Molecular genetics of schizophrenia.


:1. Schizophrenia is a chronic, disabling brain disease that affects approximately 1% of the world's population. It is characterized by delusions, hallucinations and formal thought disorder, together with a decline in socio-occupational functioning. While the causes for schizophrenia remain unknown, evidence from family, twin and adoption studies clearly demonstrates that it aggregates in families, with this clustering largely attributable to genetic rather than cultural or environmental factors. Identifying the genes involved, however, has proven to be a difficult task because schizophrenia is a complex trait characterized by an imprecise phenotype, the existence of phenocopies and the presence of low disease penetrance. 2. The current working hypothesis for schizophrenia causation is that multiple genes of small to moderate effect confer compounding risk through interactions with each other and with non-genetic risk factors. The same genes may be commonly involved in conferring risk across populations or they may vary in number and strength between different populations. To search for evidence of such genetic loci, both candidate gene and genome-wide linkage studies have been used in clinical cohorts collected from a variety of populations. Collectively, these works provide some evidence for the involvement of a number of specific genes (e.g. the 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) type 2a receptor (5-HT2a) gene and the dopamine D3 receptor gene) and as yet unidentified factors localized to specific chromosomal regions, including 6p, 6q, 8p, 13q and 22q. These data provide suggestive, but no conclusive, evidence for causative genes. 3. To enable further progress there is a need to: (i) collect fine-grained clinical datasets while searching the schizophrenia phenotype for subgroups or dimensions that may provide a more direct route to causative genes; and (ii) integrate recent refinements in molecular genetic technology, including modern composite marker maps, DNA expression assays and relevant animal models, while using the latest analytical techniques to extract maximum information in order to help distinguish a true result from a false-positive finding.


Mowry BJ,Nancarrow DJ





Has Abstract


2001-01-01 00:00:00












  • The effect of spontaneous diabetes mellitus on fatty acid oxidation, beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase activity and respiratory coupling of hepatic mitochondria in the guinea-pig (Cavia porcellus).

    abstract::1. The purpose of this study was to determine whether hepatic mitochondria of guinea-pigs with spontaneous diabetes mellitus differ from those of non-diabetic guinea-pigs in the oxidation of fatty acids, the activity of beta-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase, or respiration-linked oxidative phosphorylation. During the cou...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nevalainen TO,White WJ,Lang CM,Munger BL

    更新日期:1978-05-01 00:00:00

  • Withdrawal of intravenous glyceryl trinitrate: absence of rebound phenomena with transition to oral isosorbide dinitrate.

    abstract::1. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) is frequently infused intravenously as a component of the management of acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Abrupt cessation of GTN infusion after periods of more than 24 h administration often induces rebound vasoconstriction reflecting 'pseudotolerance'; this is also the basis of the 'zero h...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Kelly EA,Ahmed RM,Horowitz JD

    更新日期:2005-04-01 00:00:00

  • The action of aspirin on plasma kininogen and other plasma proteins in rheumatoid patients: relationship to disease activity.

    abstract::1. When six female seropositive rheumatoid patients were given placebo therapy for 48 h, their plasma kininogen level, 9.2 +/- 0.7 microgram bradykinin equivalents (bk eq) per ml, was found to be 59% greater than that of a group of eight healthy female volunteers (5.8 +/- 0.5 microgram/ml). 2. When the rheumatoid pati...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Sharma JN,Zeitlin IJ,Brooks PM,Buchanan WW,Dick WC

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of almitrine bismesylate on breathing pattern during hypoxia/hypercapnia in rats and ferrets.

    abstract::1. Ventilatory measurements and functional residual capacity (FRC) were recorded from anaesthetized rats and ferrets using a whole body plethysmograph. Simulation of aspects of human chronic obstructive airways disease (COAD) was attempted by making animals acutely hypoxic or hypoxic and hypercapnic by causing them to...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Austin CA,Wach RA,Bee D,Finlay M,Emery CJ,Suggett AJ,Barer GR

    更新日期:1987-11-01 00:00:00

  • Activation of cardiac M3 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors has cardioprotective effects against ischaemia-induced arrhythmias.

