Prolactin, flupenthixol decanoate and first episode schizophrenia - clinical and laboratory correlates.


:First-episode psychosis (FEP) patients are more sensitive to neuroleptic side-effects such as hyperprolactinemia. We examined the prolactin levels of previously minimally treated patients with first episode schizophrenia over their first year of treatment with flupenthixol decanoate and the relationship between prolactin levels, gender and clinical features of schizophrenia. Prolactin levels were assessed at three monthly intervals in 126 patients with first-episode schizophrenia in a single-site study conducted over 12 months during treatment with flupenthixol decanoate according to a fixed protocol. The mean prolactin level for the total sample was 11.91 ng/ml (standard deviation [SD]15.52) at baseline. Women had higher levels of prolactin than men at month 3, 6 and 12, reaching statistical significance at month 12 (p = 0.02). At 12 months more women than men had hyperprolactinemia (defined as more than 20 ng/ml for males, and as more than 25 ng/ml for females (p = 0.007). Using a mixed effect model, there was a significant association between prolactin change scores over 12 months and gender (p = 0.025) as well as Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores (p = 0.001). In addition female gender (p = 0.04) and age (p = 0.02) correlated with the risk of hyperprolactinemia as categorical variable. In this study treatment with flupenthixol decanoate was associated with relatively low levels of hyperprolactinemia, likely owing to flupenthixol's relatively atypical mode of action, as well as to the low doses used in our study. We found an inverse correlation between total PANSS scores and prolactin levels, which could support the suggested theory of prolactin having antipsychotic properties. Our study confirms the importance of gender on the prolactin raising effects of antipsychotic treatment.


Metab Brain Dis


Metabolic brain disease


Retief M,Chiliza B,Phahladira L,Emsley R,Asmal L




Has Abstract


2019-12-01 00:00:00














  • Glutamate receptors in alcohol withdrawal-induced neurotoxicity.

    abstract::Chronic ethanol ingestion results in an "up-regulation" of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of glutamate receptor in mouse brain. This increase in receptors is associated with ethanol withdrawal seizures, which can be attenuated by NMDA receptor antagonists. Chronic exposure to ethanol (3 days) of rat cerebella...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoffman PL

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neuro- and nephrotoxicity of subchronic cadmium chloride exposure and the potential chemoprotective effects of selenium nanoparticles.

    abstract::Cadmium (Cd) exposure leads to production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are associated with Cd-induced neurotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. Selenium nanoparticles (Se-NPs) have high bioavailability and antioxidant activities so it attracted wide spread attention. The present study examined the possible ameliora...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sadek KM,Lebda MA,Abouzed TK,Nasr SM,Shoukry M

    更新日期:2017-10-01 00:00:00

  • Short term cadmium administration dose dependently elicits immediate biochemical, neurochemical and neurobehavioral dysfunction in male rats.

    abstract::Cadmium is a toxic environmental and industrial pollutant. Cadmium toxicity has been reported to produce biochemical and behavioral dysfunction that may cause adverse effects on several organs including the central nervous system. The present study was designed to investigate the neurotoxic effects of Cadmium Chloride...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haider S,Anis L,Batool Z,Sajid I,Naqvi F,Khaliq S,Ahmed S

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Association of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene C677T polymorphism with autism: evidence of genetic susceptibility.

    abstract::Autism (MIM 209850) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disease that manifests within the first 3 years of life. Numerous articles reported that dysfunctional folate-methionine pathway enzymes may play an important role in the pathophysiology of autism. Methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) is a critical enzym...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Rai V

    更新日期:2016-08-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of Rabies Virus Infection in Mice Brain may Up and Down Regulate Type II Interferon gamma via epigenetic modifications.

    abstract::As feared and deadly human diseases globally, Rabies virus contrived mechanisms to escape early immune recognition via suppression of the interferon response. This study, preliminarily investigated whether Rabies virus employs epigenetic mechanism for the suppression of the interferon using the Challenge virus standar...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Abdulazeez M,Kia GSN,Abarshi MM,Muhammad A,Ojedapo CE,Atawodi JC,Dantong D,Kwaga JKP

