CSF/blood replication ratio was collected in 74% of cases. CSF cultures and immunophenotyping of CSF cells were performed in 77% and 21% of patients, respectively. A multidisciplinary consensus is needed to improve current guidelines and standardize diagnostic protocols.


J Neurovirol


Journal of neurovirology


Vegezzi E,Berzero G,Barbetta D,Colombo AA,Borsani O,Bernasconi P,Compagno F,Zecca M,Campanini G,Simoncelli A,Paoletti M,Pichiecchio A,Baldanti F,Brunetti E,Marchioni E




Has Abstract


2020-04-01 00:00:00














  • Human polyomavirus JC reactivation and pathogenetic mechanisms of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and cancer in the era of monoclonal antibody therapies.

    abstract::Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system caused by the neurotropic human polyomavirus JC (JCV) lytic infection of oligodendrocytes. PML was first described as a complication of lymphoproliferative disorders more than 50 years ago and emerged as a major c...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bellizzi A,Nardis C,Anzivino E,Rodìo D,Fioriti D,Mischitelli M,Chiarini F,Pietropaolo V

    更新日期:2012-02-01 00:00:00

  • Correction to: Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rituximab-treated rheumatic diseases: a rare event.

    abstract::The article "Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in rituximab-treated rheumatic diseases: a rare event," written by Joseph R. Berger, Vineeta Malik, Stuart Lacey, Paul Brunetta, and Patricia B. Lehane3, was originally published electronically on the publisher's internet portal (currently SpringerLink). ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 已发布勘误


    authors: Berger JR,Malik V,Lacey S,Brunetta P,Lehane PB

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Epstein-Barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid from an immunocompetent man with herpes simplex virus encephalitis.

    abstract::Herpes simplex virus 1 meningo-encephalitis was ascertained in a 63-year-old immunocompetent man. To determine the duration of the persistence of herpesvirus DNA in the central nervous system, the cerebrospinal fluid was periodically monitored by polymerase chain reaction for 53 days. In addition to HSV-1, Epstein-Bar...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Portolani M,Sabbatini AM,Meacci M,Pietrosemoli P,Cermelli C,Lunghi P,Golinelli F,Stacca R

    更新日期:1998-08-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical implications of nucleic acid amplification methods for the diagnosis of viral infections of the nervous system.

    abstract::Amplification of viral nucleic acids from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has considerably improved the diagnosis of several acute, subacute and chronic viral infections of the nervous system. In herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis (HSE) the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has become the method of choice for the rap...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weber T,Frye S,Bodemer M,Otto M,Lüke W

    更新日期:1996-06-01 00:00:00

  • Recurrence of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy despite immune recovery in two HIV seropositive individuals.

    abstract::We present two cases of recurrent progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in patients with long standing virally suppressed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and normal CD4+ T cell count who were taking stable regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This has significant implications for oth...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crossley KM,Agnihotri S,Chaganti J,Rodriguez ML,McNally LP,Venna N,Turbett SE,Gutman M,Morey A,Koralnik IJ,Brew BJ

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Lack of association of herpesviruses with brain tumors.

    abstract::Gliomas are the most frequent primary brain tumors in humans. Many studies have been carried out on their etiology; however, the only confirmed risk factors are hereditary predisposing conditions and high dose of ionizing radiation. Recently, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) gene products and nucleic acids were reported t...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Poltermann S,Schlehofer B,Steindorf K,Schnitzler P,Geletneky K,Schlehofer JR

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • Efficient infection of brain microvascular endothelial cells by an in vivo-selected neuroinvasive SIVmac variant.

    abstract::A neuroinvasive/neuropathogenic SIV variant termed SIVmac182 was previously isolated and characterized (Watry et al, 1994). This neuroinvasive strain was derived from the uncloned strain SIVmac251 through serial animal passage of infected microglia, unlike previously reported neurovirulent strains. Importantly, the vi...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strelow LI,Watry DD,Fox HS,Nelson JA

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase activities in synaptosomes of rabbits experimentally infected with BoHV-5.

    abstract::Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is the causative agent of herpetic meningoencephalitis in cattle. The purinergic system is described as a modulator of the immune response and neuroinflammation. These functions are related to the extracellular nucleotides concentration. NTPDase and 5'-nucleotidase are enzymes respon...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: da Silva CB,Paim FC,Wolkmer P,Abdalla FH,Carvalho FB,Palma HH,Mello CB,Flores EF,Andrade CM,Lopes ST

    更新日期:2015-10-01 00:00:00

  • Diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HAND.

    abstract::In 2007, the nosology for HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) was updated to a primarily neurocognitive disorder. However, currently available diagnostic tools lack the sensitivity and specificity needed for an accurate diagnosis for HAND. Scientists and clinicians, therefore, have been on a quest for an ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McLaurin KA,Booze RM,Mactutus CF

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • HIV-1 transgenic rats display an increase in [(3)H]dopamine uptake in the prefrontal cortex and striatum.

