14. Management of Diabetes in Pregnancy: Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes-2019.


:The American Diabetes Association (ADA) "Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes" includes ADA's current clinical practice recommendations and is intended to provide the components of diabetes care, general treatment goals and guidelines, and tools to evaluate quality of care. Members of the ADA Professional Practice Committee, a multidisciplinary expert committee, are responsible for updating the Standards of Care annually, or more frequently as warranted. For a detailed description of ADA standards, statements, and reports, as well as the evidence-grading system for ADA's clinical practice recommendations, please refer to the Standards of Care Introduction Readers who wish to comment on the Standards of Care are invited to do so at professional.diabetes.org/SOC.


Diabetes Care


Diabetes care


American Diabetes Association.




Has Abstract


2019-01-01 00:00:00




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  • Dairy consumption and the incidence of hyperglycemia and the metabolic syndrome: results from a french prospective study, Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:In the French Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) cohort, cross-sectional analyses have shown that a higher consumption of dairy products and calcium are associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). We assess the influence of dairy products on...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fumeron F,Lamri A,Abi Khalil C,Jaziri R,Porchay-Baldérelli I,Lantieri O,Vol S,Balkau B,Marre M,Data from the Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) Study Group.

    更新日期:2011-04-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of insulin glargine given in the evening as compared with in the morning in type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of insulin glargine in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) after evening versus morning administration. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Ten T2DM insulin-treated persons were studied during 24-h euglycemic glucose clamp, after glargine injection (0.4 units/kg...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Porcellati F,Lucidi P,Cioli P,Candeloro P,Marinelli Andreoli A,Marzotti S,Ambrogi M,Bolli GB,Fanelli CG

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors for premature death in young people with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Mortality from acute diabetes-related events is greatly raised in young adults with type 1 diabetes. Psychosocial and socioeconomic risk factors are examined for deaths from acute events separately from deaths due to other causes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This study had a nested case-control design. The c...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Laing SP,Jones ME,Swerdlow AJ,Burden AC,Gatling W

    更新日期:2005-07-01 00:00:00

  • Glycosylated hemoglobin in relation to rapid fluctuations in blood glucose in children with insulin-dependent diabetes: a comparison of methods with and without prior dialysis.

    abstract::To evaluate the importance of dialysis in the determination of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1), we studied blood glucose and HbA1 in 38 insulin-dependent diabetic children during a morning fast and again 6 h postprandially. We used two methods to determine glycosylated hemoglobin: (1) the conventional macrocolumn metho...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ditzel J,Kjaergaard JJ,Kawahara R,Ostergaard GZ,Mourits-Andersen T

    更新日期:1981-09-01 00:00:00

  • Can proopiomelanocortin methylation be used as an early predictor of metabolic syndrome?

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The objectives of this study were to compare early predictive marker of the metabolic syndrome with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) methylation status and to determine the association among birth weight, ponderal index, and cord blood methylation status. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We collected pregnancy outcome ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yoo JY,Lee S,Lee HA,Park H,Park YJ,Ha EH,Kim YJ

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Joint contractures in patients with juvenile diabetes and their siblings.

    abstract::Six hundred fifteen children (310 with diabetes, 106 nondiabetic siblings, and 199 nonsibling controls) were examined for the presence of joint contractures. Forty children had contractures: 8.4 per cent of those with diabetes and 4.6 per cent of those without diabetes. Contractures were present, however, in 9.4 per c...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Traisman HS,Traisman ES,Marr TJ,Wise J

    更新日期:1978-11-01 00:00:00

  • Maternal and cord blood adiponectin multimeric forms in gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To analyze the relationship between maternal adiponectin (mAdiponectin) and cord blood adiponectin (cbAdiponectin) multimeric forms (high molecular weight [HMW], medium molecular weight [MMW], and low molecular weight [LMW]) in a cohort of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ballesteros M,Simón I,Vendrell J,Ceperuelo-Mallafré V,Miralles RM,Albaiges G,Tinahones F,Megia A

    更新日期:2011-11-01 00:00:00

  • Determinants of fetal growth at different periods of pregnancies complicated by gestational diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine maternal parameters with the strongest influence on fetal growth in different periods of pregnancies complicated by an abnormal glucose tolerance test (GTT). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Retrospective study of 368 women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM; > or = 2 abnormal GTT values, n = 28...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schaefer-Graf UM,Kjos SL,Kilavuz O,Plagemann A,Brauer M,Dudenhausen JW,Vetter K

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Malfunction of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion systems: a one-year prospective study of 127 patients.

    abstract::Malfunction of portable continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) systems may result in either ketoacidosis or serious hypoglycemia. To determine the types and frequencies of infusion system failure and the resulting clinical consequences, we recorded their occurrences in a 1-yr prospective study of 127 patients...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mecklenburg RS,Guinn TS,Sannar CA,Blumenstein BA

