Gain-of-Function Mutants of the Cytokinin Receptors AHK2 and AHK3 Regulate Plant Organ Size, Flowering Time and Plant Longevity.


:The phytohormone cytokinin is a regulator of numerous processes in plants. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), the cytokinin signal is perceived by three membrane-located receptors named ARABIDOPSIS HISTIDINE KINASE2 (AHK2), AHK3, and AHK4/CRE1. How the signal is transmitted across the membrane is an entirely unknown process. The three receptors have been shown to operate mostly in a redundant fashion, and very few specific roles have been attributed to single receptors. Using a forward genetic approach, we isolated constitutively active gain-of-function variants of the AHK2 and AHK3 genes, named repressor of cytokinin deficiency2 (rock2) and rock3, respectively. It is hypothesized that the structural changes caused by these mutations in the sensory and adjacent transmembrane domains emulate the structural changes caused by cytokinin binding, resulting in domain motion propagating the signal across the membrane. Detailed analysis of lines carrying rock2 and rock3 alleles revealed how plants respond to locally enhanced cytokinin signaling. Early flowering time, a prolonged reproductive growth phase, and, thereby, increased seed yield suggest that cytokinin regulates various aspects of reproductive growth. In particular, it counteracts the global proliferative arrest, a correlative inhibition of maternal growth by seeds, an as yet unknown activity of the hormone.


Plant Physiol


Plant physiology


Bartrina I,Jensen H,Novák O,Strnad M,Werner T,Schmülling T




Has Abstract


2017-03-01 00:00:00














  • Water Use Efficiency of Field-grown Maize during Moisture Stress.

    abstract::Theoretical analysis of the CO(2) assimilation and water loss by single leaves suggests that the water use efficiency of C(4) species decreases as stomatal resistance increases. To confirm this hypothesis for a complete maize crop, results from computer simulations and a field experiment were compiled for varying stom...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sinclair TR,Bingham GE,Lemon ER,Allen LH

    更新日期:1975-08-01 00:00:00

  • Electron Transport Controls Glutamine Synthetase Activity in the Facultative Heterotrophic Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    abstract::Glutamine synthetase (GS) from Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 was inactivated in vivo by transferring cells from light to darkness or by incubation with the photosynthetic inhibitor 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea but not with 2,5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone. Addition of glucose prevented both dark...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Reyes JC,Crespo JL,Garcia-Dominguez M,Florencio FJ

    更新日期:1995-11-01 00:00:00

  • An investigation of the mineral content of barley grains and seedlings.

    abstract::The Ca, Mg, K, and P content of dry barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains and seedlings was investigated using energy dispersive x-ray analysis and neutron activation analysis. Energy dispersive x-ray analysis of protein bodies in aleurone cells showed that these bodies contained very little Ca in relation to P, Mg, and K. ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stewart A,Nield H,Lott JN

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • The GH3 acyl adenylase family member PBS3 regulates salicylic acid-dependent defense responses in Arabidopsis.

    abstract::The pbs3-1 mutant, identified in a screen for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants exhibiting enhanced susceptibility to the avirulent Pseudomonas syringae pathogen DC3000 (avrPphB), also exhibits enhanced susceptibility to virulent P. syringae strains, suggesting it may impact basal disease resistance. Because ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nobuta K,Okrent RA,Stoutemyer M,Rodibaugh N,Kempema L,Wildermuth MC,Innes RW

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • CO(2) Metabolism in Corn Roots. I. Kinetics of Carboxylation and Decarboxylation.

    abstract::The kinetics of (14)CO(2) carboxylation and decarboxylation in corn root tips were determined to ascertain the sequence of product formation and subsequent utilization, and to obtain further evidence to predict the enzymes mediating the carboxylation and decarboxylations. The carboxylation data indicated that the firs...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ting IP,Dugger WM

    更新日期:1967-05-01 00:00:00

  • Gene locus specificity of the glucose effect in the thiamine pathway of the angiosperm, Arabidopsis.