    abstract::Increasing evidence indicates the important roles of M(3) muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (M(3) mAChR) in the regulation and maintenance of cardiac function and heart disease. In the present study, we investigated whether the M(3) mAChR mediates the cardioprotection against ischaemia-induced arrhythmias and the ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wang S,Han HM,Jiang YN,Wang C,Song HX,Pan ZY,Fan K,Du J,Fan YH,Du ZM,Liu Y

    更新日期:2012-04-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of dietary fibre on dimethylhydrazine-induced changes in prostanoid concentrations in rat colonic mucosa.

    abstract::1. This study was designed to elucidate the effects of guar gum, a dietary fibre, on changes in prostanoid contents induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, a carcinogenic agent, in rat colonic mucosa. 2. Prostanoid contents were determined using high performance liquid chromatography; five prostanoids, namely 6-keto-prostag...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kanamori S,Sugiyama S,Goto H,Hayakawa T,Shimomura Y,Ozawa T

    更新日期:1995-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of post-treatment with low-dose propofol on inflammatory responses to lipopolysaccharide-induced shock in conscious rats.

    abstract::1. In the present study, we used a low dose of propofol (5 mg/kg per h) to investigate its effects on the pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta and IL-10) and changes in nitric oxide (NO) following lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for a period of 12 h in conscious rats. 2. Expe...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hsu BG,Yang FL,Lee RP,Peng TC,Chen HI

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of two polyclonal peptide antibodies that recognize the carboxy terminus of angiotensin II AT1A and AT1B receptors.

    abstract::1. The differential identification of the angiotensin AT1A and AT1B receptor subtypes is impaired by the existing>96% homology of both receptors. In the present study, we characterized two polyclonal rabbit peptide antibodies, namely alpha-AT1A and alpha-AT1B, that recognize the C-terminal region of mouse AT1A and AT1...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffmann A,Cool DR

    更新日期:2005-11-01 00:00:00

  • Acute effects of oral glibenclamide on blood pressure and forearm vascular resistance in diabetics.

    abstract::1. To determine the effects of an acute oral dose of glibenclamide on blood pressure (BP), basal forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and FVR responses to the K+(ATP) channel activating vasodilator diazoxide, a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study was performed in eight male volunteers with non-insulin-depen...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 临床试验,更正并重新发布的文章,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Sundaresan P,Lykos D,Daher A,Morris R,Diamond T,Howes LG

    更新日期:1998-02-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between the dose-response effects of diazepam and clobazam on electroencephalographic parameters and on kindled amygdaloid seizure activity in rats.

    abstract::1. The possibility that the anticonvulsant activity of the benzodiazepines, diazepam and clobazam, is related to changes in EEG parameters, particularly beta activity, was investigated in amygdaloid kindled rats. 2. The effects of diazepam (1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mumols/kg), administered intraperitoneally (i.p.), clobazam ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harris QL,Lewis SJ,Young NA,Vajda FJ,Jarrott B

    更新日期:1988-10-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of phytoncides on blood pressure under restraint stress in SHRSP.

    abstract::1. Phytoncides are volatile substances released mainly from trees. We studied whether phytoncides can reduce stress responses in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). 2. Under the restraint stress, SHRSP exposed to phytoncides showed lower blood pressure than those without the exposure (186.8 +/- 3.9 v...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kawakami K,Kawamoto M,Nomura M,Otani H,Nabika T,Gonda T

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • Enhancement by endothelin-1 of the release of catecholamines from the canine adrenal gland in response to splanchnic nerve stimulation.

    abstract::1. The effect of endothelin-1 on the release of adrenal catecholamines was examined in anaesthetized dogs. 2. Splanchnic nerve stimulation (SNS) at 1 and 3 Hz was applied before and after the intravenous injection of endothelin-1. 3. Endothelin-1 (0.1 and 0.3 micrograms/kg) significantly enhanced the release of adrena...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Takeuchi A,Kimura T,Satoh S

    更新日期:1992-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cilostazol protects the heart against ischaemia reperfusion injury in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction: focus on adenosine, nitric oxide and mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels.

