Human Cytosolic and Mitochondrial Serine Hydroxymethyltransferase Isoforms in Comparison: Full Kinetic Characterization and Substrate Inhibition Properties.

Abstract:

:Serine hydroxymethyltransferase (SHMT) catalyzes the reversible conversion of l-serine and tetrahydrofolate into glycine and 5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate. This enzyme, which plays a pivotal role in one-carbon metabolism, is involved in cancer metabolic reprogramming and is a recognized target of chemotherapy intervention. In humans, two isoforms of the enzyme exist, which are commonly termed cytosolic SHMT1 and mitochondrial SHMT2. Considerable attention has been paid to the structural, mechanistic, and metabolic features of these isozymes. On the other hand, a detailed comparison of their catalytic and regulatory properties is missing, although this aspect seems to be considerably important, considering that SHMT1 and SHMT2 reside in different cellular compartments, where they play distinct roles in folate metabolism. Here we performed a full kinetic characterization of the serine hydroxymethyltransferase reaction catalyzed by SHMT1 and SHMT2, with a focus on pH dependence and substrate inhibition. Our investigation, which allowed the determination of all kinetic parameters of serine hydroxymethyltransferase forward and backward reactions, uncovered a previously unobserved substrate inhibition by l-serine and highlighted several interesting differences between SHMT1 and SHMT2. In particular, SHMT2 maintains a pronounced tetrahydrofolate substrate inhibition even at the alkaline pH characteristic of the mitochondrial matrix, whereas with SHMT1 this is almost abolished. At this pH, SHMT2 also shows a catalytic efficiency that is much higher than that of SHMT1. These observations suggest that such different properties represent an adaptation of the isoforms to the respective cellular environments and that substrate inhibition may be a form of regulation.

journal_name

Biochemistry

journal_title

Biochemistry

authors

Tramonti A,Nardella C,di Salvo ML,Barile A,Cutruzzolà F,Contestabile R

doi

10.1021/acs.biochem.8b01074

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2018-12-26 00:00:00

pages

6984-6996

issue

51

eissn

0006-2960

issn

1520-4995

journal_volume

57

pub_type

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