Science and public health principles used to reduce road deaths.


:An editorial in a previous issue of this journal falsely claims that the US government's efforts to reduce road fatalities are not based on science. It says that, as a result, the United States has fallen behind other countries in road death prevention. A large body of research and evaluation informed federal and state safety programs from the outset. Evans's comparisons of death trends among countries without adjustment for changes in relevant risk factors or specification of the injury reduction policies among the countries tell us nothing about the causes of the declines or the effects of specific ameliorative efforts.


Am J Public Health


Robertson LS




Has Abstract


2014-12-01 00:00:00












  • Rates, patterns, causes, and costs of hospitalization of nursing home residents: a population-based study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Hospitalization of nursing home residents is a growing, poorly defined problem. The purposes of this study were to define rates, patterns, costs, and outcomes of hospitalizations from nursing homes and to consider implications for reducing this problem as part of health care reform. METHODS:Communitywide nu...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Barker WH,Zimmer JG,Hall WJ,Ruff BC,Freundlich CB,Eggert GM

    更新日期:1994-10-01 00:00:00

  • Take heart: results from the initial phase of a work-site wellness program.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of this study was to evaluate the short-term effects of a low-intensity work-site heart disease risk reduction program using a matched pair design with work site as the unit of analysis. METHODS:Twenty-six heterogeneous work sites with between 125 and 750 employees were matched on key organizati...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Glasgow RE,Terborg JR,Hollis JF,Severson HH,Boles SM

    更新日期:1995-02-01 00:00:00

  • Weekly food servings and participation in social programs among low income families.

    abstract::Low income families were interviewed to determine factors related to the number of family food servings per week. A multiple regression model indicated that participation in WIC (supplemental food program for women, infants and children), household size, and number of different income sources were associated with more...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taren DL,Clark W,Chernesky M,Quirk E

    更新日期:1990-11-01 00:00:00

  • Incidence of tooth loss among elderly Iowans.

    abstract::This study investigated the 18-month incidence of tooth loss in a random sample of 451 dentate noninstitutionalized Iowans aged 65 and older residing in two rural counties. They had a mean of 19.0 teeth at baseline and lost an average of 0.4 teeth during the subsequent 18 months. Twenty-one per cent of the population ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hunt RJ,Hand JS,Kohout FJ,Beck JD

    更新日期:1988-10-01 00:00:00

  • US childhood mortality, 1950 through 1993: Trends and socioeconomic diffferentials.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study examined trends and differentials in US childhood mortality from 1950 through 1993 according to sex, race/ethnicity, education, family income, and cause of death. METHODS:Log-linear, multiple regression, and Cox proportional hazards regression models were applied to the data from the National Vit...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Singh GK,Yu SM

    更新日期:1996-04-01 00:00:00

  • Oral Health Care Receipt and Self-Rated Oral Health for Diverse Asian American Subgroups in New York City.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To identify determinants of receipt of annual oral health examinations and self-rated oral health among diverse Asian American subgroups. METHODS:We used data from the Community Health Resources and Needs Assessment, a community-based survey of Asian American immigrant adults conducted in the New York City ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jung M,Kwon SC,Edens N,Northridge ME,Trinh-Shevrin C,Yi SS

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Dynamic treatment regimes for managing chronic health conditions: a statistical perspective.

    abstract::Dynamic treatment regimes are an emerging and important methodological area in health research, particularly in the management of chronic health conditions. This paradigm encompasses the ideological shift in research from the acute care model to the chronic care model. It allows individualization of treatment (type, d...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Chakraborty B

    更新日期:2011-01-01 00:00:00

  • Contemporary table salt practices and blood pressure.

    abstract::Salt intake of 978 subjects when compared to 1954 data demonstrated a trend toward the decreased use of table salt. When hypertensives in treatment were excluded, persons reporting low salt use had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those reporting high salt use. These findings were the reverse of...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Phillips K,Holm K,Wu AC

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • The transfer of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) across the human placenta and into maternal milk.

    abstract::Cord serum and maternal milk levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated biphenyls (PBBs) were examined in relation to maternal serum levels. Maternal serum levels were significantly higher than cord serum levels for both types of compounds. Placental passage was indicated by significant maternal to ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jacobson JL,Fein GG,Jacobson SW,Schwartz PM,Dowler JK

    更新日期:1984-04-01 00:00:00

  • Working mothers, breastfeeding, and the law.

