Anatomy and physiology of a scientific paper.

Abstract:

:Writing and publishing a scientific paper in academic journals is a highly competitive, time-consuming stepwise process. The road to scientific writing and publication is rarely straightforward. Scientific writing has uniform format, which is perplexing for the novice science writers due to its inflexible anatomy (structure) and physiology (functions). Many obstacles are allied with the scientific writing path which can be minimized by applying some simple guidelines and practices. The scientific papers have an almost similar format but, original articles are divided into distinct sections and each segment contains a specific type of information. The basic anatomy of scientific papers is mainly comprised of the structure of the various components of a scientific paper, including title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, conclusion, acknowledgments and references. However, the physiology of a scientific paper is difficult to understand. Early career researchers and trainees may be less familiar with the various components of scientific papers. In this study, we applied an observational approach to describe the essential steps to facilitate the readers and writers to understand the basic characteristics, anatomy and physiology of writing the various sections of a scientific paper for an academic science journal.

journal_name

Saudi J Biol Sci

authors

Meo SA

doi

10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.01.004

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-11-01 00:00:00

pages

1278-1283

issue

7

eissn

1319-562X

issn

2213-7106

pii

S1319-562X(18)30013-5

journal_volume

25

pub_type

杂志文章,评审
  • Ecology, distribution mapping and conservation implications of four critically endangered endemic plants of Kashmir Himalaya.

    abstract::During the last few decades, human-driven activities have led to indiscriminate habitat destruction and exploitation of many plant species in Kashmir Himalaya. As a result, many species have become threatened and are struggling for survival. Of particular concern are the endemic and critically endangered species which...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.05.006

    authors: Hussain Mir A,Tyub S,Kamili AN

    更新日期:2020-09-01 00:00:00

  • Reproductive biology and morphology of Apis mellifera jemenitica (Apidae) queens and drones.

    abstract::The current study aimed to investigate the important reproductive biology and morphology of A.m. jemenitica queens and drones through measuring the weight of virgin and mated queens, size and weight of spermathecae, weight of ovaries, number of ovarioles, quantity and viability of semen in queen and drones. Accordingl...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.10.012

    authors: Al-Sarhan R,Adgaba N,Tadesse Y,Alattal Y,Al-Abbadi A,Single A,Al-Ghamdi A

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Thiocyclam does not induce structural chromosome aberrations in human lymphocytes in vitro.

    abstract::Thiocyclam (trade name Evisect) is a broad-spectrum nereistoxin analogue insecticide used widely for agricultural applications. The aim of this investigation was to determine its genotoxic effects in the chromosome aberration (CA) test and determining of mitotic index (MI), using lymphocytes from peripheral blood samp...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2010.04.004

    authors: Celikler S,Saleh K,Sarhan MA

    更新日期:2010-07-01 00:00:00

  • Lobaplatin-based regimens outperform cisplatin for metastatic breast cancer after anthracyclines and taxanes treatment.

    abstract::The goal of this study was to assess the antitumor efficacy and safety of lobaplatin-based regimens as the second line of treatment in patients with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) resistant to anthracyclines and taxanes, compared with that of cisplatin-based regimens. During August 2012 to April 2015, 87 patients who ...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.01.011

    authors: Wang Z,Xu L,Wang H,Li Z,Lu L,Li X,Zhang Q

    更新日期:2018-07-01 00:00:00

  • Inhibition of autophagy of Cajal mesenchymal cells by gavage of tong bian decoction based on the rat model of chronic transit constipation.

    abstract::The objective of this research was to study the effect of tong bian decoction on colon transport function of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in chronic transit constipation (CTC) and the inhibition of autophagy of ICC, so as to achieve the free movement of the bowels. In this research, the experimental rats were div...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.040

    authors: Zhou X,Qian H,Zhang D,Zeng L

    更新日期:2020-02-01 00:00:00

  • Remote sensing of 10 years changes in the vegetation cover of the northwestern coastal land of Red Sea, Saudi Arabia.

    abstract::Accurate and up to date land use and land cover (LU/LC) changes information is the main source to understanding and assessing the environmental outcomes of such changes and is important for development plans. Thus, this study quantified the outlines of land cover variation of 10-years in the northwestern costal land o...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.07.021

    authors: Alharthi A,El-Sheikh MA,Elhag M,Alatar AA,Abbadi GA,Abdel-Salam EM,Arif IA,Baeshen AA,Eid EM

