Comparing Injecting Risk Behaviors of Long-Term Injectors with New Injectors in Tehran, Iran.


BACKGROUND:Global estimates suggest there are 15.6 million people who inject drugs (PWID) of whom 17.8% are living with HIV.Few studies have characterized newly-onset injectors with long-term injectors and its association with injecting risk behaviors. OBJECTIVES:We examined the relationship between length of injection and risk behaviors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Tehran, Iran. METHODS:A cross-sectional study was conducted among PWID, from March to August 2016 in Tehran, Iran. PWID were recruited by convenience and snowball sampling from five Drop-in Centers (DIC) located in the south of Tehran. Our primary independent variable was length of injecting career, defined as the number of months since injecting initiation. Those defined as new injectors (were injecting for less than 18 months), and long-term injectors (as injecting drugs for more than 18 months). We reported the adjusted odds ratio (aOR) point estimate and 95% confidence interval (CI95%) as the effect measure. The level of significance used in multiple logistic regression model was 0.05. We used STATA v. 11 for all analyzes. RESULTS:The analytical sample comprised of 500 participants (100% male). Mean (±SD) age of PWID with a length of injection history was 31.2 ± 7.2 years. Overall, 270 (54%) (CI95%: 49.6%, 58.4%) of participants were long-term injectors. The average age of drug use initiation among long-term injectors group was lower as compared to new injectors group (31.2 vs. 29.4, p < 0.001). The odds of distributive syringe sharing among new injectors were two times higher than long-term injectors (AOR = 2.1, 95% CI 1.4-4.7). The odds of receptive syringe sharing were lower among new injectors group (AOR = 0.7, CI95% 0.2-0.87), compared to long-term injectors. New injectors had higher odds of reusing their own syringes (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.4-5.7; p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS:Improvements in harm reduction service provision can occur through taregted risk reduction education for new injectors focusing on reducing distributive syringe sharing among them.


Subst Use Misuse


Substance use & misuse


Bazrafshan MR,Noroozi M,Ghisvand H,Noroozi A,Alibeigi N,Abbasi M,Higgs P,Armoon B




Has Abstract


2019-01-01 00:00:00












  • Predictors of relapse in 300 Brazilian alcoholic patients: a 6-month follow-up study.

    abstract::Three hundred alcoholic patients were interviewed at hospitalization and again 3 and 6 months thereafter in Porto Alegre, Brazil, from March 2002 to January 2004. Assessment included the SCID-I to check for the presence of Axis I mental disorders, a questionnaire focusing on patient relationship with AA groups, and sp...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Terra MB,Barros HM,Stein AT,Figueira I,Athayde LD,Ott DR,de Azambuja Rde C,da Silveira DX

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Cohabitation, gender, and alcohol consumption in 19 countries: a multilevel analysis.

    abstract::We used an ecological paradigm and multilevel analytic techniques to analyze gender-specific relationships of cohabitation (versus marriage) to drinking in 19 countries (n = 32,922) and to "heavy episodic drinking" (HED) in 17 countries (n = 24,525) in surveys (1996-2004) from Gender, Alcohol, and Culture: An Internat...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li Q,Wilsnack R,Wilsnack S,Kristjanson A

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnographic strategies in the tracking and retention of street-recruited community-based samples of substance using hidden populations in longitudinal studies.

    abstract::The article presents practical and methodological strategies in the tracking and retention of a longitudinal community-based sample of 300 Mexican American noninjecting users of heroin. Presented are the ethnographic strategies the research team utilized to maintain high retention rates among this highly marginalized ...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cepeda A,Valdez A

    更新日期:2010-04-01 00:00:00

  • Betel Quid Dependency and Associated Intrapersonal, Interpersonal, and Environmental Factors among Adolescents: A School-Based Cross-Sectional Survey.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Betel quid (BQ) is one of the fourth most commonly used substance globally. Though BQ is a psycho-active substance, yet little has been explored regarding dependency on it particularly among adolescents. OBJECTIVES:Therefore, in this study, we aimed to determine adolescents' dependency on BQ, along with the...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hussain A,Zaheer S,Shafique K

    更新日期:2018-10-15 00:00:00

  • Childhood sexual abuse, PTSD, and the functional roles of alcohol use among women drinkers.

    abstract::The present study investigated whether a history of childhood sexual abuse (CSA) or current post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was associated with alcohol-related expectancies and recalled effects of drinking reported by women in substance user treatment. The results indicate that CSA status was not associated with...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Simpson TL

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • CBD (Cannabidiol) Product Attitudes, Knowledge, and Use Among Young Adults.

    abstract::Background: Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive component of cannabis is marketed as a potential treatment for many conditions and widely available to purchase as a dietary supplement. In 2017, sales of CBD exceeded 820 million dollars despite many unconfirmed health claims, murky legality, and limited product effic...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wheeler M,Merten JW,Gordon BT,Hamadi H

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00

  • "First Things First": What is the First Thing?

