Growth Hormone's Links to Cancer.


:Several components of the GH axis are involved in tumor progression, and GH-induced intracellular signaling has been strongly associated with breast cancer susceptibility in genome-wide association studies. In the general population, high IGF-I levels and low IGF-binding protein-3 levels within the normal range are associated with the development of common malignancies, and components of the GH-IGF signaling system exhibit correlations with clinical, histopathological, and therapeutic parameters in cancer patients. Despite promising findings in preclinical studies, anticancer therapies targeting the GH-IGF signaling system have led to disappointing results in clinical trials. There is substantial evidence for some degree of protection against tumor development in several animal models and in patients with genetic defects associated with GH deficiency or resistance. In contrast, the link between GH excess and cancer risk in acromegaly patients is much less clear, and cancer screening in acromegaly has been a highly controversial issue. Recent studies have shown that increased life expectancy in acromegaly patients who attain normal GH and IGF-I levels is associated with more deaths due to age-related cancers. Replacement GH therapy in GH deficiency hypopituitary adults and short children has been shown to be safe when no other risk factors for malignancy are present. Nevertheless, the use of GH in cancer survivors and in short children with RASopathies, chromosomal breakage syndromes, or DNA-repair disorders should be carefully evaluated owing to an increased risk of recurrence, primary cancer, or second neoplasia in these individuals.


Endocr Rev


Endocrine reviews


Boguszewski CL,Boguszewski MCDS




Has Abstract


2019-04-01 00:00:00














  • The role of membrane glycoprotein plasma cell antigen 1/ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and related abnormalities.

    abstract::Insulin resistance is a major feature of most patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). A number of laboratories have observed that PC-1 (membrane [corrected] glycoprotein plasma cell antigen 1; also termed [corrected] ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase phosphodiesterase 1 or ENPP1) [corrected] is either overexpressed...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goldfine ID,Maddux BA,Youngren JF,Reaven G,Accili D,Trischitta V,Vigneri R,Frittitta L

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Clinical, agricultural, and evolutionary biology of myostatin: a comparative review.

    abstract::The discovery of myostatin and our introduction to the "Mighty Mouse" over a decade ago spurred both basic and applied research and impacted popular culture as well. The myostatin-null genotype produces "double muscling" in mice and livestock and was recently described in a child. The field's rapid growth is by no mea...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rodgers BD,Garikipati DK

    更新日期:2008-08-01 00:00:00

  • Endocrine parameters and phenotypes of the growth hormone receptor gene disrupted (GHR-/-) mouse.

    abstract::Disruption of the GH receptor (GHR) gene eliminates GH-induced intracellular signaling and, thus, its biological actions. Therefore, the GHR gene disrupted mouse (GHR-/-) has been and is a valuable tool for helping to define various parameters of GH physiology. Since its creation in 1995, this mouse strain has been us...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: List EO,Sackmann-Sala L,Berryman DE,Funk K,Kelder B,Gosney ES,Okada S,Ding J,Cruz-Topete D,Kopchick JJ

    更新日期:2011-06-01 00:00:00

  • Development and potential clinical uses of human prolactin receptor antagonists.

    abstract::There is a large body of literature showing that prolactin (PRL) exerts growth-promoting activities in breast cancer, and possibly in prostate cancer and prostate hyperplasia. In addition, increasing evidence argues for the involvement of locally produced (autocrine) PRL, perhaps even more than pituitary-secreted (end...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Goffin V,Bernichtein S,Touraine P,Kelly PA

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Adiposity, the metabolic syndrome, and breast cancer in African-American and white American women.

    abstract::Breast cancer, the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in American women, varies substantially in incidence and mortality according to race and ethnicity in the United States. Although the overall incidence of breast cancer among African-American (AA) women is lower than in white American women, this can...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rose DP,Haffner SM,Baillargeon J

    更新日期:2007-12-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin resistance and chronic cardiovascular inflammatory syndrome.

    abstract::Insulin resistance is increasingly recognized as a chronic, low-level, inflammatory state. Hyperinsulinemia and insulin action were initially proposed as the common preceding factors of hypertension, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hypertriglyceridemia, abdominal obesity, and altered glucose tolerance, linki...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fernández-Real JM,Ricart W

    更新日期:2003-06-01 00:00:00

  • Role of platelet-derived growth factors in the testis.

    abstract::Normal development and function of the testis are controlled by endocrine and paracrine signaling pathways. Platelet-derived growth factors (PDGFs) are growth factors that mediate epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in various tissues during normal and abnormal processes such as embryo development, wound healing, tiss...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Basciani S,Mariani S,Spera G,Gnessi L

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Bile acid regulation of gene expression: roles of nuclear hormone receptors.