    abstract::Workplace barriers contribute to low rates of breastfeeding. Research shows that supportive state laws correlate with higher rates, yet by 2009, only 23 states had adopted any laws to encourage breastfeeding in the workplace. Federal law provided virtually no protection to working mothers until the 2010 enactment of t...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murtagh L,Moulton AD

    更新日期:2011-02-01 00:00:00

  • Ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on birth prevalence of Down syndrome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study explored whether ethnic differences in the impact of advanced maternal age on the risk of Down syndrome might reflect differences in use of prenatal diagnostic technologies. METHODS:Maternal age-specific odds of Down syndrome and amniocentesis use were compared among African Americans, Mexican Am...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khoshnood B,Pryde P,Wall S,Singh J,Mittendorf R,Lee KS

    更新日期:2000-11-01 00:00:00

  • Grassroots participation, peer education, and HIV prevention by sex workers in South Africa.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This microqualitative case study of a community-based peer education program led by sex workers at a South African mine examined the role of grassroots participation in sexual health promotion. METHODS:The study involved in-depth interviews with 30 members of the target community. The interviews were analyz...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Campbell C,Mzaidume Z

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Symptoms of depression among blacks and whites.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We sought to examine relationships between sociodemographic indicators of risk and depression symptoms within the Black and White populations. METHODS:In a national probability sample, differences in sex, age, marital status, religion, social class, employment status, urbanicity, and region were evaluated a...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jones-Webb RJ,Snowden LR

    更新日期:1993-02-01 00:00:00

  • Early alcohol initiation and subsequent sexual and alcohol risk behaviors among urban youths.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined relations between early alcohol use and subsequent alcohol and sexual risk behaviors among urban adolescents. METHODS:A total of 1034 African American and Hispanic youths completed surveys assessing alcohol and sexual behaviors at 7th and 10th grade. After we controlled for early sexual initiati...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stueve A,O'Donnell LN

    更新日期:2005-05-01 00:00:00

  • Race and sex differences in hip fracture incidence.

    abstract::Incidence rates for hip fracture in the United States were estimated using non-federal hospital discharges from the National Hospital Discharge Survey for the years 1974-1979. Age-specific incidence curves for women and for men showed similar patterns of increase in risk with age, with risks approximately doubling eve...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Farmer ME,White LR,Brody JA,Bailey KR

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Obstetrical judgments of viability and perinatal survival of extremely low birthweight infants.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:The purpose of the study was to determine whether the obstetrical judgment of viability makes a difference to fetal and neonatal survival of extremely low birthweight infants (500-749 g). METHODS:We assessed the effect of the antenatal judgment of viability in a group of 66 infants born weighing from 500 to...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reuss ML,Gordon HR

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Public health, science, and policy debate: being right is not enough.

    abstract::Public health is usually enacted through public policies, necessitating that the public engage in debates that, ideally, are grounded in solid scientific findings. Mistrust in science, however, has compromised the possibility of deriving sound policy from such debates, partially owing to justified concerns regarding u...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Camargo K Jr,Grant R

    更新日期:2015-02-01 00:00:00

  • Low-risk lifestyle behaviors and all-cause mortality: findings from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III Mortality Study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined the relationship between 4 low-risk behaviors-never smoked, healthy diet, adequate physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption-and mortality in a representative sample of people in the United States. METHODS:We used data from 16958 participants aged 17 years and older in the National Hea...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ford ES,Zhao G,Tsai J,Li C

    更新日期:2011-10-01 00:00:00

  • Driver age and crash involvement.

    abstract::The youngest and oldest drivers have the highest crash risk, but the problem lies predominantly in the youngest age groups because elderly drivers have low exposure. The elderly driver problem will increase gradually as their share of the population increases but will remain relatively small. The bulk of the problem w...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Williams AF,Carsten O

    更新日期:1989-03-01 00:00:00

  • Factors influencing return to work following hospitalization for traumatic injury.

    abstract::This paper describes the employment experience of 266 individuals one year after traumatic injury severe enough to require hospitalization. Of those working full-time prior to their injury, 56 per cent were employed full-time at one year; an additional 5 per cent were working part-time. Those sustaining a severe head ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: MacKenzie EJ,Shapiro S,Smith RT,Siegel JH,Moody M,Pitt A