    abstract::1. The present study examined whether or not cilostazol reduces the myocardial infarct size, and investigated its mechanism in a rabbit model of myocardial infarction. 2. Japanese white rabbits underwent 30 min of coronary occlusion, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. Cilostazol (1 and 5 mg/kg) or vehicle was given intr...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bai Y,Muqier,Murakami H,Iwasa M,Sumi S,Yamada Y,Ushikoshi H,Aoyama T,Nishigaki K,Takemura G,Uno B,Minatoguchi S

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Role of AT1 receptors in the central control of sympathetic vasomotor function.

    abstract::1. In a number of species, high concentrations of angiotensin II (AngII) receptors have been found in the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) in the hindbrain, which is an important region involved in the modulation of sympathetic vasomotor tone. The present review describes studies in which the contribution of angio...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Head GA

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Haemodynamic effects of nicergoline in man at rest and during exercise.

    abstract::1. The intravenous administration of nicergoline (5 mg) was followed by a rapid and sustained lowering of blood pressure; less rapid effects were bradycardia and an elevation of cardiac output. These delayed effects are consistent with an indirect action on the alpha-adrenoreceptors of the central nervous system. 2. F...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boismare F,Lefrançois J

    更新日期:1980-03-01 00:00:00

  • Therapeutic effect of green tea extract on advanced glycation and cross-linking of collagen in the aorta of streptozotocin diabetic rats.

    abstract::1. The therapeutic effect of green tea extract (GTE) on the aortic collagen content and its characteristics were investigated in streptozotocin diabetic rats. 2. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intra peritoneal injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg bodyweight). Six weeks after diabetes induction, GTE was admi...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Babu PV,Sabitha KE,Shyamaladevi CS

    更新日期:2006-04-01 00:00:00

  • A rat model of ischaemic or dilated cardiomyopathy for investigating left ventricular repair surgery.

    abstract::1. The effects of left ventricular repair (LVR) surgery for ischaemic or dilated cardiomyopathy are not fully understood. The development of a proper animal model will help to resolve this issue. 2. The ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) model used was as follows. Twenty-six rats developed ICM with a large akinetic left v...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nishina T,Miwa S,Yuasa S,Nishimura K,Komeda M

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Autonomic nervous system in acute kidney injury.

    abstract::Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a rapid loss of kidney function resulting in accumulation of end metabolic products and associated abnormalities in fluid, electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis. The pathophysiology of AKI is complex and multifactorial involving numerous vascular, tubular and inflammatory pathways. Neurohu...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hering D,Winklewski PJ

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Propofol block of cardiac sodium currents in rat isolated myocardial cells is increased at depolarized resting potentials.

    abstract::1. The effect of propofol on cardiac whole-cell sodium currents and single sodium channels in rat isolated ventricular myocytes was examined using patch-clamp techniques. 2. Propofol caused a block of the whole-cell sodium current, the potency of block depending on the holding potential. When cells were held at -90 mV...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Saint DA,Tang Y

    更新日期:1998-05-01 00:00:00

  • Histone modifications and skeletal muscle metabolic gene expression.

    abstract::1. Skeletal muscle oxidative function and metabolic gene expression are co-ordinately downregulated in metabolic diseases such as insulin resistance, obesity and Type 2 diabetes. Altering skeletal muscle metabolic gene expression to favour enhanced energy expenditure is considered a potential therapy to combat these d...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: McGee SL,Hargreaves M

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Paf antagonists block induction of nitric oxide synthase in cultured macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells.

    abstract::1. Nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitors and Paf antagonists abrogate hypotension in septic shock. The latter may act by blocking intracellular transduction mechanisms in vascular smooth muscle cells and inflammatory cells. We examined the effect of Paf antagonists on expression of inducible NO synthase. 2. A murine m...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Arthur JF,Shahin S,Dusting GJ

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of neuromuscular presynaptic muscarinic M1 receptor blockade on rocuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade in immobilized tibialis anterior muscles.

    abstract::This in vivo study tested the hypothesis that the modulation of acetylcholine (ACh) release by the M1 muscarinic receptor (mAChR) in the neuromuscular junction of disused muscles may affect the tensions of the muscles during the neuromuscular monitoring of a rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block and compared the resu...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kim YB,Yang HS,Kim HJ,Choi HR,In J,Yoon SY,Ro YJ