    abstract::This op-ed piece comments on the down-side of an otherwise useful 12-step slogan, "First Things First," which generally refers to staying sober (not drinking or using no matter what). While important, there are environmental, microsocial, psychiatric, and neurobiological considerations that may place other needs at an...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sussman S,Forster M,Grigsby T

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Statewide Administration of the CRAFFT Screening Tool: Highlighting the Spectrum of Substance Use.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Adolescent alcohol and drug use in the United States are associated with negative consequences spanning multiple domains. Much of the public health surveillance of these behaviors relies on self-report survey data. These data frequently takes the form of frequency or prevalence data for specific substances, ...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Agley J,Gassman RA,Jun M,Nowicke C,Samuel S

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Correlates of Skin and Soft Tissue Infections in Injection Drug Users in a Syringe-Exchange Program in Malmö, Sweden.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Injection drug users (IDUs) are at increased risk of various medical conditions, including bacterial skin and soft tissue infections (SSTIs). SSTIs, which are painful and can lead to life-threatening complications, are common but scarcely studied. OBJECTIVES:To investigate life time, past 12 month and past ...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dahlman D,Håkansson A,Björkman P,Blomé MA,Kral AH

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Rurality and criminal history as predictors of HIV risk among drug-involved offenders.

    abstract::The current study examined rurality and criminality as predictors of the lifetime HIV risk behaviors of 661 male, drug-abusing state prisoners. HIV risk behaviors included the number of lifetime sex partners, the number of lifetime drug injections, the number of times had sex with an injection drug user, and the frequ...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Webster JM,Mateyoke-Scrivner A,Staton M,Leukefeld C

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Exploring peers as a mediator of the association between depression and smoking in young adolescents.

    abstract::Recent research has suggested that depression causes teens to begin smoking to elevate their mood. Other studies, however, have suggested the reverse causal direction: smoking causes depression. To gain a more complete understanding of the relationship between smoking and depression, potential mediators should be expl...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ritt-Olson A,Unger J,Valente T,Nezami E,Chou CP,Trinidad D,Milam J,Earleywine M,Tan S,Johnson CA

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in the marijuana expectancies of adolescents in relation to marijuana use.

    abstract::Marijuana use continues to be a problem among youth. Outcome expectancies influence substance-using behavior in both children and adults. Expectancy interventions are empirically supported. Despite their success, there is a lack of information regarding marijuana expectancies in youth from which to develop these inter...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Alfonso J,Dunn ME

    更新日期:2007-01-01 00:00:00

  • Time-Series Analysis of the Impact of Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs on Heroin Treatment Admissions.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Prescription drug abuse has become a major issue in the United States in recent years. Prescription drug monitoring programs (PDMPs) are designed to help health care providers to prevent such abuses. There may be unintended effects of these programs. Specifically, PDMPs may move prescription opioid users to ...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Branham DK

    更新日期:2018-03-21 00:00:00

  • The Parental Bond and Alcohol Use Among Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Drinking Motives.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems represent a significant health concern. Few empirical researches focused on understanding the interrelationships and links between the parental bond, drinking motives, and alcohol use during adolescence. OBJECTIVES:The present study examined the relationships between...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smorti M,Guarnieri S

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Electronic Cigarette Use Among Adolescents in the Russian Federation.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Information on e-cigarettes among youth in the Russian Federation is lacking. OBJECTIVE:We examined prevalence of and factors associated with youth e-cigarette use in the Russian Federation. METHODS:A cross-sectional, anonymous survey, conducted among 716 (females 51.5%) high school students in three citie...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kong G,Idrisov B,Galimov A,Masagutov R,Sussman S

    更新日期:2017-02-23 00:00:00

  • "Vintage meds": a netnographic study of user decision-making, home preparation, and consumptive patterns of laudanum.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Reviews have commented on rising clandestine manufacture of opiate drug solutions for injecting, and to a lesser extent for oral use. Very little is known about user attempts to culture poppy seeds, widely available on the internet for manufacture of long acting medium-high potency oral solutions, both as po...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Van Hout MC,Hearne E

    更新日期:2015-04-01 00:00:00

  • Weighing the Pros and Cons of Using Alcohol Protective Behavioral Strategies: A Qualitative Examination among College Students.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Alcohol protective behavioral strategies (PBS) are behaviors engaged in immediately prior to, during, after, or instead of drinking with the explicit goal of reducing alcohol use, intoxication, and/or alcohol-related harms. Despite the quantitative support for alcohol PBS as a protective factor among college...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bravo AJ,Pearson MR,Stevens LE,Henson JM

    更新日期:2018-11-10 00:00:00

  • Finland: increases in alcohol availability and consumption.

    abstract::This article briefly describes the changes that Finland has undergone during the 1960-2012 period with regards to societal changes, alcohol control policies, alcohol-related harms, and alcohol consumption, after which the findings of the analyses made by Allamani and his colleagues in the AMPHORA project are discussed...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lindeman M,Österberg E,Karlsson T

    更新日期:2014-10-01 00:00:00

  • Volatile substance misuse in the United States.

