Medical management for the prevention and treatment of diabetic macular edema.


:Recent clinical trials have changed the management paradigm for diabetic macular edema (DME). There is an urgent need to identify the most effective ways of preventing retinopathy or intervening at an early, asymptomatic stage in order to preserve vision. The rise in the incidence of diabetes is a serious public health concern. Grading and screening programmes help to identify sight threatening diabetic retinopathy in the community early and facilitate timely referral to an ophthalmologist. Systemic therapies for DME target the key modifiable risk factors: metabolic and blood pressure control. There may also be a role for modification of the renin-angiotensin system and for lipid lowering agents. Improved glycemic and blood pressure control remain the most effective ways of reducing morbidity from DME. Fenofibrate also has beneficial effects, but the mechanism for this remains unclear. Multiple new treatments are in the pipeline, and these are expected to change our approach to DME for the first time in 30 years.


Surv Ophthalmol


Survey of ophthalmology


Kiire CA,Porta M,Chong V




Has Abstract


2013-09-01 00:00:00














  • Retinoblastoma in adults. Report of three cases and review of the literature.

    abstract::Retinoblastoma usually presents in children younger than 5 years. To our knowledge, 20 cases of retinoblastoma in adults (older than 20 years) have been reported in the literature. Of 173 patients with histopathologically proven retinoblastoma seen in our institute, three were adults. All the patients had endophytic t...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Biswas J,Mani B,Shanmugam MP,Patwardhan D,Kumar KS,Badrinath SS

    更新日期:2000-03-01 00:00:00

  • Acute visual loss: just the beginning?

    abstract::A 47-year-old man presented with sudden visual loss, optic disk edema, retinal ischemia, and limited upgaze in the left eye. Initial MRI revealed thickened, enhancing left optic nerve. Extensive work-up for an inflammatory and infiltrative etiology was positive only for Borrelia burgdorferi IgM by Western blot. Six we...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Colpak AI,Isikay I,Mut M,Soylemezoglu F,Kansu T,Foroozan R

    更新日期:2014-09-01 00:00:00

  • Normal and pathological mechanisms in retinal vascular development.

    abstract::Angiogenesis is a complex biologic process that occurs normally in development and in turnover and remodeling of mature vascular networks. Pathological angiogenesis and neovascularization occur in association with retinal and ocular ischemic diseases, in retinopathy of prematurity and other developmental disorders, an...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gariano RF,Kalina RE,Hendrickson AE

    更新日期:1996-05-01 00:00:00

  • Orbital inflammation: Biopsy first.

    abstract::Orbital inflammation is a response of the immune system and not a diagnosis in itself. Exposing the underlying disease introduces a labyrynthine challenge owing to the broad array of possible causes ranging from infectious, structural, autoimmune, idiopathic to neoplastic origin. In this regard, and despite its unkown...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Mombaerts I,Rose GE,Garrity JA

    更新日期:2016-09-01 00:00:00

  • Drug delivery to the posterior segment from drops.

    abstract::The published evidence that instilled drugs can affect the blood supply to the retina and optic nerve head in humans is examined. As a background, seven techniques that have been used to measure flow are briefly described and criticized. For timolol, the corresponding measurements, obtained by a number of investigator...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maurice DM

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Big data and ophthalmic research.

    abstract::Large population-based health administrative databases, clinical registries, and data linkage systems are a rapidly expanding resource for health research. Ophthalmic research has benefited from the use of these databases in expanding the breadth of knowledge in areas such as disease surveillance, disease etiology, he...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Clark A,Ng JQ,Morlet N,Semmens JB

    更新日期:2016-07-01 00:00:00

  • Intraocular pressure monitoring post intravitreal steroids: a systematic review.

    abstract::The use of intravitreal (IVT) corticosteroids for treatment of posterior segment diseases has increased significantly over the last decade. A commonly recognized complication of IVT steroids is secondary ocular hypertension (OHT) that can occur immediately secondary to direct intraocular volume increase or weeks to mo...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,meta分析,评审


    authors: Kiddee W,Trope GE,Sheng L,Beltran-Agullo L,Smith M,Strungaru MH,Baath J,Buys YM

    更新日期:2013-07-01 00:00:00

  • Recertification: update and future issues.

    abstract::This article describes the history and substance of New York State's proposal for a mandatory recredentialing program for physicians, its implications for the medical profession, and the pros and cons of instituting a recertification policy for ophthalmology. ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Grenell B,Studin I

    更新日期:1990-07-01 00:00:00

  • The efficacy and safety of unfixed and fixed combinations of latanoprost and other antiglaucoma medications.