    更新日期:2020-06-01 00:00:00

  • Cerebral energy metabolism in hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia.

    abstract::Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe liver disease. Although the molecular basis for the neurological disorder in HE remains elusive, elevated ammonia and its chief metabolite glutamine are believed to be important factors responsible for altered cerebral...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rao KV,Norenberg MD

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Psychopharmacology of maternal separation anxiety in vervet monkeys.

    abstract::Maternal separation in non-human primates has been proposed as a model of early adversity. The symptoms of separation anxiety were studied in vervet monkeys, during the weaning period, when psychotropic medications were administered. The control group received a normal diet and treatment groups received citalopram, re...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Marais L,Daniels W,Brand L,Viljoen F,Hugo C,Stein DJ

    更新日期:2006-09-01 00:00:00

  • EGb761 improves the cognitive function of elderly db/db-/- diabetic mice by regulating the beclin-1 and NF-κB signaling pathways.

    abstract::To assess whether EGb761 could protect elderly diabetic mice with cognitive disorders and explore the role of beclin-1-mediated autophagy in these protective effects. Two-month-old male db/db-/- mice and wild-type C57/BL6 mice were randomly divided into six groups: db/db-/- control, db/db-/- 50 mg, db/db-/- 100 mg, wi...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guan ZF,Zhang XM,Tao YH,Zhang Y,Huang YY,Chen G,Tang WJ,Ji G,Guo QL,Liu M,Zhang Q,Wang NN,Yu ZY,Hao-Yang,Wu GF,Tang ZP,Du ZG,Shang XL,Liu YC,Mei GH,Guo JC,Zhou HG

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ammonia neurotoxicity: role of the mitochondrial permeability transition.

    abstract::Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with severe liver disease. Although the mechanisms responsible for HE remain elusive, ammonia is generally considered to be involved in its pathogenesis, and astrocytes are thought to be the principal target of ammonia neurotoxici...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rama Rao KV,Jayakumar AR,Norenberg DM

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • The neuroprotective effect of betanin in trimethyltin-induced neurodegeneration in mice.

    abstract::Betanin, a natural food colorant with powerful antioxidative properties, has not been studied in terms of neurodegenerative disease intervention. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of betanin against trimethyltin chloride (TMT) -induced neurodegeneration in mice. Forty male I...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thong-Asa W,Prasartsri S,Klomkleaw N,Thongwan N

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • The 13C isotope and nuclear magnetic resonance: unique tools for the study of brain metabolism.

    abstract::As studies of brain metabolism grow in complexity, investigators turn increasingly to nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy combined with 13C isotopic labeling. The unique ability to detect labeling non-destructively in specific carbon positions of individual compounds has opened the way to investigate brain metabol...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mason GF,Behar KL,Lai JC

    更新日期:1996-12-01 00:00:00

  • Glucose loading precipitates acute encephalopathy in thiamin-deficient rats.

    abstract::A rat model of glucose-precipitated Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) has been developed in which glucose loading (10 g/kg, i.p.) of ataxic thiamin-deficient (TD) rats induced episodes of gross neurological dysfunction and sometimes death. The acute effects of a glucose load on the neurological state of thiamin-replete c...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimitat C,Nixon PF

    更新日期:1999-03-01 00:00:00

  • Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging in hepatic encephalopathy: current status and perspectives.

    abstract::Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric syndrome which develops in patients with severe liver diseases and/or portal-systemic shunting. Minimal HE, the earliest manifestation of HE, has drawn increasing attention in the last decade. Minimal HE is associated with a series of brain functional changes, such as ...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Zhang LJ,Wu S,Ren J,Lu GM

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Antioxidant treatment strategies for hyperphenylalaninemia.

    abstract::Hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) leads to increased oxidative stress in patients with phenylketonuria (PKU) and in animal models of PKU. Early diagnosis and immediate adherence to a phenylalanine-restricted diet prevents HPA and, consequently, severe brain damage. However, treated adolescent and adult PKU patients have dif...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mazzola PN,Karikas GA,Schulpis KH,Dutra-Filho CS