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Overexpression of BAS1 in rice blast fungus can promote blast fungus growth, sporulation and virulence in planta.

    abstract::Background: BAS1 is biotrophy-associated secreted protein of rice blast strain (Magnaporthe oryzae). In order to study the effect of BAS1 on virulence of rice blast strain, we characterized function of BAS1 using a purified prokaryotic expression product of BAS1 and its overexpression strain. Results: Our results show...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.11.032

    authors: Yang J,Liu L,Wang Y,Wang C,Yan J,Liu Y,Wang C,Li C

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of short term exposure of eggs to magnetic field before incubation on hatchability and post-hatch performance of meat chickens.

    abstract::The effects of exposing meat-type breeder eggs to magnetic field (MF) before incubation on hatchability traits (percents of hatchability and hatchability failures of eggs), chick weight at hatch, and post-hatch performance (weight gain, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio (FCR)) from 1 to 39 d of age were investiga...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.06.004

    authors: Shafey TM,Aljumaah RS,Swillam SA,Al-Mufarrej SI,Al-Abdullatif AA,Ghannam MM

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening of hospital dental clinic surfaces.

    abstract::We assessed the prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains on surfaces of hospital dental clinics. Specimens were obtained from 5 clinically symptoms-free patients of five different specialties clinics (Implantology, Pediatric Dentistry, Prosthetics, Restorative Dentistry, and Oral Medici...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.03.006

    authors: Faden A

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • UNC5A, an epigenetically silenced gene, functions as a tumor suppressor in non-small cell lung cancer.

    abstract::UNC5A has been reported to be related with human cancers. However, the function and mechanism in non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) remains unknown. We analyzed two NSCLC cell lines (A549 and H157), one normal human bronchial epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B) and the tissues of NSCLC. We used quantitative real-time PC...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.09.023

    authors: Ding S,Zhang H,Zhao X,Dang J,Li G

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and biochar improves drought tolerance in chickpea.

    abstract::Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation and biochar amendment has been reported to improve growth of several crop plants however their role in stress amelioration individually as well as in combination has not been worked out. This experiment was conducted to evaluate the application of AMF and biochar on the p...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.11.005

    authors: Hashem A,Kumar A,Al-Dbass AM,Alqarawi AA,Al-Arjani AF,Singh G,Farooq M,Abd Allah EF

    更新日期:2019-03-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular characterization of glucosinolates and carotenoid biosynthetic genes in Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis).

    abstract::The present study aimed to investigate the contents of glucosinolates (GSLs) and carotenoids in eleven varieties of Chinese cabbage in relation to the expression level of the important transcription factors. MS and HPLC analysis identified the presence of 13 GSLs (progoitrin, sinigrin, glucoalyssin, gluconapoleiferin,...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.04.004

    authors: Chun JH,Kim NH,Seo MS,Jin M,Park SU,Arasu MV,Kim SJ,Al-Dhabi NA

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Antifibrotic effects of crocin on thioacetamide-induced liver fibrosis in mice.

    abstract::Liver fibrosis is a major health concern that results in significant morbidity and mortality. Up-to-date, there is no standard treatment for fibrosis because of its complex pathogenesis. Crocin is one of the main nutraceuticals isolated from the stigma of Crocus sativus with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activitie...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.10.007

    authors: Algandaby MM

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • Evaluation of edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii cultivation on different lignocellulosic substrates.

    abstract::In this study, the mycelial growth rate, mycelial colonization time, yield, and biological efficiency of the edible mushroom Oudemansiella canarii were determined, and the effects of different substrate combinations on productivity, chemical contents and amino acids were evaluated. Lignocellulosic wastes, such as cott...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.07.001

    authors: Xu F,Li Z,Liu Y,Rong C,Wang S

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici causal agent of vascular wilt disease of tomato: Biology to diversity- A review.

    abstract::Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the widely grown vegetables worldwide. Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (FOL) is the significant contributory pathogen of tomato vascular wilt. The initial symptoms of the disease appear in the lower leaves gradually, trail by wilting of the plants. It has been reported ...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.06.002

    authors: Srinivas C,Nirmala Devi D,Narasimha Murthy K,Mohan CD,Lakshmeesha TR,Singh B,Kalagatur NK,Niranjana SR,Hashem A,Alqarawi AA,Tabassum B,Abd Allah EF,Chandra Nayaka S

