Generalist caterpillar prey are more palatable than specialists for the generalist predator Iridomyrmex humilis.


:Experiments are described which test the hypothesis that more host-specific species of caterpillars should be less aceptable to a generalist predator than polyphagous species. Caterpillars of all species were tested in paired choice tests with the Argentine ant, Iridomyrmex humilis. Experiments were replicated ten times, videotaped and later analyzed. Brightly colored specialist species (normally considered to be aposematic) were clearly the least palatable, while more cryptic specialists were also significantly less acceptable than generalists overall. Leaf-tying species were considered separately; all were highly palatable independent of host range. The results indicate that among caterpillars that do not construct leaf shelters, those with a wide post range are more acceptable than those with a narrow host range. This is consistent with the notion that generalist predators provide selection pressure favoring narrow host range in their herbivorous prey.






Bernays EA,Cornelius ML




Has Abstract


1989-05-01 00:00:00












  • Some models describing the distribution of eggs of the parasitePseudeucoila bochei (Hym., Cynip.) over its hosts, larvae ofDrosophila melanogaster.

    abstract::Ovipositing females of the cynipid waspPseudeucoila bochei discriminate between parasitized and unparasitized hosts, which results in a far more uniform distribution of eggs over the hosts than would be obtained if oviposition were random (Fig. 1,a 0-f 0).For the description of the distributions a few models were work...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bakker K,Eijsackers HJ,van Lenteren JC,Meelis E

    更新日期:1972-03-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of temperature-induced variation in anuran larval growth rate on head width and leg length at metamorphosis.

    abstract::We tested whether temperature-induced variation in the growth rate of Rana cascadae tadpoles caused any variation in head width or leg length at metamorphosis, independent of the effects of temperature on body size. Body-size-adjusted head width appears to be insensitive to even large variations in tadpole growth rate...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blouin MS,Brown ST

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Strong density-dependent survival and recruitment regulate the abundance of a coral reef fish.

    abstract::Debate on the control of population dynamics in reef fishes has centred on whether patterns in abundance are determined by the supply of planktonic recruits, or by post-recruitment processes. Recruitment limitation implies little or no regulation of the reef-associated population, and is supported by several experimen...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Forrester GE

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

  • Young clonal and non-clonal herbs differ in growth strategy but not in aboveground biomass compensation after disturbance.

    abstract::Clonal plants have more traits enabling individual persistence (larger belowground storage of buds and assimilates), whereas non-clonal plants have more traits enabling population persistence (a higher reliance on regeneration from seeds). This difference presumably makes those groups respond differently to disturbanc...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Martínková J,Klimeš A,Klimešová J

    更新日期:2020-08-01 00:00:00

  • Linking summer foraging to winter survival in yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus).

    abstract::This study links summer foraging and scatter-hoarding to winter larder-hoarding and winter survival in yellow pine chipmunks (Tamias amoenus) by comparing patterns of time allocation and winter larder contents in 2 years with very different levels of resource availability. In 2003, seed production and the number of tr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kuhn KM,Vander Wall SB

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship of environment size and population parameters Oxytrema proxima (say) (Gastropoda: Pleuroceridae).

    abstract::Environmental size, as measured by cross-sectional area of the inhabited streams, and population density of Oxytrema proxima are related by the power function Y=8.074X -0.584, where Y=population density and X=cross-sectional area of the stream. Relationships were also found between maximum size and biomass and cross-s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Foin TC Jr,Stiven AE

    更新日期:1970-03-01 00:00:00

  • Energetic costs of mate guarding behavior in male stream-dwelling isopods.

    abstract::In the stream-dwelling isopod Lirceus fontinalis, males and females engage in a precopulatory mate guarding phase prior to mating. We examined the energetic costs of mate guarding behavior in males by separately assaying glycogen and lipid content at different time increments following mating. We found that males that...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sparkes TC,Keogh DP,Pary RA

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Seasonal response to drought and rewatering in Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq.

    abstract::Gas exchange characteristics of droughted and rewatered Portulacaria afra were studied during the seasonal shift from CAM to C3 photosynthesis. 14CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, and total titratable acidity were determined for both irrigated and 2, 4, and 7.5 month waterstressed plants from summer 1984 to summer 198...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guralnick LJ,Ting IP

    更新日期:1986-08-01 00:00:00

  • Simulated drought regimes reveal community resilience and hydrological thresholds for altered decomposition.

    abstract::Future climate scenarios forecast a 10-50% decline in rainfall in Eastern Amazonia. Altered precipitation patterns may change important ecosystem functions like decomposition through either changes in physical and chemical processes or shifts in the activity and/or composition of species. We experimentally manipulated...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez Pérez H,Borrel G,Leroy C,Carrias JF,Corbara B,Srivastava DS,Céréghino R

    更新日期:2018-05-01 00:00:00

  • The role of stomata in sensitivity of Betula papyrifera seedlings to SO2 at different humidities.