    abstract::Bile acids derived from cholesterol and oxysterols derived from cholesterol and bile acid synthesis pathways are signaling molecules that regulate cholesterol homeostasis in mammals. Many nuclear receptors play pivotal roles in the regulation of bile acid and cholesterol metabolism. Bile acids activate the farnesoid X...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chiang JY

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Delayed Puberty-Phenotypic Diversity, Molecular Genetic Mechanisms, and Recent Discoveries.

    abstract::This review presents a comprehensive discussion of the clinical condition of delayed puberty, a common presentation to the pediatric endocrinologist, which may present both diagnostic and prognostic challenges. Our understanding of the genetic control of pubertal timing has advanced thanks to active investigation in t...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Howard SR,Dunkel L

    更新日期:2019-10-01 00:00:00

  • Regulation of cell cycle progression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathways.

    abstract::Many hormones, growth factors, and cytokines regulate proliferation of their target cells. Perhaps the most universal signaling cascades required for proliferative responses are those initiated by transient rises in intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)). The major intracellular receptor for Ca(2+) is calmodulin (CaM). CaM is...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kahl CR,Means AR

    更新日期:2003-12-01 00:00:00

  • Selenium, the thyroid, and the endocrine system.

    abstract::Recent identification of new selenocysteine-containing proteins has revealed relationships between the two trace elements selenium (Se) and iodine and the hormone network. Several selenoproteins participate in the protection of thyrocytes from damage by H(2)O(2) produced for thyroid hormone biosynthesis. Iodothyronine...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Köhrle J,Jakob F,Contempré B,Dumont JE

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • The cold thyroid nodule: an analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic options.

    abstract::We applied decision analysis to the controversy over the management of the solitary nonfunctioning thyroid nodule. Three standard management plans were considered: immediate subtotal thyroidectomy; a six month trial of thyroid suppression with L-thyroxine, with non-suppressible lesions being removed surgically; and as...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Molitch ME,Beck JR,Dreisman M,Gottlieb JE,Pauker SG

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Defective thyroglobulin synthesis and secretion causing goiter and hypothyroidism.

    abstract::The integrity of the Tg structure as a protein is essential for adequate synthesis of thyroid hormone. Also a large supply of iodine and of thyroid hormone is stored into the Tg molecule and available for secretion on demand. Mutations in Tg gene or hyposialylated Tg due to a defective sialyltransferase activity would...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Medeiros-Neto G,Targovnik HM,Vassart G

    更新日期:1993-04-01 00:00:00

  • The insulin-like growth factor system and its pleiotropic functions in brain.

    abstract::In recent years, much interest has been devoted to defining the role of the IGF system in the nervous system. The ubiquitous IGFs, their cell membrane receptors, and their carrier binding proteins, the IGFBPs, are expressed early in the development of the nervous system and are therefore considered to play a key role ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Russo VC,Gluckman PD,Feldman EL,Werther GA

    更新日期:2005-12-01 00:00:00

  • Realizing a Closed-Loop (Artificial Pancreas) System for the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes.

    abstract::Recent, rapid changes in the treatment of type 1 diabetes have allowed for commercialization of an "artificial pancreas" that is better described as a closed-loop controller of insulin delivery. This review presents the current state of closed-loop control systems and expected future developments with a discussion of ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lal RA,Ekhlaspour L,Hood K,Buckingham B

    更新日期:2019-12-01 00:00:00

  • X-Linked Hypophosphatemia and FGF23-Related Hypophosphatemic Diseases: Prospect for New Treatment.

    abstract::Phosphate plays essential roles in many biological processes, and the serum phosphate level is tightly controlled. Chronic hypophosphatemia causes impaired mineralization of the bone matrix and results in rickets and osteomalacia. Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) is a bone-derived hormone that regulates phosphate m...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kinoshita Y,Fukumoto S

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Natriuretic peptides, their receptors, and cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent signaling functions.

    abstract::Natriuretic peptides are a family of structurally related but genetically distinct hormones/paracrine factors that regulate blood volume, blood pressure, ventricular hypertrophy, pulmonary hypertension, fat metabolism, and long bone growth. The mammalian members are atrial natriuretic peptide, B-type natriuretic pepti...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Potter LR,Abbey-Hosch S,Dickey DM

    更新日期:2006-02-01 00:00:00

  • Are estrogens protective or risk factors in brain injury and neurodegeneration? Reevaluation after the Women's health initiative.

    abstract::Estrogens are essential for normal reproductive function. In addition, they exert important, complex, and diverse nonreproductive actions on multiple tissues. Although accumulating evidence from basic science studies using animal models suggests that estradiol plays a critical neuroprotective role against multiple typ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wise PM,Dubal DB,Rau SW,Brown CM,Suzuki S

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Gut peptides in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis.