    更新日期:2019-11-01 00:00:00

  • Integration of entomopathogenic fungi and eco-friendly insecticides for management of red palm weevil, Rhynchophorus ferrugineus (Olivier).

    abstract::Red palm weevil (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) is a voracious pest of date palm worldwide. Pakistan ranks sixth in date palm production globally. Losses to date palm plantations in Pakistan sometimes surpass 10%-20%. Most of the traditional management strategies used by farmers have been found insignificant to combat thi...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.018

    authors: Qayyum MA,Saleem MA,Saeed S,Wakil W,Ishtiaq M,Ashraf W,Ahmed N,Ali M,Ikram RM,Yasin M,Maqsood S,Kiran S,Qaiser MF,Ayaz RA,Nawaz MZ,Abid AD,Khan KA,Alamri SA

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Genetic characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from milk in the North-West Province, South Africa.

    abstract::Food borne diseases are a major public health concern worldwide. Staphylococcus aureus is one of the potential food borne pathogens which causes nosocomial and community acquired infections. In the present study, 74 representative strains of S. aureus isolated and characterized in previous study from different milk sa...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2015.10.011

    authors: Akindolire MA,Kumar A,Ateba CN

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Protein intake and stress levels in nurses and housewives of Pakistan.

    abstract::Stress has many biological effects on human daily life. In the present study, dietary protein intake was correlated with the investigated stress levels of nurses and housewives of the targeted urban population. Age group ranged from 30 to 45 years and both the groups belonged to middle socioeconomic status. After calc...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2011.02.002

    authors: Wattoo FH,Memon MS,Memon AN,Wattoo MH,Asad MJ,Siddique F

    更新日期:2011-07-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and molecular characteristics of sequence type 131 clone among clinical uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolates in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    abstract:Background:The antimicrobial resistance of extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) has progressively been reported worldwide. This resistance has been ascribed to global dissemination of a single E. coli clone, namely E. coli sequence type 131 (E. coli ST131). The main goal of this study is to determine the...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.09.020

    authors: Alqasim A,Abu Jaffal A,Alyousef AA

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Interference of phosphane copper (I) complexes of β-carboline with quorum sensing regulated virulence functions and biofilm in foodborne pathogenic bacteria: A first report.

    abstract::Foodborne pathogens are one of the major cause of food-related diseases and food poisoning. Bacterial biofilms and quorum sensing (QS) mechanism of cell-cell communication have also been found to be associated with several outbreaks of foodborne diseases and are great threat to food safety. Therefore, In the present s...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2018.04.013

    authors: Al-Shabib NA,Husain FM,Khan RA,Khan MS,Alam MZ,Ansari FA,Laeeq S,Zubair M,Shahzad SA,Khan JM,Alsalme A,Ahmad I

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • Prevalence and predictors of dysmenorrhea among a population of adolescent's schoolgirls (Morocco).

    abstract::Dysmenorrhea is the most common gynaecological problem among young females. In Arabic countries, few studies on gynaecological problems of adolescent's girls were published. OBJECTIVE:the aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of dysmenorrhea and associated factors among adolescents in public schools at Mar...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.05.022

    authors: Lghoul S,Loukid M,Hilali MK

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Integrated control of white rot disease on beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Contans® and reduced fungicides application.

    abstract::This study was conducted to determine the compatibility of Contans® (Coniothyrium minitans) with fungicides against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Results showed that both Contans® and Topsin® significantly reduced the disease incidence caused by S. sclerotiorum by 90% and 95% survival plants, respectively when they were i...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.01.038

    authors: Elsheshtawi M,Elkhaky MT,Sayed SR,Bahkali AH,Mohammed AA,Gambhir D,Mansour AS,Elgorban AM

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Study on biomolecules in extractives of Camellia oleifera fruit shell by GC-MS.

    abstract::This study aims to present an integrated process that can be used to produce biomedical and biological active components from the fruit shell of Camellia oleifera Abel. Through the Foss method, Aldehyde, acid compounds, acyl and alcohol compounds account for 22.7, 15.93, 0.24 and 61.13% of the extractives which were e...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2017.08.006

    authors: Xie Y,Ge S,Jiang S,Liu Z,Chen L,Wang L,Chen J,Qin L,Peng W

    更新日期:2018-02-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of lactation stage on milk composition and blood biochemical and hematological parameters of dairy Baladi goats.