    abstract::Stomata of paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) seedlings were more open at high humidity than at low humidity and responded rapidly to changes in vapor pressure deficit. SO2 at 0.2 or 0.8 μl l-1 caused partial stomatal closure. Seedlings fumigated with SO2 at 0.2 or 0.5 μl l-1 for 30 h or 0.2 μl l-1 for 75 h took u...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Norby RJ,Kozlowski TT

    更新日期:1982-04-01 00:00:00

  • A nitrogen fertilization field study of carbon-13 and nitrogen-15 transfers in ectomycorrhizas of Pinus sabiniana.

    abstract::Ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi form relationships with higher plants; plants transfer C to fungi, and fungi transfer nutrients to their host. While evidence indicates that this interaction is largely mutualistic, less is known about how nutrient supply and EM associates may alter C and nutrient exchanges, especially in in...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Albarracín MV,Six J,Houlton BZ,Bledsoe CS

    更新日期:2013-12-01 00:00:00

  • Submerged macrophyte seed bank in a Mediterranean temporary marsh: abundance and relationship with established vegetation.

    abstract::The abundance and composition of the submerged macrophyte seed bank in the Doñana marsh (southwestern Spain) was evaluated to assess its relationship with the overlying vegetation. The results obtained demonstrate the existence of a dense seed-bank, both in terms of the number of seeds and their biomass, which represe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grillas P,Garcia-Murillo P,Geertz-Hansen O,Marbá N,Montes C,Duarte CM,Tan Ham L,Grossmann A

    更新日期:1993-05-01 00:00:00

  • Carotenoid composition and metabolism in green and blue-green algal lichens in the field.

    abstract::The carotenoid composition of 33 species of green algal lichens and 5 species of blue-green algal lichens was examined and compared with that of the leaves of higher plants. As in higher plants, green algal lichen species which were found in both shade and full sunlight exhibited higher levels of the carotenoids invol...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Adams WW 3rd,Demmig-Adams B,Lange OL

    更新日期:1993-07-01 00:00:00

  • Phenotypic variation in seedlings of a "keystone" tree species (Quercus douglasii): the interactive effects of acorn source and competitive environment.

    abstract::Blue oak (Quercus douglasii) is a deciduous tree species endemic to California that currently exhibits poor seedling survival to sapling age classes. We used common garden techniques to examine how genetic variation at regional and local scales affected phenotypic expression in traits affecting oak seedling growth and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rice KJ,Gordon DR,Hardison JL,Welker JM

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00

  • Size-dependent variation of gender in high density stands of the monoecious annual, Ambrosia artemisiifolia (Asteraceae).

    abstract::We examined the relationship between size variability and the distribution of functional gender in stands of the monoecious, wind-pollinated annual Ambrosia artemisiifolia. Populations of 60 individuals were grown in the greenhouse at a density of 372 m-2 and at two nutrient levels. Among the surviving plants, after s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ackerly DD,Jasieński M

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • Complex life cycles in a pond food web: effects of life stage structure and parasites on network properties, trophic positions and the fit of a probabilistic niche model.

    abstract::Most food webs use taxonomic or trophic species as building blocks, thereby collapsing variability in feeding linkages that occurs during the growth and development of individuals. This issue is particularly relevant to integrating parasites into food webs because parasites often undergo extreme ontogenetic niche shif...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Preston DL,Jacobs AZ,Orlofske SA,Johnson PT

    更新日期:2014-03-01 00:00:00

  • Traditional versus non-traditional nest-site choice: alternative decision strategies for nest-site selection.

    abstract::In order to understand habitat selection, it is important to consider the way individual animals assess the suitability of a future reproductive site. One way of investigating mechanisms (such as those involved in nest site selection) is to examine breeding success and habitat characteristics in terms of animals retur...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hoi H,Krištín A,Valera F,Hoi C

    更新日期:2012-05-01 00:00:00

  • Asymmetric competition between distant taxa: poecilid fishes and water striders.

    abstract::Competition for water surface prey between fish (Priapichtus annectens: Poeciliidae) and water striders (Potamobates unidentatus: Gerridae) was studied in the laboratory and in pools in a small tropical stream. Laboratory experiments showed that fish depressed activity and foraging success of water striders. Large fis...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Englund G,Johansson F,Olsson TI

    更新日期:1992-12-01 00:00:00

  • Anatomical and physiological regulation of post-fire carbon and water exchange in canopies of two resprouting Eucalyptus species.

    abstract::The great majority of Eucalyptus spp. are facultative resprouters, and they dominate the eucalypt forests of Australia. Despite this numeric and geographic dominance, there is a general lack of knowledge of their capacity for carbon capture and water loss during canopy reinstation. After a crown-removing fire, we meas...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Turnbull TL,Buckley TN,Barlow AM,Adams MA

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • A strong conditional mutualism limits and enhances seed dispersal and germination of a tropical palm.