    abstract::Gut hormones signal to the central nervous system to influence energy homeostasis. Evidence supports the existence of a system in the gut that senses the presence of food in the gastrointestinal tract and signals to the brain via neural and endocrine mechanisms to regulate short-term appetite and satiety. Recent evide...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Murphy KG,Dhillo WS,Bloom SR

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • 11β-HSD1 in Human Fetal Membranes as a Potential Therapeutic Target for Preterm Birth.

    abstract::Human parturition is a complex process involving interactions between the myometrium and signals derived from the placenta, fetal membranes, and fetus. Signals originating from fetal membranes are crucial components that trigger parturition, which is clearly illustrated by the labor-initiating consequence of membrane ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wang W,Chen ZJ,Myatt L,Sun K

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Adipose tissue-derived factors: impact on health and disease.

    abstract::The endocrine functions of the adipose organ are widely studied at this stage. The adipose organ, and in particular adipocytes, communicate with almost all other organs. Although some adipose tissue pads assume the functions as distinct "miniorgans," adipocytes can also be present in smaller numbers interspersed with ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Trujillo ME,Scherer PE

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • How do glucocorticoids influence stress responses? Integrating permissive, suppressive, stimulatory, and preparative actions.

    abstract::The secretion of glucocorticoids (GCs) is a classic endocrine response to stress. Despite that, it remains controversial as to what purpose GCs serve at such times. One view, stretching back to the time of Hans Selye, posits that GCs help mediate the ongoing or pending stress response, either via basal levels of GCs p...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Sapolsky RM,Romero LM,Munck AU

    更新日期:2000-02-01 00:00:00

  • Molecular mechanisms underlying the activation of mammalian primordial follicles.

    abstract::In humans and other mammalian species, the pool of resting primordial follicles serves as the source of developing follicles and fertilizable ova for the entire length of female reproductive life. One question that has intrigued biologists is: what are the mechanisms controlling the activation of dormant primordial fo...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Adhikari D,Liu K

    更新日期:2009-08-01 00:00:00

  • Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand and osteoprotegerin regulation of bone remodeling in health and disease.

    abstract::Osteoclasts and osteoblasts dictate skeletal mass, structure, and strength via their respective roles in resorbing and forming bone. Bone remodeling is a spatially coordinated lifelong process whereby old bone is removed by osteoclasts and replaced by bone-forming osteoblasts. The refilling of resorption cavities is i...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kearns AE,Khosla S,Kostenuik PJ

    更新日期:2008-04-01 00:00:00

  • Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Receptor and Thyroid-Associated Ophthalmopathy.

    abstract::Thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) is a complex disease process presumed to emerge from autoimmunity occurring in the thyroid gland, most frequently in Graves disease (GD). It is disfiguring and potentially blinding, culminating in orbital tissue remodeling and disruption of function of structures adjacent to the...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Smith TJ,Janssen JAMJL

    更新日期:2019-02-01 00:00:00

  • The prolactin/growth hormone receptor family.

    abstract::PRL and GH are hormones with a wide spectrum of actions. Specific receptors are widely distributed in a number of classical target organs, but other tissues that are not known targets also contain measurable binding sites or receptor mRNA. The most likely explanation is that PRL and GH cause effects that have not yet ...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kelly PA,Djiane J,Postel-Vinay MC,Edery M

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • The role of adiponectin in cancer: a review of current evidence.

    abstract::Excess body weight is associated not only with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) but also with various types of malignancies. Adiponectin, the most abundant protein secreted by adipose tissue, exhibits insulin-sensitizing, antiinflammatory, antiatherogenic, proapoptotic, and antipro...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dalamaga M,Diakopoulos KN,Mantzoros CS

    更新日期:2012-08-01 00:00:00

  • The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in pregnancy: challenges in disease detection and treatment.

    abstract::Pregnancy dramatically affects the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis leading to increased circulating cortisol and ACTH levels during gestation, reaching values in the range seen in Cushing's syndrome (CS). The cause(s) of increased ACTH may include placental synthesis and release of biologically active CRH and ACTH...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lindsay JR,Nieman LK

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1 alpha): transcriptional coactivator and metabolic regulator.

    abstract::Investigations of biological programs that are controlled by gene transcription have mainly studied the regulation of transcription factors. However, there are examples in which the primary focus of biological regulation is at the level of a transcriptional coactivator. We have reviewed here the molecular mechanisms a...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Puigserver P,Spiegelman BM

    更新日期:2003-02-01 00:00:00

  • Small G proteins in islet beta-cell function.

    abstract::Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion from the islet beta-cell involves a sequence of metabolic events and an interplay between a wide range of signaling pathways leading to the generation of second messengers (e.g., cyclic nucleotides, adenine and guanine nucleotides, soluble lipid messengers) and mobilization of calc...

    journal_title:Endocrine reviews

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kowluru A

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00