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Role of iron in ischemia-induced neurodegeneration: mechanisms and insights.

    abstract::Iron is an important micronutrient for neuronal function and survival. It plays an essential role in DNA and protein synthesis, neurotransmission and electron transport chain due to its dual redox states. On the contrary, iron also catalyses the production of free radicals and hence, causes oxidative stress. Therefore...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Minhas G,Modgil S,Anand A

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • The serum zinc concentration as a potential biological marker in patients with major depressive disorder.

    abstract::Despite many clinical trials assessing the role of zinc in major depressive disorder (MDD), the conclusions still remain ambiguous. The aim of the present clinical study was to determine and comparison the zinc concentration in the blood of MDD patients (active stage or remission) and healthy volunteers (controls), as...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Styczeń K,Sowa-Kućma M,Siwek M,Dudek D,Reczyński W,Szewczyk B,Misztak P,Topór-Mądry R,Opoka W,Nowak G

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Phosphodiesterase 4B2 gene is an effector of Toll-like receptor signaling in astrocytes.

    abstract::Cyclic AMP is part of an endogenous mechanism that downregulates inflammatory response, and its intracellular concentration is regulated chiefly by cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases type 4. The goal of the present study was to determine whether phosphodiesterases 4 are involved in the inflammatory response of astro...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Borysiewicz E,Fil D,Dlaboga D,O'Donnell JM,Konat GW

    更新日期:2009-09-01 00:00:00

  • Vegetarian diet and excessive tea consumption: a dangerous association?

    abstract::Rare metabolic diseases may sometimes arise acutely and endanger human life if not immediately recognized and treated. Marchiafava Bignami disease is an uncommon neurologic disorder described in alcohol abusers and characterized by an acute severe damage of brain white matter. Even more rarely, it has been reported in...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fiacco F,Barbato L,Pecoraro MG,Maggio P

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Optimization of intracerebroventricular streptozotocin dose for the induction of neuroinflammation and memory impairments in rats.

    abstract::Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of streptozotocin (STZ) is a well established procedure to induce neuroinflammation leading to dementia in experimental animals. However, the optimal dose of STZ has not been determined. In the present study, rats were ICV injected with 1.5, 3 and 6 mg of STZ per kg of body weig...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ghosh R,Sil S,Gupta P,Ghosh T

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of cysteamine on oxidative status in cerebral cortex of rats.

    abstract::Cystinosis is a systemic genetic disease caused by a lysosomal transport deficiency accumulating cystine in most tissues. Tissue damage depends on cystine accumulation, but the mechanisms of this damage are still obscure. Cysteamine administration depletes cystine accumulated, increasing survive of affected patients. ...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kessler A,Biasibetti M,Feksa LR,Rech VC,Melo DA,Wajner M,Dutra-Filho CS,Wyse AT,Wannmacher CM

    更新日期:2008-03-01 00:00:00

  • Protective effects of ascorbic acid and garlic extract against lead-induced apoptosis in developing rat hippocampus.

    abstract::Lead exposure has negative effects on developing nervous system and induces apoptosis in newly generated neurons. Natural antioxidants (i.e. Ascorbic acid and Garlic) might protect against lead-induced neuronal cell damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate the protective effects of Ascorbic acid and Gar...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ebrahimzadeh-Bideskan AR,Hami J,Alipour F,Haghir H,Fazel AR,Sadeghi A

    更新日期:2016-10-01 00:00:00

  • Liver transplantation nearly normalizes brain spontaneous activity and cognitive function at 1 month: a resting-state functional MRI study.

    abstract::To investigate the short-term brain activity changes in cirrhotic patients with Liver transplantation (LT) using resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) with regional homogeneity (ReHo) method. Twenty-six cirrhotic patients as transplant candidates and 26 healthy controls were included in this study. The assessment was re...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cheng Y,Huang L,Zhang X,Zhong J,Ji Q,Xie S,Chen L,Zuo P,Zhang LJ,Shen W

