Initiation of antiretroviral therapy after the critical neuronal developmental period of the second postnatal year affects white matter microstructure in adolescents living with HIV.

Abstract:

:Rapid maturation of major white matter pathways occurs in the first 2 years of life, indicating a critical neuronal developmental period. The impact of initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in children perinatally infected with HIV-1, after the age of 2 years on neurocognitive functioning and white matter development in adolescence has not been studied. Forty-six adolescents who initiated ART during the first 2 years of life (< 2 years) and 79 adolescents who initiated ART after 2 years of age (> 2 years), with perinatally acquired HIV were enrolled in the Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort. Adolescents completed a comprehensive neurocognitive battery testing a number of cognitive domains. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was done to determine fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusion (AD), and radial diffusion (RD) in a region of interest analysis. Neurocognitive performance was similar between adolescents who initiated ART < 2 years or > 2 years. There was a trend towards attention (p = .07) and working memory (p = .05) being poorer in the group who initiated ART > 2 years. FA was lower in the > 2-year group in the superior corona radiata (p = .03), and the external capsule (p = .04). MD was higher in the > 2-year group in the cerebral peduncle (p = .02), the superior corona radiata (p = .01), and the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p = .03). RD was higher in the > 2-year group in the superior corona radiata (p = .02), the cerebral peduncle (p = .01), and the superior fronto-occipital fasciculus (p = .01). However, the higher AD in the > 2-year group in the superior corona radiata was not in the expected direction (p = .01). Initiation of ART after the neuronal development period of the second postnatal year is associated with white matter alterations on neuroimaging.

journal_name

J Neurovirol

journal_title

Journal of neurovirology

authors

Hoare J,Heany SJ,Fouche JP,Phillips N,Joska JA,Myer L,Zar HJ,Stein DJ

doi

10.1007/s13365-018-0712-7

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-04-01 00:00:00

pages

254-262

issue

2

eissn

1355-0284

issn

1538-2443

pii

10.1007/s13365-018-0712-7

journal_volume

25

pub_type

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