Tryptophan metabolism and its relationship with central nervous system toxicity in people living with HIV switching from efavirenz to dolutegravir.

Abstract:

:The mechanisms underlying central nervous system (CNS) toxicities in antiretroviral-treated persons living with HIV (PLWH) remain elusive. We investigated the associations between markers of tryptophan metabolism and measurements of CNS toxicity in PLWH. In a prospective study, virologically suppressed PLWH receiving efavirenz-containing antiretroviral regimens with ongoing CNS toxicity were switched to dolutegravir-containing regimens and followed up for 12 weeks. Plasma tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations and the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were calculated. Ten CNS toxicities were graded according to the ACTG adverse events scale. Scores ranged from 0 (none) to 3 (severe) and were summed, giving a total from 0 to 30. Paired-samples t tests and linear mixed model analyses were conducted to assess changes in, and relationships between, laboratory and clinical parameters. Mean kynurenine plasma concentration increased from baseline to week 12 (2.15 to 2.50 μmol/L, p = 0.041). No significant changes were observed for tryptophan (54.74 to 56.42 μmol/L, p = 1.000) or kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (40.37 to 41.08 μmol/L, p = 0.276). Mean CNS toxicity score decreased from 10.00 to 4.63 (p < 0.001). Plasma kynurenine concentration correlated with CNS toxicity score: for every 1 μmol/L increase in kynurenine concentration observed, a 1.7 point decrease was observed in CNS toxicity score (p < 0.038). A similar trend was observed for the kynurenine/tryptophan ratio: for every 1 μmol/mmol increase observed in kynurenine/tryptophan ratio, a 0.1 point decrease was observed in CNS toxicity score (p = 0.054). Switching from efavirenz to dolutegravir was associated with increases in plasma kynurenine concentration and improvements in CNS toxicity scores. Underlying mechanisms explaining the rise in kynurenine concentrations need to be established.

journal_name

J Neurovirol

journal_title

Journal of neurovirology

authors

Keegan MR,Winston A,Higgs C,Fuchs D,Boasso A,Nelson M

doi

10.1007/s13365-018-0688-3

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-02-01 00:00:00

pages

85-90

issue

1

eissn

1355-0284

issn

1538-2443

pii

10.1007/s13365-018-0688-3

journal_volume

25

pub_type

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