    abstract::The objective of this study was to elucidate the impact of lactation stage on milk composition, hematological and biochemical parameters of dairy Baladi goats under Egyptian conditions. Forty-eight Baladi goats (32.8 ± 2.9 kg of BW) were enrolled in the current study. The lactation period has been divided into three s...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2016.08.003

    authors: El-Tarabany MS,El-Tarabany AA,Roushdy EM

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Detection of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA/MSSA) in surfaces of dental medicine equipment.

    abstract::Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) represents one of the major causes of nosocomial infections, leading to high mortality. Surfaces in clinics, as well as the attending uniform and the hands of the dental doctor can be MRSA reservoirs. Having this in mind, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the ...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.12.003

    authors: Gonçalves E,Carvalhal R,Mesquita R,Azevedo J,Coelho MJ,Magalhães R,Ferraz MP,Manso MC,Gavinha S,Pina C,Lopes Cardoso I

    更新日期:2020-04-01 00:00:00

  • Comparative analysis of chemical, mineral and in-vitro antibacterial activity of different varieties of date fruits from Saudi Arabia.

    abstract::Three important varieties of dates (Sukri, Barhi, and Rothana), grown in Saudi Arabia were analyzed for their chemical, mineral and anti-bacterial activity. Among all the varieties analyzed, the Sukri dates had the highest moisture (16%), carbohydrate (80.65 mg/g) and the phenolic content (1.24 mg GAE/100 g) whereas, ...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.11.029

    authors: Perveen K,Bokahri NA

    更新日期:2020-07-01 00:00:00

  • Array comparative genomic hybridization based identification of key genetic alterations at 2p21-p16.3 (MSH2, MSH6, EPCAM), 3p23-p14.2 (MLH1), 7p22.1 (PMS2) and 1p34.1-p33 (MUTYH) regions in hereditary non polyposis colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) in th

    abstract::Lynch syndrome is inherited in an autosomal dominant mode. Lynch syndrome is caused by impairment of one or more of the various genes (most frequently MLH1 and MSH2) involved in mismatch repair. In this study, whole genome comparative genomic hybridization array (array CGH) based genomic analysis was performed on twel...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2019.06.012

    authors: Rasool M,Pushparaj PN,Mirza Z,Imran Naseer M,Abusamra H,Alquaiti M,Shaabad M,Sibiany AMS,Gauthaman K,Al-Qahtani MH,Karim S

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • Vitamin D deficiency as a risk factor for urinary tract infection in women at reproductive age.

    abstract::Vitamin D deficiency is a pandemic problem and an ever-increasing issue in human nutrition and health. Vitamin D (serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D) deficiency causes many health problems such as autoimmune diseases, Crohn's disease, diabetes, inflammation, asthma, hypertension, and cancer. Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) defici...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.08.008

    authors: Ali SB,Perdawood D,Abdulrahman R,Al Farraj DA,Alkubaisi NA

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

  • Impact of bio-fertilizers and different levels of cadmium on the growth, biochemical contents and lipid peroxidation of Plantago ovata Forsk.

    abstract::Plantago ovata Forsk. (isabgol) is a valuable medicinal plant; its seeds and shell have a significant role in pharmacy as a laxative compound. Increasing soil contamination with cadmium (Cd) is one of the major concerns and is responsible for toxic effects in plants. This investigation was aimed to analyze the role of...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2013.12.005

    authors: Haneef I,Faizan S,Perveen R,Kausar S

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Covid-19 pandemic outburst in Saudi Arabia: A glimpse.

    abstract::Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus2 (SARS-CoV2) provoked alertness globally. Existing pandemic eruption of infections with SARS-CoV2 has been phrased as coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19). Worldwide pneumonia outburst attributable to new SARS-CoV2 alleged to be originated in Wuhan city of China and has aff...

    journal_title:Saudi journal of biological sciences

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审

    doi:10.1016/j.sjbs.2020.07.026

    authors: Ameen F,Amna T,Alghamdi AAA,AlKahtani MDF,AlYahya SA

    更新日期:2020-12-01 00:00:00