    更新日期:1986-07-01 00:00:00

  • Intra-individual variability of the metabolic effect of inhaled insulin together with an absorption enhancer.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To study the metabolic effect and the variability of the effect elicited by inhalation of 87.2 U insulin powder combined with an absorption enhancer. The metabolic effect was compared with that of 10.2 U regular insulin injected subcutaneously and of 5.5 U regular insulin given intravenously RESEARCH DESIGN ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Heinemann L,Klappoth W,Rave K,Hompesch B,Linkeschowa R,Heise T

    更新日期:2000-09-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of glycemic variability associated with insulin glargine and intermediate-acting insulin when used as the basal component of multiple daily injections for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the glucose variability associated with insulin glargine and NPH/Lente insulin used as the basal insulin component of a multiple daily injection (MDI) regimen in pediatric patients with type 1 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Continuous glucose monitoring data were collected from a subset of ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: White NH,Chase HP,Arslanian S,Tamborlane WV,4030 Study Group.

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin gene structure and function: a review of studies using recombinant DNA methodology.

    abstract::This review focuses on recent advances in molecular biology as they pertain to the insulin gene and diabetes mellitus. The structure of the human insulin gene is examined, and factors related to its normal functioning in the beta cells of the pancreas are explored. DNA polymorphisms near the insulin locus and their re...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Permutt MA,Chirgwin J,Rotwein P,Giddings S

    更新日期:1984-07-01 00:00:00

  • Nocturnal blood glucose control in type I diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::A major problem in replacing insulin in type I diabetes mellitus is that currently no depot preparation exists that is capable of mimicking the background insulin secretion of the healthy pancreas. Because all of the currently available intermediate- or long-acting insulin preparations have a peaked-action profile, ex...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bolli GB,Perriello G,Fanelli CG,De Feo P

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • A biopsychobehavioral model of risk of severe hypoglycemia.

    abstract::Severe hypoglycemia (SH) is a significant problem for many patients with type I diabetes and presents a major barrier to optimal diabetes control. A critical task facing diabetes research is to understand, predict, and reduce the risk of SH in insulin-treated patients. The purpose of this article is to propose a biops...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gonder-Frederick L,Cox D,Kovatchev B,Schlundt D,Clarke W

    更新日期:1997-04-01 00:00:00

  • Characteristics associated with maintenance of mean A1C

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the success and baseline predictors of maintaining glycemic control for up to 5 years of therapy using basal insulin glargine or standard glycemic care in people with dysglycemia treated with zero or one oral glucose-lowering agents. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Data from 12,537 participants in the ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: ORIGIN Trial Investigators.

    更新日期:2013-10-01 00:00:00

  • Initiating insulin as part of the Treating To Target in Type 2 Diabetes (4-T) trial: an interview study of patients' and health professionals' experiences.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To explore patients' and health professionals' experiences of initiating insulin as part of the Treating To Target in Type 2 Diabetes (4-T) randomized controlled trial. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Interviews were conducted with 45 trial participants and 21 health professionals and thematically analyzed. RES...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Jenkins N,Hallowell N,Farmer AJ,Holman RR,Lawton J

    更新日期:2010-10-01 00:00:00

  • Collaborative care management of major depression among low-income, predominantly Hispanic subjects with diabetes: a randomized controlled trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine whether evidence-based socioculturally adapted collaborative depression care improves receipt of depression care and depression and diabetes outcomes in low-income Hispanic subjects. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This was a randomized controlled trial of 387 diabetic patients (96.5% Hispanic) with...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Ell K,Katon W,Xie B,Lee PJ,Kapetanovic S,Guterman J,Chou CP

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Multifaceted determinants for achieving glycemic control: the International Diabetes Management Practice Study (IDMPS).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The International Diabetes Mellitus Practice Study is a 5-year survey documenting changes in diabetes treatment practice in developing regions. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Logistic regression analysis was used to identify factors for achieving A1C <7% in 11,799 patients (1,898 type 1 diabetic and 9,901 type ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chan JC,Gagliardino JJ,Baik SH,Chantelot JM,Ferreira SR,Hancu N,Ilkova H,Ramachandran A,Aschner P,IDMPS Investigators.

