A multistep general theory of transition to addiction.


BACKGROUND:Several theories propose alternative explanations for drug addiction. OBJECTIVES:We propose a general theory of transition to addiction that synthesizes knowledge generated in the field of addiction into a unitary explanatory frame. MAJOR PRINCIPLES OF THE THEORY:Transition to addiction results from a sequential three-step interaction between: (1) individual vulnerability; (2) degree/amount of drug exposure. The first step, sporadic recreational drug use is a learning process mediated by overactivation of neurobiological substrates of natural rewards that allows most individuals to perceive drugs as highly rewarding stimuli. The second, intensified, sustained, escalated drug use occurs in some vulnerable individuals who have a hyperactive dopaminergic system and impaired prefrontal cortex function. Sustained and prolonged drug use induces incentive sensitization and an allostatic state that makes drugs strongly wanted and needed. Habit formation can also contribute to stabilizing sustained drug use. The last step, loss of control of drug intake and full addiction, is due to a second vulnerable phenotype. This loss-of-control-prone phenotype is triggered by long-term drug exposure and characterized by long-lasting loss of synaptic plasticity in reward areas in the brain that induce a form of behavioral crystallization resulting in loss of control of drug intake. Because of behavioral crystallization, drugs are now not only wanted and needed but also pathologically mourned when absent. CONCLUSIONS:This general theory demonstrates that drug addiction is a true psychiatric disease caused by a three-step interaction between vulnerable individuals and amount/duration of drug exposure.




Piazza PV,Deroche-Gamonet V




Has Abstract


2013-10-01 00:00:00












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    abstract:RATIONALE:A deficit in attention and information processing has been considered a central feature in schizophrenia, which might lead to stimulus overload and cognitive fragmentation. It has been shown that patients with schizophrenia display a relative inability to gate incoming stimuli. Thus, patients repeatedly subje...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Klamer D,Pålsson E,Revesz A,Engel JA,Svensson L

    更新日期:2004-11-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of dopamine agonists on prepulse inhibition in healthy men depend on baseline PPI values.

    abstract:RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES:Dopamine (DA) agonists reliably disrupt prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the startle reflex in animals but less so in humans despite cross-species similarities in the neural regulation of PPI. This study examines whether individual variation in baseline PPI may account for the inconsistencies in DA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Bitsios P,Giakoumaki SG,Frangou S

    更新日期:2005-10-01 00:00:00

  • Endotoxin-induced reduction of social investigation by mice: interaction with amphetamine and anti-inflammatory drugs.

    abstract::Previous studies indicate that some aspects of endotoxin-induced sickness behavior in rats may be mediated by interleukin-1 stimulated events and can be attenuated by corticosteroids, cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the interleukin-1-receptor antagonist. In the current studies, we replicate and extend these findings in ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fishkin RJ,Winslow JT

    更新日期:1997-08-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Dai Y,Dudek NL,Li Q,Muma NA

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schmidt WJ

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    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Guadarrama-Bazante IL,Rodríguez-Manzo G

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kinney GG,Kocsis B,Vertes RP

    更新日期:1995-08-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Swerdlow NR,Geyer MA,Hartman PL,Sprock J,Auerbach PP,Cadenhead K,Perry W,Braff DL

    更新日期:1999-09-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kokkinidis L,Zacharko RM

    更新日期:1980-01-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Smith KK,Dharmaratne HR,Feltenstein MW,Broom SL,Roach JT,Nanayakkara NP,Khan IA,Sufka KJ

    更新日期:2001-04-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peselow ED,Deutsch SI,Stanley M,Banay-Schwartz M,Virgilio J,Fieve RR

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thiel KJ,Sanabria F,Neisewander JL

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hawkins R,Kripke DF,Janowsky DS

    更新日期:1978-01-31 00:00:00

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    abstract::Normal male volunteers took single acute doses of either diazepam or placebo under double-blind conditions in three simulated public speaking experiments. Measures of palmar sweating and subjective anxiety showed that anticipation of speaking in public increased anxiety relative to baseline and prestress conditions, a...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: McNair DM,Frankenthaler LM,Czerlinsky T,White TW,Sasson S,Fisher S

    更新日期:1982-01-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Panlilio LV,Thorndike EB,Schindler CW

    更新日期:2003-07-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Di Lemma LCG,Stancak A,Soto V,Fallon N,Field M

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Trevitt JT,Carlson BB,Salamone JD

    更新日期:1999-08-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Davies DL,McCauley LD,Bolger MB,Alkana RL

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Ralph RJ,Caine SB

    更新日期:2007-04-01 00:00:00

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    authors: Cinotti F,Marchand AR,Roesch MR,Girard B,Khamassi M

    更新日期:2019-08-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


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    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rotrosen J,Angrist BM,Gershon S,Sachar EJ,Halpern FS

    更新日期:1976-12-21 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taylor JR,Horger BA

    更新日期:1999-02-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cope ZA,Halberstadt AL,van Enkhuizen J,Flynn AD,Breier M,Swerdlow NR,Geyer MA,Young JW

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hyttel J

    更新日期:1978-12-15 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gai BM,Bortolatto CF,Heck SO,Stein AL,Duarte MM,Zeni G,Nogueira CW

    更新日期:2014-05-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Walters CL,Wang BC,Godfrey M,Sun D,Funk CD,Blendy JA

    更新日期:2003-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cofresí RU,Bartholow BD

    更新日期:2020-11-01 00:00:00

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    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grottick AJ,Whelan K,Sanabria EK,Behan DP,Morgan M,Sage C

    更新日期:2015-06-01 00:00:00