    abstract::Adjunctive therapy for the management of glaucoma is commonly used. Unfixed combinations of the prostaglandin analog latanoprost and other glaucoma medications have been demonstrated to effectively lower intraocular pressure (IOP). The range of reported additional reductions in IOP compared to a monotherapy baseline a...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Higginbotham EJ,Diestelhorst M,Pfeiffer N,Rouland JF,Alm A

    更新日期:2002-08-01 00:00:00

  • Pediatric pseudotumor cerebri (idiopathic intracranial hypertension).

    abstract::This review focuses on the features of pseudotumor cerebri in the pediatric age group. There is no sex predilection in children, and obesity does not appear to be an important factor. Infants and young children may present with irritability, apathy, or somnolence, rather than headache. Dizziness and ataxia may also oc...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lessell S

    更新日期:1992-11-01 00:00:00

  • Ocular myasthenia: a protean disorder.

    abstract::Ocular myasthenia is a localized form of myasthenia clinically involving only the extraocular, levator palpebrae superioris, and/or orbicularis oculi muscles. Ocular manifestations can masquerade as a variety of ocular motility disorders, including cranial nerve and gaze palsies. A history of variable and fatiguable m...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weinberg DA,Lesser RL,Vollmer TL

    更新日期:1994-11-01 00:00:00

  • The vascular endothelium as a regulator of the ocular circulation: a new concept in ophthalmology?

    abstract::The endothelium influences local vascular tone by releasing endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide, prostacyclin and a putative hyperpolarizing factor. In isolated ophthalmic arteries and the perfused eye, all endothelial factors importantly contribute to vascular regulation. In larger ophthalmic ve...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Haefliger IO,Meyer P,Flammer J,Lüscher TF

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Functional magnetic resonance imaging and its clinical utility in patients with visual disturbances.

    abstract::Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a powerful, non-invasive technique for mapping human brain function. Because of the robust signal intensity changes associated with visual stimuli, fMRI is particularly useful for studying visual cortex (including both striate and extrastriate cortex). Also, activation o...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Miki A,Haselgrove JC,Liu GT

    更新日期:2002-11-01 00:00:00

  • Reducing the risk of postoperative endophthalmitis.

    abstract::Recent literature suggests that the incidence of postoperative endophthalmitis is variable and may be on the rise. This article reviews established perioperative preventative measures, and discusses some possible causes of postoperative endophthalmitis that may be insufficiently addressed by current risk reduction tec...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Olson RJ

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Presbyopia toward the end of the 20th century.

    abstract::Recent advances in our understanding of the anatomy and physiology of accommodation have contributed to current concepts of the possible constituent factors in presbyopia, largely supplanting the long-held belief that presbyopia is due to sclerosis of the crystalline lens. In this review, the author examines epidemiol...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Weale R

    更新日期:1989-07-01 00:00:00

  • Botulinum-A toxin in the treatment of craniocervical muscle spasms: short- and long-term, local and systemic effects.

    abstract::Botulinum toxin has become the initial treatment of choice for the management of essential blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm and other craniocervical dystonias. Numerous studies have confirmed a 90% to 95% response rate. Although a number of common side effects have been reported, the occurrence and incidence of rare lo...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dutton JJ

    更新日期:1996-07-01 00:00:00

  • A slippery slope.

    abstract::A 74-year-old woman experienced chronic painless progressive binocular horizontal diplopia for 2 years. Initial examination showed a visual acuity of 20/20 OU. External and slit lamp examination was unremarkable. Orthoptic evaluation showed an incomitant esotropia, a small vertical strabismus, and a large degree of ex...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gross AW,Vickers A,Lee AG,Chen JJ,Bhatti MT

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Unilateral eyelid ptosis and a red eye.

    abstract::A 56-year-old woman presented with a unilateral ptosis induced by a nonembedded soft contact lens of approximately 2 years' duration. The unilateral ptosis most likely resulted form localized inflammation and the physical presence of the soft contact lens. The patient's symptoms resolved completely after double lid ev...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Patel NP,Savino PJ,Weinberg DA

    更新日期:1998-09-01 00:00:00

  • The Clinical and Pathogenic Spectrum of Surgically-Induced Scleral Necrosis. A Review.

    abstract::The onset of scleral necrosis after ocular surgery may have catastrophic ocular and systemic consequences. The two most frequent surgeries causing surgically-induced scleral necrosis (SISN) are pterygium excision and cataract extraction. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved in surgically induced scleral necrosis...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Ruiz-Lozano RE,Garza-Garza LA,Cavazos-Davila O,Foster CS,Rodriguez-Garcia A