    更新日期:1987-03-01 00:00:00

  • Employment status and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a longitudinal investigation.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:This study investigated the psychological effects of paid employment and nonemployment, cross-sectionally and longitudinally, in 541 middle-aged women. METHODS:Women were seen for an extensive baseline evaluation and were reevaluated in an identical manner 3 years later. They were divided into four "synthet...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bromberger JT,Matthews KA

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Case-control study of lung cancer and truck driving in the Teamsters Union.

    abstract::We conducted a case-control study of lung cancer deaths in the Teamsters Union to compare the risk of different occupations within the teamsters, after controlling for smoking and other confounders. Occupations with no presumed exposure to diesel fumes were used as the nonexposed group. The study population consisted ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Steenland NK,Silverman DT,Hornung RW

    更新日期:1990-06-01 00:00:00

  • Urban history, urban health.

    abstract::Over the course of the 20th century, the United States became an urban nation: 80% of Americans now live in metropolitan areas. Supplying basic sanitary services-drinking water, sewers, and garbage removal-to these cities is a gargantuan task, yet most people have little understanding of urban infrastructure systems a...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knowlton K

    更新日期:2001-12-01 00:00:00

  • Rollover Protective Structures, Worker Safety, and Cost-Effectiveness: New York, 2011-2017.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:To measure cost-effectiveness of an intervention to increase retrofitting of rollover protective structures (ROPS) on tractors. METHODS:Tractor overturns are the leading cause of farm fatalities. ROPS prevent these deaths. This study updates a 2011 cost-effectiveness assessment of a New York State intervent...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Myers M,Kelsey T,Tinc P,Sorensen J,Jenkins P

    更新日期:2018-11-01 00:00:00

  • Assessing alternative measures of wealth in health research.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We assessed whether it would be feasible to replace the standard measure of net worth with simpler measures of wealth in population-based studies examining associations between wealth and health. METHODS:We used data from the 2004 Survey of Consumer Finances (respondents aged 25-64 years) and the 2004 Healt...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Cubbin C,Pollack C,Flaherty B,Hayward M,Sania A,Vallone D,Braveman P

    更新日期:2011-05-01 00:00:00

  • The impact of political violence on health and health services in Cape Town, South Africa, 1986: methodological problems and preliminary results.

    abstract::Cape Town, South Africa experienced an upsurge in the level of political violence from May to July of 1986. To determine the impact of the political violence on health and health services, selected routinely available information was analyzed, a community survey was conducted of 1,540 randomly selected households in h...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yach D

    更新日期:1988-07-01 00:00:00

  • Level of education and alcohol abuse and dependence in adulthood: a further inquiry.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:Prospectively gathered data were used to reexamine and to strengthen previously described observations about education and the risk of alcohol abuse and dependence. The hypothesis was that individuals who dropped out of high school and those who entered college but failed to get a college degree might be at ...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Crum RM,Helzer JE,Anthony JC

    更新日期:1993-06-01 00:00:00

  • Effects of Racial Prejudice on the Health of Communities: A Multilevel Survival Analysis.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We examined whether and how racial prejudice at both the individual and community levels contributes to mortality risk among majority as well as minority group members. METHODS:We used data on racial attitudes from the General Social Survey (1993-2002) prospectively linked to mortality data from the Nationa...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lee Y,Muennig P,Kawachi I,Hatzenbuehler ML

    更新日期:2015-11-01 00:00:00

  • An outbreak of waterborne giardiasis associated with heavy water runoff due to warm weather and volcanic ashfall.

    abstract::From mid-June through early August 1980, an outbreak of gastrointestinal illness in Red Lodge, Montana affected approximately 780 persons, as estimated from attack rates of 33 per cent and 15 per cent in urban and rural residents, respectively. Giardia lamblia was identified in stool specimens from 51 per cent of 47 p...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Weniger BG,Blaser MJ,Gedrose J,Lippy EC,Juranek DD

    更新日期:1983-08-01 00:00:00

  • Barriers to universal prenatal HIV testing in 4 US locations in 1997.

    abstract:OBJECTIVES:We determined rates of prenatal HIV testing and investigated barriers to testing. METHODS:We surveyed 1362 representative parturient women from 7 hospitals in 4 locations of the United States. RESULTS:Overall, 89.9% of women reported being offered HIV testing and 69.6% reported being tested. Proportions of...

    journal_title:American journal of public health

    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Royce RA,Walter EB,Fernandez MI,Wilson TE,Ickovics JR,Simonds RJ,Perinatal Guidelines Evaluation Project.

    更新日期:2001-05-01 00:00:00