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Costs and consequences associated with newer medications for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Newer medications offer more options for glycemic control in type 2 diabetes. However, they come at considerable costs. We undertook a health economic analysis to better understand the value of adding two newer medications (exenatide and sitagliptin) as second-line therapy to glycemic control strategies for p...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sinha A,Rajan M,Hoerger T,Pogach L

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of GAD65-reactive T-Cells in type 1 diabetes by immunoglobulin-free ELISPOT assays.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate the prevalence of beta-cell autoantigen-reactive peripheral T-cells in type 1 diabetes, we developed an immunoglobulin-free enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay and assessed its usefulness for diagnosing this disease. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Cellular immune responses to beta -cell auto...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kotani R,Nagata M,Moriyama H,Nakayama M,Yamada K,Chowdhury SA,Chakrabarty S,Jin Z,Yasuda H,Yokono K

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Efficacy and Safety of Once-Weekly Semaglutide Versus Exenatide ER in Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes (SUSTAIN 3): A 56-Week, Open-Label, Randomized Clinical Trial.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the efficacy and safety of once-weekly semaglutide 1.0 mg s.c. with exenatide extended release (ER) 2.0 mg s.c. in subjects with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:In this phase 3a, open-label, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial, 813 subjects with type 2 diabetes taking oral ant...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究,随机对照试验


    authors: Ahmann AJ,Capehorn M,Charpentier G,Dotta F,Henkel E,Lingvay I,Holst AG,Annett MP,Aroda VR

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, diabetes, and ethnicity in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and diabetes risk and whether it varies by ethnicity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We performed an analysis of data from participants who attended the morning examination of the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1988-...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scragg R,Sowers M,Bell C,Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    更新日期:2004-12-01 00:00:00

  • A New Zealand linkage study examining the associations between A1C concentration and mortality.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine associations between A1C concentration and mortality in a New Zealand population. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:During a Hepatitis Foundation screening campaign for hepatitis B (1999-2001), participants were offered A1C testing. The participants were anonymously linked to the national mortality coll...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brewer N,Wright CS,Travier N,Cunningham CW,Hornell J,Pearce N,Jeffreys M

    更新日期:2008-06-01 00:00:00

  • Primary prevention of diabetes mellitus.

    abstract::Two-thirds of all deaths in developed countries are caused by the major noncommunicable diseases, e.g., cardiovascular disease, cancer, and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). There is increasing evidence that these diseases are a consequence of life-style change, and they have a number of risk factors in...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zimmet PZ

    更新日期:1988-03-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of diabetes among revascularized patients in Japan and the U.S.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Approximately 25% of patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) have diabetes, and the diagnosis of diabetes roughly doubles the mortality risk associated with coronary artery disease. However, the impact of diabetes may differ according to ethnicit...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kohsaka S,Goto M,Nagai T,Lee VV,Elayda M,Furukawa Y,Fukushima M,Komeda M,Sakata R,Ohsugi M,Fukuda K,Wilson JM,Kita T,Kimura T

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Limb- and Person-Level Risk Factors for Lower-Limb Amputation in the Prospective Seattle Diabetic Foot Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Diabetes is the leading cause of nontraumatic lower-limb amputations in the U.S., but no research has prospectively examined associations between limb-specific measurements and amputation risk among patients without foot ulcer. We investigated amputation risk by limb in relation to the same limb- and person-l...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Boyko EJ,Seelig AD,Ahroni JH

    更新日期:2018-04-01 00:00:00

  • Familial aggregation of medial arterial calcification in Pima Indians with and without diabetes.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Little is known about medial arterial calcification (MAC) other than its association with age, sex, diabetes, and diabetes complications. Familial aggregation of this disorder was studied to determine the importance of potential genetic factors and to assess whether such familial aggregation was independent o...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Narayan KM,Pettitt DJ,Hanson RL,Bennett PH,Fernandes RJ,De Courten M,Rose FA,Knowler WC

    更新日期:1996-09-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetes and Prediabetes and Risk of Hospitalization: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To examine the magnitude and types of hospitalizations among persons with prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, and diagnosed diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:This study included 13,522 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (mean age 57 years, 56% female, 24% black, 18% with ...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schneider AL,Kalyani RR,Golden S,Stearns SC,Wruck L,Yeh HC,Coresh J,Selvin E

    更新日期:2016-05-01 00:00:00

  • High Blood Pressure and Its Association With Incident Diabetes Over 10 Years in the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study (KoGES).

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:No prospective, community-based cohort studies have investigated the association between blood pressure and diabetes in Asian ethnicity. We investigated this issue in a 10-year prospective, community-based study of Koreans. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:We studied whether high blood pressure was associated wit...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cho NH,Kim KM,Choi SH,Park KS,Jang HC,Kim SS,Sattar N,Lim S

    更新日期:2015-07-01 00:00:00

  • Plasma growth differentiation factor-15 independently predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality as well as deterioration of kidney function in type 1 diabetic patients with nephropathy.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Growth deferentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) is involved in inflammation and apoptosis. Expression is induced in the heart in response to ischemia and in atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate GDF-15 levels in relation to all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, decl...

    journal_title:Diabetes care

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lajer M,Jorsal A,Tarnow L,Parving HH,Rossing P

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00