DEXI, a candidate gene for type 1 diabetes, modulates rat and human pancreatic beta cell inflammation via regulation of the type I IFN/STAT signalling pathway.

Abstract:

AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:The initial stages of type 1 diabetes are characterised by an aberrant islet inflammation that is in part regulated by the interaction between type 1 diabetes susceptibility genes and environmental factors. Chromosome 16p13 is associated with type 1 diabetes and CLEC16A is thought to be the aetiological gene in the region. Recent gene expression analysis has, however, indicated that SNPs in CLEC16A modulate the expression of a neighbouring gene with unknown function named DEXI, encoding dexamethasone-induced protein (DEXI). We therefore evaluated the role of DEXI in beta cell responses to 'danger signals' and determined the mechanisms involved. METHODS:Functional studies based on silencing or overexpression of DEXI were performed in rat and human pancreatic beta cells. Beta cell inflammation and apoptosis, driven by a synthetic viral double-stranded RNA, were evaluated by real-time PCR, western blotting and luciferase assays. RESULTS:DEXI-silenced beta cells exposed to a synthetic double-stranded RNA (polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid [PIC], a by-product of viral replication) showed reduced activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1 and lower production of proinflammatory chemokines that was preceded by a reduction in IFNβ levels. Exposure to PIC increased chromatin-bound DEXI and IFNβ promoter activity. This effect on IFNβ promoter was inhibited in DEXI-silenced beta cells, suggesting that DEXI is implicated in the regulation of IFNβ transcription. In a mirror image of knockdown experiments, DEXI overexpression led to increased levels of STAT1 and proinflammatory chemokines. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:These observations support DEXI as the aetiological gene in the type 1 diabetes-associated 16p13 genomic region, and provide the first indication of a link between this candidate gene and the regulation of local antiviral immune responses in beta cells. Moreover, our results provide initial information on the function of DEXI.

journal_name

Diabetologia

journal_title

Diabetologia

authors

Dos Santos RS,Marroqui L,Velayos T,Olazagoitia-Garmendia A,Jauregi-Miguel A,Castellanos-Rubio A,Eizirik DL,Castaño L,Santin I

doi

10.1007/s00125-018-4782-0

subject

Has Abstract

pub_date

2019-03-01 00:00:00

pages

459-472

issue

3

eissn

0012-186X

issn

1432-0428

pii

10.1007/s00125-018-4782-0

journal_volume

62

pub_type

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