    更新日期:2015-08-01 00:00:00

  • Propionic acid induces cytoskeletal alterations in cultured astrocytes from rat cerebral cortex.

    abstract::Severe neurological symptoms, cerebral edema, and atrophy are common features of the inherited metabolic disorder propionic acidemia. However, the pathomechanisms involved in the neuropathology of this disease are not well established. In this study, we investigate the effects of propionic acid (PA), a metabolite accu...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: de Almeida LM,Funchal C,Gottfried C,Wajner M,Pessoa-Pureur R

    更新日期:2006-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of 1,4-butanediol administration on oxidative stress in rat brain: study of the neurotoxicity of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in vivo.

    abstract::gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) is a naturally occurring compound in the central nervous system (CNS) whose tissue concentration are highly increased in the neurometabolic-inherited deficiency of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) activity or due to intoxication. SSADH deficiency is biochemically characterize...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sgaravatti AM,Magnusson AS,Oliveira AS,Mescka CP,Zanin F,Sgarbi MB,Pederzolli CD,Wyse AT,Wannmacher CM,Wajner M,Dutra-Filho CS

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • Southern Brazilian native fruit shows neurochemical, metabolic and behavioral benefits in an animal model of metabolic syndrome.

    abstract::In this work, we evaluated the effects of Psidium cattleianum (Red Type) (PcRT) fruit extract on metabolic, behavioral, and neurochemical parameters in rats fed with a highly palatable diet (HPD) consisted of sucrose (65% carbohydrates being 34% from condensed milk, 8% from sucrose and 23% from starch, 25% protein and...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oliveira PS,Chaves VC,Soares MSP,Bona NP,Mendonça LT,Carvalho FB,Gutierres JM,Vasconcellos FA,Vizzotto M,Vieira A,Spanevello RM,Reginatto FH,Lencina CL,Stefanello FM

    更新日期:2018-10-01 00:00:00

  • Modulation of crucial adenosinetriphosphatase activities due to U-74389G administration in a porcine model of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    abstract::Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) represents a partially-understood cerebrovascular disease of high incidence, morbidity and mortality. We, herein, report the findings of our study concerning the role of two important adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) in a porcine model of spontaneous ICH that we have recent...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bimpis A,Papalois A,Tsakiris S,Kalafatakis K,Zarros A,Gkanti V,Skandali N,Al-Humadi H,Kouzelis C,Liapi C

    更新日期:2013-09-01 00:00:00

  • Wilson disease.

    abstract::Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of copper metabolism, resulting in pathological accumulation of copper in many organs and tissues. The hallmarks of the disease are the presence of liver disease, neurologic symptoms, and Kayser-Fleischer corneal rings. The leading neurologic symptoms in...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kitzberger R,Madl C,Ferenci P

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Biochemical model for inflammation of the brain: the effect of iron and transferrin on monocytes and lipid peroxidation.

    abstract::Cerebral inflammation plays a role in diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and depression. Iron is involved in infection and inflammation through free radical production. Theoretically transferrin should prohibit iron from participating in oxidative reactions, but transferrin has also be...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: van Rensburg SJ,van Zyl J,Hon D,Daniels W,Hendricks J,Potocnik F,Erasmus R

    更新日期:2004-06-01 00:00:00

  • The association of sleep-disordered breathing and white matter hyperintensities in heart failure patients.

    abstract::Heart failure patients often manifest white matter hyperintensites on brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). White matter hyperintnsities have also been linked with cognitive problems in patients with heart failure. Sleep disordered breathing may contribute to structural brain changes in heart failure. The purpose of...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Moon C,Bendlin BB,Melah KE,Bratzke LC

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • The blood-brain barrier and selective vulnerability in experimental thiamine-deficiency encephalopathy in the mouse.

    abstract::The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an important aspect of normal central nervous system (CNS) function. Recently, it was shown that the BBB breakdown is one of the predisposing factors in the pathogenesis of thiamine-deficiency encephalopathy. The result is discussed along with some reviews on previous ...

    journal_title:Metabolic brain disease

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Harata N,Iwasaki Y

    更新日期:1996-03-01 00:00:00