    更新日期:2021-01-07 00:00:00

  • The unfaithful neuritis.

    abstract::A 55-year-old man with a history of mantle cell lymphoma reported acute blurred vision in the right eye. Although initially diagnosed with acute retrobulbar optic neuritis, 3 weeks later retinal infiltrates and vitritis developed, but vitrectomy resulted negative for vitreoretinal lymphoma. Further investigation revea...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: De Simone L,Pellegrini F,Cirone D,Cimino L,Falardeau J

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Methylprednisolone therapy for retinal laser injury.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:Laser photocoagulation treatment of the posterior pole of the retina is often complicated by immediate visual impairment, which is caused by the unavoidable laser-induced destruction of the normal tissue adjacent to the lesion. A neuroprotective therapy aimed at salvaging this normal tissue might enhance the ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Solberg Y,Dubinski G,Tchirkov M,Belkin M,Rosner M

    更新日期:1999-10-01 00:00:00

  • Primary testicular and intraocular lymphomas: two case reports and a review of the literature.

    abstract::Testicular lymphoma is a rare neoplasm of the testis that is most commonly seen in older patients. It metastasizes preferentially to extranodal sites, including the skin, central nervous system, Waldeyer ring, contralateral testis, and lung. Two case reports of patients with a history of testicular lymphoma who develo...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wallace DJ,Altemare CR,Shen DF,deSmet MD,Buggage RR,Nussenblatt RB,Chan CC

    更新日期:2006-01-01 00:00:00

  • Anterior chamber angle assessment techniques.

    abstract::Angle-closure glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness. Diagnosis and treatment are intricately related to angle assessment techniques. This article reviews the literature on angle assessment and provides recommendations about optimal techniques based on the published evidence. Specifically, we review gon...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Friedman DS,He M

    更新日期:2008-05-01 00:00:00

  • The eye disease of Jefferson Davis (1808-1889).

    abstract::The only Confederate president, Jefferson Davis, led a long and eventful life. He was a Mississippi planter, a husband, a father, West Point graduate, war hero, congressman, senator, secretary of war, and finally President of the Confederate States of America. In many ways he was a study of contrast with his northern ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 传,历史文章,杂志文章


    authors: Hertle RW,Spellman R

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Disk edema in an overweight woman.

    abstract::A 46-year-old extremely obese black woman presented with headaches, blurred vision, and visual obscurations. Her exam was notable for bilateral severe papilledema, retinal hemorrhages, and lethargy. Her CAT scan was normal, and a spinal tap revealed a very high opening pressure. Although this patient's presentation mi...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wolin MJ,Brannon WL

    更新日期:1995-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacoeconomics of new medications for common chronic ophthalmic diseases.

    abstract::There is increasing pressure for medical care reimbursement to be linked to outcomes. New medications approved for glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and dry eye disease may offer improved outcomes, but they have higher acquisition costs. This article reviews published pharmacoeconomic studies assessing...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Hirsch JD,Morello C,Singh R,Robbins SL

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Present status of eye care in India.

    abstract::India, the second most populous country in the world, is home to 23.5% of the world's blind population. In 1976 India became the first country in the world to start a national program for control of blindness. All surveys in the country have shown that cataract is the most common cause of blindness and all prevention ...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Thomas R,Paul P,Rao GN,Muliyil JP,Mathai A

    更新日期:2005-01-01 00:00:00

  • Neurofibromatosis and neural crest neoplasms: primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva.

    abstract::With an occurrence of approximately 1 in 3000 births, von Recklinghausen neurofibromatosis (NF) is one of the most common inherited human disorders. NF is considered a neurocristopathy, a disorder of neural crest derived cells. One of the complications of NF is the development of neural crest derived malignancies such...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: To KW,Rabinowitz SM,Friedman AH,Merker C,Cavanaugh CP

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Thymoxamine hydrochloride: an alpha-adrenergic blocker.

    abstract::Thymoxamine is an alpha-adrenergic blocking agent which works by competitive antagonism of norepinephrine. It is the only alpha-adrenergic blocker available which has tolerable side effects when used as an ophthalmic solution. When used as a 0.5% solution it consistently produces miosis without affecting the intraocul...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Wand M,Grant WM

    更新日期:1980-09-01 00:00:00

  • Advances in the evaluation and management of cortical/cerebral visual impairment in children.

    abstract::Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is the most frequent cause of pediatric visual impairment in developed countries and is increasing in prevalence in developing nations. The most common underlying etiology is hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, particularly in premature children. Other causes include seizures, hy...

    journal_title:Survey of ophthalmology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Chang MY,Borchert MS

    更新日期:2020-01-01 00:00:00