Preventive and therapeutic effects of environmental enrichment in Wistar rats submitted to neonatal hypoxia-ischemia.


:Environmental enrichment (EE) at early stages of neurodevelopment attenuates HI-induced behavioral, histological and cellular damage. However, the effects of EE exposure during gestational or early postnatal period and the possible influence of sexual dimorphism on EE protection are not fully understood. Present study evaluated the effects of pre-natal and postnatal EE, as well as their combination, in male and female rats submitted to neonatal HI at postnatal day (PND) 3. Wistar rats were housed in EE or in standard condition (SC) during all pregnancy. At PND1, the litters were randomly allocated to the same prenatal environment during lactation (SC + SC or EE + EE) or housed in a new environment until weaning (SC + EE or EE + SC). Behavioral tasks were performed from PND 60-75. Then, animals were euthanized for biochemical and histological analysis. Prenatal and early postnatal EE alone improved performance of HI males in the Water Maze spatial memory task, while HI females were most benefited from early postnatal stimulation. Moreover, EE attenuated HI-induced lower anxiety-like behavior in rats of both sexes and decreased hyperlocomotion in HI females. Hippocampus tissue preservation and higher VEGF and TrkB levels were observed in all HI groups exposed to EE. Interestingly, HI males exposed to prenatal or postnatal EE alone exhibited higher GFAP levels and additional tissue preservation. Therefore, both prenatal and early postnatal environmental enrichment cause attenuation of HI-induced impairments, revealing their preventive and therapeutic actions, possibly due to VEGF and astrocyte activity; some of these effects are sex-specific.


Behav Brain Res


Durán-Carabali LE,Arcego DM,Sanches EF,Odorcyk FK,Marques MR,Tosta A,Reichert L,Carvalho AS,Dalmaz C,Netto CA




Has Abstract


2019-02-01 00:00:00












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