    abstract::All mutants at 3 loci in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh., a higher plant, that are associated with the synthesis or coupling of the thiazole moiety of thiamine are susceptible to reversible glucose inhibition. In contrast, several different alleles involved in the synthesis of the pyrimidine moiety of the vitamin are...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li SL,Redei GP

    更新日期:1969-02-01 00:00:00

  • The role of gibberellin, abscisic acid, and sucrose in the regulation of potato tuber formation in vitro

    abstract::The effects of plant hormones and sucrose (Suc) on potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tuberization were studied using in vitro cultured single-node cuttings. Tuber-inducing (high Suc) and -noninducing (low Suc or high Suc plus gibberellin [GA]) media were tested. Tuberization frequencies, tuber widths, and stolon lengths w...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu X,van Lammeren AA,Vermeer E,Vreugdenhil D

    更新日期:1998-06-01 00:00:00

  • Early Gravi-Electrical Responses in Bean Epicotyls.

    abstract::The relationship between gravitropism and surface electrical potentials was studied using etiolated epicotyls of adzuki bean (Phaseolus angularis). Early downward curvature (or transient positive gravitropic response) was observed about 1 min after gravistimulation. The downward curvature was closely related to the sp...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shigematsu H,Toko K,Matsuno T,Yamafuji K

    更新日期:1994-07-01 00:00:00

  • OsNAR2.1 Interaction with OsNIT1 and OsNIT2 Functions in Root-growth Responses to Nitrate and Ammonium.

    abstract::The nitrate transport accessory protein OsNAR2 plays a critical role in root-growth responses to nitrate and nitrate acquisition in rice (Oryza sativa). In this study, a pull-down assay combined with yeast two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation analyses revealed that OsNAR2.1 interacts with OsNIT1 and OsNIT2. Moreover, ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Song M,Fan X,Chen J,Qu H,Luo L,Xu G

    更新日期:2020-05-01 00:00:00

  • Relationships between Cadmium, Zinc, Cd-Peptide, and Organic Acid in Tobacco Suspension Cells.

    abstract::Responses of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) suspension cells to Cd and Zn were studied in the presence and absence of ligand of Cd-peptide in order to understand the role of this peptide versus other mechanisms in Cd and Zn accumulation and accommodation in plants. With 45 micromolar Cd and 300 micromolar Zn (non-growth-...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Krotz RM,Evangelou BP,Wagner GJ

    更新日期:1989-10-01 00:00:00

  • A Role for the F-Box Protein HAWAIIAN SKIRT in Plant microRNA Function.

    abstract::As regulators of gene expression in multicellular organisms, microRNAs (miRNAs) are crucial for growth and development. Although a plethora of factors involved in their biogenesis and action in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) has been described, these processes and their fine-tuning are not fully understood. Here, ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lang PLM,Christie MD,Dogan ES,Schwab R,Hagmann J,van de Weyer AL,Scacchi E,Weigel D

    更新日期:2018-01-01 00:00:00

  • Low-Temperature Effects on Photosynthesis and Correlation with Freezing Tolerance in Spring and Winter Cultivars of Wheat and Rye.

    abstract::Winter cultivars of rye (Secale cereale L., cv Musketeer) and wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs Kharkov and Monopol), but not a spring cultivar of wheat (Glenlea), grown at cold-hardening temperatures showed, at high irradiances, a higher proportion of oxidized to reduced primary, stable quinone receptor (QA) than did t...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Oquist G,Hurry VM,Huner N

    更新日期:1993-01-01 00:00:00

  • The Arabidopsis phenylalanine insensitive growth mutant exhibits a deregulated amino acid metabolism.

    abstract::Amino acids and amino acid analogs have been used in numerous genetic screens to isolate mutants deficient in amino acid biosynthetic pathways or in the regulation of amino acid metabolism. Several of these mutants exhibit relaxed feedback control of branched amino acid biosynthetic pathways and are thus resistant to ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Voll LM,Allaire EE,Fiene G,Weber AP

    更新日期:2004-10-01 00:00:00

  • The Control of Growth Habit of Marquillo x Kenya Farmer Wheat Dwarf I by Temperature.