    abstract::Volatile substance misuse (VSM) is prevalent in the United States and associated with manifold deleterious outcomes. This review summarizes research on: (1) the prevalence of VSM in the United States and its trends since 1975, (2) population subgroups at an elevated risk for VSM, (3) key correlates of VSM, (4) psychos...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Garland EL,Howard MO,Vaughn MG,Perron BE

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sobriety Treatment and Recovery Teams: Implementation Fidelity and Related Outcomes.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Although integrated programs between child welfare and substance abuse treatment are recommended for families with co-occurring child maltreatment and substance use disorders, implementing integrated service delivery strategies with fidelity is a challenging process. OBJECTIVE:This study of the first five y...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huebner RA,Posze L,Willauer TM,Hall MT

    更新日期:2015-01-01 00:00:00

  • Beyond 'Doing Gender': Incorporating Race, Class, Place, and Life Transitions into Feminist Drug Research.

    abstract::This essay draws from our research with US rural women methamphetamine users in 2009 to offer strategies for "revisioning" the drug use(r) field to better understand the impact of gender on drug use and drug market participation. We highlight the insights and limitations of a popular strategy in feminist research that...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Miller J,Carbone-Lopez K

    更新日期:2015-05-01 00:00:00

  • Retention in treatment--indicator or illusion: an essay.

    abstract::This article poses questions about the meaning of retention in substance user treatment. Retention has become a "gold standard" for substance user-treatment programs, suggesting it has become more than an indicator of positive outcomes, but a positive treatment outcome in its own right. Retention has been studied in n...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Walker R

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • Sexual orientation and smoking: results from a multisite women's health study.

    abstract::Although lesbians are believed to be at disproportionately high risk for smoking, few published studies have focused on smoking rates in this population. We examined and compared rates and demographic correlates of smoking among 550 lesbians and 279 heterosexual women in Chicago, Minneapolis/St. Paul, and in New York ...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Hughes TL,Johnson TP,Matthews AK

    更新日期:2008-07-01 00:00:00

  • Syringe disposal bins: the outcomes of a free trial for city traders in an inner-city municipality Australia.

    abstract::Community responses toward discarded syringes have the potential to threaten the sustainability of harm reduction interventions. Many retailers in the central business district of Melbourne, Australia, have expressed concern about drug use and the associated discarded syringes. The Melbourne City Council has responded...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Devaney M,Berends L

    更新日期:2008-01-01 00:00:00

  • Investigating Differences Between Drugs Used in the Australian Night-Time Economy: Demographics, Substance Use, and Harm.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Understanding the characteristics of drug users in the night-time economy (NTE), and whether particular drugs are associated with risky practices and experience of harm, is necessary to inform targeted policy responses in this context. OBJECTIVES:To investigate the correlates of drugs used in the Australian...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pennay A,Jenkinson R,Quinn B,Droste NT,Peacock A,Lubman DI,Miller PG

    更新日期:2017-01-02 00:00:00

  • Typologies of alcohol use in White and African American adolescent girls.

    abstract::This study examined typologies of alcohol use among 2,948 White and African American adolescent girls using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Self-report data were collected on frequency and quantity of alcohol use, negative consequences, and high-risk drinking behaviors, as well as co-oc...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dauber S,Hogue A,Paulson JF,Leiferman JA

    更新日期:2009-01-01 00:00:00

  • The street/treatment barrier: treatment experiences of Puerto Rican injection drug users.

    abstract::This study describes, through ethnographic interviews, the treatment experiences of Puerto Rican long-term heroin users who are at extremely high risk for HIV infection and the barriers they perceive to drug treatment. On the basis of this information we suggest policy recommendations for increasing drug treatment acc...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Porter J

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Comparison of the quick drinking screen and the alcohol timeline followback with outpatient alcohol abusers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:A recent study comparing the Quick Drinking Screen (QDS) with the Timeline Followback (TLFB) found that in a nonclinical population of problem drinkers both measures produced reliable summary measures of drinking. The current study was designed to replicate these findings with a clinical population of alcohol...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Roy M,Dum M,Sobell LC,Sobell MB,Simco ER,Manor H,Palmerio R

    更新日期:2008-12-01 00:00:00

  • An alcohol, tobacco, and other drug use comparison of lesbian, bisexual, and heterosexual undergraduate women.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Little research has focused specifically on alcohol, tobacco, and other drug (ATOD) use of lesbian and bisexual women in general or the college subgroup specifically. Previous research shows sexual minority women at increased risk when compared to their heterosexual counterparts. OBJECTIVES:The purpose of t...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kerr D,Ding K,Burke A,Ott-Walter K

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in Psychoactive Substance Abuse Between Youths Residing in and Outside Conflict Zones as a Function of Level of Religiosity and Political Commitment.

    abstract::The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of the unique characteristics of residing in security and political conflict zones on the willingness to use and on the actual abuse of psychoactive substances. The study focuses on the differences between youths residing in and outside conflict zones in Israel. T...

    journal_title:Substance use & misuse

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ne'eman-Haviv V,Wilchek-Aviad Y

    更新日期:2017-08-24 00:00:00