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of taurine on serum cholesterol levels and development of atherosclerosis in spontaneously hyperlipidaemic mice.

    abstract::1. The effects of two naturally occurring substances, namely taurine and catechins, on serum cholesterol levels and on the progression of atherosclerotic lesions were evaluated using spontaneously hyperlipidaemic (SHL) mice as an animal model of atherogenesis. 2. Twelve weeks treatment of SHL mice with taurine (1% in ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Matsushima Y,Sekine T,Kondo Y,Sakurai T,Kameo K,Tachibana M,Murakami S

    更新日期:2003-04-01 00:00:00

  • Tiron ameliorates high glucose-induced cardiac myocyte apoptosis by PKCδ-dependent inhibition of osteopontin.

    abstract::Tiron functions as an effective antioxidant alleviating the intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) or the acute toxic metal overload. Previous studies have shown that cardiac myocyte apoptosis can be effectively inhibited by tiron administration in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, primary neonatal rat ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jiang P,Zhang D,Qiu H,Yi X,Zhang Y,Cao Y,Zhao B,Xia Z,Wang C

    更新日期:2017-07-01 00:00:00

  • 5-HT7, neurogenesis and antidepressants: a promising therapeutic axis for treating depression.

    abstract::1. There is mounting evidence that a wide range of antidepressants share the common feature of increasing hippocampal neurogenesis. The specificity of this association has suggested that an ability to increase neurogenesis might be a useful paradigm to screen for compounds with antidepressant activity. 2. The hope of ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Nandam LS,Jhaveri D,Bartlett P

    更新日期:2007-05-01 00:00:00

  • Neutrophil platelet-activating factor production and acetyltransferase activity in clinical acute myocardial infarction.

    abstract::1. Neutrophil function was studied in 10 males presenting with acute myocardial infarction (MI) within 6 h of onset and in 10 normal males. Neutrophil production of platelet-activating factor (PAF), determined by bioassay, that of leukotriene B4 by HPLC, and the activity of an enzyme involved in the synthesis of PAF, ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Strahan ME,Graham RM,Eccleston DS,Sturm MJ,Taylor RR

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Endothelium-derived relaxing factor, hypertension and chronic parathyroidectomy in spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    abstract::1. Parathyroidectomy (PTX) lessens the development of hypertension in young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and the involved mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We have studied here the aortic vascular reactivity to both norepinephrine (NE) and acetylcholine in 10 week old male PTX SHR and Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rat...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boulebda N,Van Overloop B,Gairard A

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Irinotecan (CPT-11): a brief overview.

    abstract::1. Irinotecan (also known as CPT-11) is a water soluble, semi-synthetic analogue of 20(S)camptothecin (CPT) with promising activity against a range of tumour types. 2. As with all other active analogues of CPT, irinotecan causes cell toxicity by stabilizing a ternary complex between the nuclear enzyme topoisomerase I ...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rivory LP

    更新日期:1996-10-01 00:00:00

  • In-vivo modification of angiotensin II pressor responsiveness in sheep by indomethacin.

    abstract::1. Sodium (Na) depletion, due to uncompensated loss of parotid saliva, reduces the pressor responsiveness to angiotensin II (AII) in intact conscious sheep. 2. Inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis by indomethacin restored AII pressor responsiveness in Na-deplete sheep. 3. Indomethacin infusion also increased the pres...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beilby DS,Coghlan JP,Denton DA,Graham WF,Humphery TJ,Scoggins BA,Whitworth JA

    更新日期:1981-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vasopressin V1a receptor antagonism does not reverse adrenocorticotrophin-induced hypertension in the rat.

    abstract::1. The role of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH)-induced hypertension in Sprague-Dawley rats using the non-peptide AVP V1a receptor antagonist OPC 21268. 2. In an acute study, six rats were pretreated with ACTH for 11 days and direct arterial blood pressure (4 h), plasma osmolality...

    journal_title:Clinical and experimental pharmacology & physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fraser TB,Turner SW,Wen C,Li M,Burrell LM,Whitworth JA

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00