    abstract::The Marquillo x Kenya Farmer 1 "grass-clump" dwarf selection of Triticum aestivum L. was grown under continuous 2000 foot candle light and several regimes of alternating 16 degrees and 26 degrees temperatures combined in total cycle lengths of 6, 12, 24, or 48 hr. Plants at 26 degrees grew as normal wheat. Those expos...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mahon JD,Canvin DT

    更新日期:1969-12-01 00:00:00

  • Techniques for the Analysis of Protein-Protein Interactions in Vivo.

    abstract::Identifying key players and their interactions is fundamental for understanding biochemical mechanisms at the molecular level. The ever-increasing number of alternative ways to detect protein-protein interactions (PPIs) speaks volumes about the creativity of scientists in hunting for the optimal technique. PPIs derive...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Xing S,Wallmeroth N,Berendzen KW,Grefen C

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Salinity stress inhibits bean leaf expansion by reducing turgor, not wall extensibility.

    abstract::Treatment of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seedlings with low levels of salinity (50 or 100 millimolar NaCl) decreased the rate of light-induced leaf cell expansion in the primary leaves over a 3 day period. This decrease could be due to a reduction in one or both of the primary cellular growth parameters: wall exten...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Neumann PM,Van Volkenburgh E,Cleland RE

    更新日期:1988-01-01 00:00:00

  • Superoxide dismutase in Arabidopsis: an eclectic enzyme family with disparate regulation and protein localization.

    abstract::A number of environmental stresses can lead to enhanced production of superoxide within plant tissues, and plants are believed to rely on the enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) to detoxify this reactive oxygen species. We have identified seven cDNAs and genes for SOD in Arabidopsis. These consist of three CuZnSODs (CSD...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kliebenstein DJ,Monde RA,Last RL

    更新日期:1998-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acyl lipids, pigments, and gramine in developing leaves of barley and its virescens mutant.

    abstract::Changes in acyl lipids and pigments during leaf development in a virescens barley mutant (M) and the normal (N) were studied. Apical 3-cm leaf segments were extracted with chloroform-methanol, the extracts were purified on Sephadex G-25 columns, and the polar lipids were separated on two-dimensional-thin layer chromat...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thomson LW,Zalik S

    更新日期:1981-04-01 00:00:00

  • Overexpression of an isoprenyl diphosphate synthase in spruce leads to unexpected terpene diversion products that function in plant defense.

    abstract::Spruce (Picea spp.) and other conifers employ terpenoid-based oleoresin as part of their defense against herbivores and pathogens. The short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases (IDS) are situated at critical branch points in terpene biosynthesis, producing the precursors of the different terpenoid classes. To determ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nagel R,Berasategui A,Paetz C,Gershenzon J,Schmidt A

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Purification and Developmental Analysis of an Extracellular Proteinase from Young Leaves of Soybean.

    abstract::A proteinase present in intercellular wash fluids from leaves of Glycine max has been purified 600-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity. The native protein is monomeric with a molecular mass of 60 kD, as estimated by denaturing gel electrophoresis, and has an isoelectric point of 7.7. The enzyme has a pH optimum of 9.5...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Huangpu J,Graham JS

    更新日期:1995-07-01 00:00:00

  • Differential Regulation of Maize Homoserine Dehydrogenase under Physiological Conditions.

    abstract::Homoserine dehydrogenase is associated with the multibranched pathway of amino acid biosynthesis originating with aspartic acid. Like most of the related pathway enzymes, this enzyme is localized in chloroplasts. The activity and regulatory properties of the threonine-sensitive isozyme of homoserine dehydrogenase isol...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bryan JK

    更新日期:1990-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ligand Specificity of Bean Leaf Soluble Auxin-binding Protein.

    abstract::The soluble bean leaf auxin-binding protein (ABP) has a high affinity for a range of auxins including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), alpha-napthaleneacetic acid, phenylacetic acid, 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and structurally related auxins. A large number of nonauxin compounds that are nevertheless structurally r...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wardrop AJ,Polya GM