    abstract::Seed predation and seed dispersal can have strong effects on early life history stages of plants. These processes have often been studied as individual effects, but the degree to which their relative importance co-varies with seed predator abundance and how this influences seed germination rates is poorly understood. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klinger R,Rejmánek M

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Form and function of grass ring patterns in arid grasslands: the role of abiotic controls.

    abstract::Ring-shaped growth patterns commonly occur in resource-limited arid and semi-arid environments. The spatial distribution, geometry, and scale of vegetation growth patterns result from interactions between biotic and abiotic processes, and, in turn, affect the spatial patterns of soil moisture, sediment transport, and ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ravi S,D'Odorico P,Wang L,Collins S

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • Aggression and nest spacing in single and mixed species groups of seabirds.

    abstract::When heterospecific seabirds are part of a nesting colony, there may be less opportunity for conspecifics to come in direct contact with each other, resulting in lower intraspecific aggressiveness. To determine if individuals spend less time in aggressive behavior when nesting in conspecific rather than heterospecific...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pius SM,Leberg PL

    更新日期:1997-06-01 00:00:00

  • Divergent dispersal strategies in the freshwater bryozoan Plumatella repens: ramet size effects on statoblast numbers.

    abstract::Evaluation of size-dependent variation in statoblast numbers in Plumatella repens indicates that this freshwater bryozoan employs divergent strategies in dispersing its asexual offspring in space and time. While the numbers of sessoblasts which were cemented to local substrates did not vary per unit ramet size, number...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Karlson RH

    更新日期:1992-03-01 00:00:00

  • Predicting understorey structure from the presence and composition of canopies: an assembly rule for marine algae.

    abstract::Assembly rules provide a useful framework for predicting patterns of community assembly under defined environmental conditions. Habitat created by canopy-forming algae (such as kelps) provides a promising system for identifying assembly rules because canopies typically have a large and predictable influence on underst...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Irving AD,Connell SD

    更新日期:2006-06-01 00:00:00

  • Drought enhances symbiotic dinitrogen fixation and competitive ability of a temperate forest tree.

    abstract::General circulation models project more intense and frequent droughts over the next century, but many questions remain about how terrestrial ecosystems will respond. Of particular importance, is to understand how drought will alter the species composition of regenerating temperate forests wherein symbiotic dinitrogen ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wurzburger N,Miniat CF

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Response of dominant grass and shrub species to water manipulation: an ecophysiological basis for shrub invasion in a Chihuahuan Desert grassland.

    abstract::Increases in woody vegetation and declines in grasses in arid and semi-arid ecosystems have occurred globally since the 1800s, but the mechanisms driving this major land-cover change remain uncertain and controversial. Working in a shrub-encroached grassland in the northern Chihuahuan Desert where grasses and shrubs t...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Throop HL,Reichmann LG,Sala OE,Archer SR

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Contributions of detrital subsidies to aboveground spiders during secondary succession, revealed by radiocarbon and stable isotope signatures.

    abstract::Prey subsidies originating from detritus add nutrients and energy to arboreal communities. Measurement of this subsidy is required in the understanding of how food web dynamics respond to changes in surrounding environments. Shrub spiders are one of the key predators involved in food web coupling. We evaluate the effe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haraguchi TF,Uchida M,Shibata Y,Tayasu I

    更新日期:2013-04-01 00:00:00

  • Interaction between ungulates and bruchid beetles and its effect on Acacia trees: modeling the costs and benefits of seed dispersal to plant demography.

    abstract::Integrative studies of plant-animal interactions that incorporate the multiple effects of interactions are important for discerning the importance of each factor within the population dynamics of a plant species. The low regeneration capacity of many Acacia species in arid savannas is a consequence of a combination of...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rodríguez-Pérez J,Wiegand K,Ward D

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • The relationship between tree height and leaf area: sapwood area ratio.

    abstract::The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (A l:A s) of trees has been hypothesized to decrease as trees become older and taller. Theory suggests that A l:A s must decrease to maintain leaf-specific hydraulic sufficiency as path length, gravity, and tortuosity constrain whole-plant hydraulic conductance. We tested the hypoth...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McDowell N,Barnard H,Bond B,Hinckley T,Hubbard R,Ishii H,Köstner B,Magnani F,Marshall J,Meinzer F,Phillips N,Ryan M,Whitehead D

    更新日期:2002-06-01 00:00:00

  • Species height and root symbiosis, two factors influencing antiherbivore defense of woody plants in East African savanna.

    abstract::In East African savanna we found that leaves of mature tree species with symbiotic N2 fixation contained lower concentrations of polyphenols than leaves of species without this symbiosis. We suggest that the root symbiosis is costly to the plant in terms of photosynthate that otherwise could be used in chemical defens...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomas Palo R,Gowda J,Högberg P

    更新日期:1993-03-01 00:00:00