    abstract::HIV viral proteins within the central nervous system are associated with the development of neurocognitive impairments in HIV-infected individuals. Dopamine transporter (DAT)-mediated dopamine transport is critical for normal dopamine homeostasis. Abnormal dopaminergic transmission has been implicated as a risk determ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zhu J,Yuan Y,Midde NM,Gomez AM,Sun WL,Quizon PM,Zhan CG

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • JCV-specific cellular immune response correlates with a favorable clinical outcome in HIV-infected individuals with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy.

    abstract::Most immunosuppressed individuals who develop progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) have a rapid fatal outcome, whereas some become long-term survivors. We explored the impact of the cellular immune response against JC virus (JCV) on the clinical outcome of 7 HIV+ and 3 HIV- individuals with PML. Of the 4 H...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Du Pasquier RA,Clark KW,Smith PS,Joseph JT,Mazullo JM,De Girolami U,Letvin NL,Koralnik IJ

    更新日期:2001-08-01 00:00:00

  • Epstein-Barr virus encephalitis presenting with a tumor-like lesion in an immunosuppressed transplant recipient.

    abstract::Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) associated central nervous system (CNS) infection is a rare disease. We report an atypical manifestation of EBV encephalitis initially presenting with a tumor-like lesion of the optic tract in an immunocompromised patient 8 years after a combined kidney and pancreas transplantation had been pe...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khalil M,Enzinger C,Wallner-Blazek M,Scarpatetti M,Barth A,Horn S,Reiter G

    更新日期:2008-11-01 00:00:00

  • Improvement in HIV-associated motor slowing after antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors.

    abstract::A study of neuropsychological performance was conducted in 33 HIV+ patients initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Grooved Pegboard (GP) non-dominant hand performance improved in 23/33 (70%) subjects (P=0.002). Among 23 patients with motor slowing (GP non-dominant hand z score < -1.0) at baseline, 18...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Sacktor NC,Skolasky RL,Lyles RH,Esposito D,Selnes OA,McArthur JC

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Pain, psychoaffective symptoms, and quality of life in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1): a cross-sectional study.

    abstract::The objective of this study is to describe the chronic pain characteristics in individuals infected with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) per subgroup (asymptomatic, oligosymptomatic, and HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP)) compared with controls with chronic pain withou...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dos Santos DN,Sá KN,Queirós FC,Paixão AB,Santos KOB,de Andrade RCP,Camatti JR,Baptista AF

    更新日期:2021-01-06 00:00:00

  • Ganciclovir-resistant cytomegalovirus encephalitis in a hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipient.

    abstract::We describe a 41-year-old patient, who upon receiving a bone marrow transplant in order to treat chronic myeloid leukemia, developed cytomegalovirus (CNV) retinitis and encephalitis under the ganciclovir maintenance treatment. Analysis of sequential viral isolates recovered from the patient's cerebrospinal fluid and b...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arslan F,Tabak F,Avşar E,Midilli K,Mert A,Ozaras R,Soysal T,Ozturk R,Ferhanoglu B

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Diplopia as isolated presentation of varicella zoster central nervous system reactivation.

    abstract::Here, we report a patient who developed diplopia secondary to a right cranial nerve III and IV palsy, as well as fever and headache. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis (CSF) showed high varicella-zoster virus (VZV)-DNA viral load (>300,000,000 copies/ml). VZV antibodies in CSF was ≥1:16. Diagnosis of neurological reactivati...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Del Borgo C,Belvisi V,Valli MB,Currà A,Pozzetto I,Sepe M,Mastroianni CM

    更新日期:2017-08-01 00:00:00

  • Nipah virus: an emergent paramyxovirus causing severe encephalitis in humans.

    abstract::Nipah virus is a recently emergent paramyxovirus that is capable of causing severe disease in both humans and animals. The first outbreak of Nipah virus occurred in Malaysia and Singapore in 1999 and, more recently, outbreaks were detected in Bangladesh. In humans, Nipah virus causes febrile encephalitis with respirat...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bellini WJ,Harcourt BH,Bowden N,Rota PA

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of G207, a conditionally replication-competent oncolytic herpes simplex virus, on the developing mammalian brain.

    abstract::Viral oncolytic therapy for malignant brain tumors involves local intratumoral delivery of a genetically engineered virus with tumor cell-specific lytic activity. Promising preliminary results have been achieved in preclinical models with G207, a replication-competent herpes simplex virus type 1 constructed with multi...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Radbill AE,Reddy AT,Markert JM,Wyss JM,Pike MM,Akella NS,Bharara N,Gillespie GY

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

  • High-dose corticosteroids for acute cytomegalovirus-associated transverse myelitis in the immunocompetent patient: a case report and systematic review.

    abstract::We present an immunocompetent patient with transverse myelitis (TM) during acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, as evidenced by a reactive serum CMV IgM and CMV viremia. The patient had an excellent outcome after receiving only high-dose methylprednisolone. Given concerns that practitioners may have around the use o...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Budhram A,Liu Y,Krawczyk M,Chan TLH,Burneo JG,Hosseini-Moghaddam SM,Shoesmith C