    更新日期:1980-07-01 00:00:00

  • Why leaves turn red in autumn. The role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves of red-osier dogwood.

    abstract::Why the leaves of many woody species accumulate anthocyanins prior to being shed has long puzzled biologists because it is unclear what effects anthocyanins may have on leaf function. Here, we provide evidence for red-osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera) that anthocyanins form a pigment layer in the palisade mesophyll l...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Feild TS,Lee DW,Holbrook NM

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship between Respiration and Photosynthesis in Guard Cell and Mesophyll Cell Protoplasts of Commelina communis L.

    abstract::A mass spectrometric method combining (16)O/(18)O and (12)C/(13)C isotopes was used to quantify the unidirectional fluxes of O(2) and CO(2) during a dark to light transition for guard cell protoplasts and mesophyll cell protoplasts of Commelina communis L. In darkness, O(2) uptake and CO(2) evolution were similar on a...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gautier H,Vavasseur A,Gans P,Lascève G

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • Oscillatory growth in lily pollen tubes does not require aerobic energy metabolism.

    abstract::Oscillatory tip growth in pollen tubes depends on prodigious amounts of energy. We have tested the hypothesis that oscillations in the electron transport chain lead to growth oscillations in lily (Lilium formosanum). Using three respiratory inhibitors, oligomycin, antimycin A, and cyanide, we find that pollen tube gro...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rounds CM,Hepler PK,Fuller SJ,Winship LJ

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • Contribution of Nonautotrophic Carbon Dioxide Fixation to Protein Synthesis in Suspension Cultures of Paul's Scarlet Rose.

    abstract::Bicarbonate-(14)C was provided to 5- and 11-day-old suspension cultures of Paul's Scarlet rose, and the incorporation of (14)C into lipid, protein, amino acids, and organic acids was determined. The rate of bicarbonate uptake was approximately the same by 5- and 11-day-old cells, but the distribution of (14)C among ce...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nesius KK,Fletcher JS

    更新日期:1975-04-01 00:00:00

  • Mode of action of gibberellic Acid and light on lettuce seed germination.

    abstract::The seeds of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. cv. Grand Rapids) germinate in darkness at 25 C when treated by gibberellic acid (GA(3)) for 1 hour following 2 hours of imbibition. The time of GA(3) application influences the rate and the final percentage of seeds that germinate. In contrast, red light illumination given at d...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lewak S,Khan AA

    更新日期:1977-10-01 00:00:00

  • phenoSeeder - A Robot System for Automated Handling and Phenotyping of Individual Seeds.

    abstract::The enormous diversity of seed traits is an intriguing feature and critical for the overwhelming success of higher plants. In particular, seed mass is generally regarded to be key for seedling development but is mostly approximated by using scanning methods delivering only two-dimensional data, often termed seed size....

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Jahnke S,Roussel J,Hombach T,Kochs J,Fischbach A,Huber G,Scharr H

    更新日期:2016-11-01 00:00:00

  • Adaptation of the Photosynthetic Apparatus in Maize Leaves as a Result of Nitrogen Limitation : Relationships between Electron Transport and Carbon Assimilation.

    abstract::In maize (Zea mays L., cv Contessa), nitrogen (NO(3) (-)) limitation resulted in a reduction in shoot growth and photosynthetic capacity and in an increase in the leaf zeaxanthin contents. Nitrogen deficiency had only a small effect on the quantum yield of CO(2) assimilation but a large effect on the light-saturated r...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Khamis S,Lamaze T,Lemoine Y,Foyer C

    更新日期:1990-11-01 00:00:00

  • Incorporation of mevalonic Acid into ribosylzeatin in tobacco callus ribonucleic Acid preparations.

    abstract::The incorporation of (14)C-2-mevalonic acid into transfer RNA and ribosomal RNA (high molecular weight RNA) in rapidly growing, cytokinin-dependent tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum var. Wisconsin No. 38) callus cultures has been investigated. Approximately 40% of the label incorporated into transfer RNA was present in a rib...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Murai N,Armstrong DJ,Skoog F

    更新日期:1975-05-01 00:00:00