    更新日期:2019-06-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of direct virus-induced neuronal dysfunction and immunological damage on the progression of flavivirus (Modoc) encephalitis in a murine model.

    abstract::Flavivirus encephalitis is believed to be the result of two main mechanisms: (i) direct damage to and dysfunction of neurons as a result of viral replication and (ii) destruction of the brain tissue by an inflammatory response. The differential impact of both mechanisms on the progression of flavivirus encephalitis ha...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Leyssen P,Paeshuyse J,Charlier N,Van Lommel A,Drosten C,De Clercq E,Neyts J

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence of symptomatic CSF viral escape in HIV infected patients receiving atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)-containing ART: a tertiary care cohort in western India.

    abstract::This single-center study attempts to quantify the incidence of symptomatic CSF viral escape (CSFVE) in patients receiving atazanavir/r (ATV/r)-containing regimen. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART who were diagnosed with symptomatic CSFVE from August 2012 to January 2017....

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patel AK,Patel KK,Gohel S,Kumar A,Letendre S

    更新日期:2018-08-01 00:00:00

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: explaining the high incidence and disproportionate frequency of the illness relative to other immunosuppressive conditions.

    abstract::In the era of the AIDS pandemic, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) has ceased being a rare disease. Prevalence estimates from clinical and pathological series suggest that up to 5% of all HIV-infected persons will develop PML. The extraordinary frequency with which PML attends HIV infection vastly excee...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Berger JR

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Varicella zoster virus meningitis with hypoglycorrhachia in the absence of rash in an immunocompetent woman.

    abstract::We report varicella-zoster virus (VZV) meningitis in a healthy adult woman with no antecedent rash and with hypoglycorrhachia. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination revealed the presence of VZV DNA, anti-VZV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody, and intrathecal production of anti-VZV IgG antibody. ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Habib AA,Gilden D,Schmid DS,Safdieh JE

    更新日期:2009-04-01 00:00:00

  • In vivo differential susceptibility of sensory neurons to rabies virus infection.

    abstract::There is controversy with regard to the entry pathway of the rabies virus (RABV) into the central nervous system (CNS). Some authors have suggested that the virus inoculated at the periphery is captured and transported to CNS only by motor neurons; however, it has been reported that dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory n...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Velandia-Romero ML,Castellanos JE,Martínez-Gutiérrez M

    更新日期:2013-08-20 00:00:00

  • Flaviviruses, an expanding threat in public health: focus on dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis virus.

    abstract::The flaviviruses dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis represent three major mosquito-borne viruses worldwide. These pathogens impact the lives of millions of individuals and potentially could affect non-endemic areas already colonized by mosquito vectors. Unintentional transport of infected vectors (Aedes and ...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Daep CA,Muñoz-Jordán JL,Eugenin EA

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • NKG2D contributes to efficient clearance of picornavirus from the acutely infected murine brain.

    abstract::Activated murine cytotoxic T cells express the NKG2D natural cytotoxicity receptor. This receptor recognizes major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-like molecules expressed on the surface of infected cells and serves to augment T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. The role of NKG2D-mediated augmentation in the cleara...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Deb C,Howe CL

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • Increased frequency of JC virus type 2 and of dual infection with JC virus type 1 and 2 in Italian progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy patients.

    abstract::To verify the possibility of different role of JC virus genotypes in the etiology of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, we analysed several JC virus isolates amplified from AIDS patients with and without progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and healthy controls by nucleotide sequencing. Cerebrospinal fl...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Ferrante P,Mediati M,Caldarelli-Stefano R,Losciale L,Mancuso R,Cagni AE,Maserati R

    更新日期:2001-02-01 00:00:00

  • Age exacerbates HIV-associated white matter abnormalities.

    abstract::Both HIV disease and advanced age have been associated with alterations to cerebral white matter, as measured with white matter hyperintensities (WMH) on fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and more recently with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). This study investigates the comb...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seider TR,Gongvatana A,Woods AJ,Chen H,Porges EC,Cummings T,Correia S,Tashima K,Cohen RA

    更新日期:2016-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effort and neuropsychological performance in HIV-infected individuals on stable combination antiretroviral therapy.

    abstract::The expression of cognitive symptoms associated with HIV varies over time and across individuals. This pattern may reflect transient contextual factors, including the degree of effort exerted by individuals undergoing cognitive testing. The present study examined whether effort corresponds to the expression of persist...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Paul R,Rhee G,Baker LM,Vaida F,Cooley SA,Ances BM

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy associated with a lymphoproliferative disorder treated with pembrolizumab.

    abstract::Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease affecting the central nervous system as a result of reactivation of the John Cunningham (JC) polyomavirus and occurs almost exclusively in immunosuppressed individuals. The disease course of PML is variable but usually progressive and often fa...

    journal_title:Journal of neurovirology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Holmes A,Wellings T,Walsh O,Rowlings P

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00