A 2-Oxoglutarate-Dependent Dioxygenase Mediates the Biosynthesis of Glucoraphasatin in Radish.


:Glucosinolates (GSLs) are secondary metabolites whose degradation products confer intrinsic flavors and aromas to Brassicaceae vegetables. Several structures of GSLs are known in the Brassicaceae, and the biosynthetic pathway and regulatory networks have been elucidated in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). GSLs are precursors of chemical defense substances against herbivorous pests. Specific GSLs can act as feeding blockers or stimulants, depending on the pest species. Natural selection has led to diversity in the GSL composition even within individual species. However, in radish (Raphanus sativus), glucoraphasatin (4-methylthio-3-butenyl glucosinolate) accounts for more than 90% of the total GSLs, and little compositional variation is observed. Because glucoraphasatin is not contained in other members of the Brassicaceae, like Arabidopsis and cabbage (Brassica oleracea), the biosynthetic pathways for glucoraphasatin remain unclear. In this report, we identified and characterized a gene encoding GLUCORAPHASATIN SYNTHASE 1 (GRS1) by genetic mapping using a mutant that genetically lacks glucoraphasatin. Transgenic Arabidopsis, which overexpressed GRS1 cDNA, accumulated glucoraphasatin in the leaves. GRS1 encodes a 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenase, and it is abundantly expressed in the leaf. To further investigate the biosynthesis and transportation of GSLs in radish, we grafted a grs1 plant onto a wild-type plant. The grafting experiment revealed a leaf-to-root long-distance glucoraphasatin transport system in radish and showed that the composition of GSLs differed among the organs. Based on these observations, we propose a characteristic biosynthesis pathway for glucoraphasatin in radish. Our results should be useful in metabolite engineering for breeding of high-value vegetables.


Plant Physiol


Plant physiology


Kakizaki T,Kitashiba H,Zou Z,Li F,Fukino N,Ohara T,Nishio T,Ishida M




Has Abstract


2017-03-01 00:00:00














  • Characterization of the Proton-Translocating Cytochrome c Oxidase Activity in the Plasma Membrane of Intact Anacystis nidulans Spheroplasts.

    abstract::Intact spheroplasts of the cyanobacterium (blue-green alga) Anacystis nidulans oxidized various exogenous c-type cytochromes with concomitant outward proton translocation while exogenous ferricytochrome c was not reduced. The H(+)/e(-) stoichiometry was close to 1 with each of the cytochromes and did not depend on the...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Peschek GA

    更新日期:1984-08-01 00:00:00

  • Properties of the System for the Mixed Function Oxidation of Kaurene and Kaurene Derivatives in Microsomes of the Immature Seed of Marah macrocarpus: Cofactor Requirements.

    abstract::The rates of oxidation of ent-kaur-16-ene to ent-kaur-16-en-19-ol, ent-kaur-16-en-19-al, ent-kaur-16-en-19-oic acid, and ent-kaur-16-en-7alpha-ol-19-oic acid are maximal in microsomes prepared from the endosperm of immature Marah macrocarpus seeds in which the cotyledons are approximately one-half the overall length o...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hasson EP,West CA

    更新日期:1976-10-01 00:00:00

  • Dormancy, Turion Formation, and Germination by Different Clones of Spirodela polyrrhiza.

    abstract::Some clones of Spirodela polyrrhiza form dormant bodies called turions which require several weeks of chilling treatment before they proceed to renew growth and develop into vegetative fronds. The individual fronds of Spirodela are less than 5 mm long and can be grown aseptically in liquid culture. Turion formation an...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Perry TO

    更新日期:1968-11-01 00:00:00

  • The SCABRA3 nuclear gene encodes the plastid RpoTp RNA polymerase, which is required for chloroplast biogenesis and mesophyll cell proliferation in Arabidopsis.

    abstract::In many plant species, a subset of the genes of the chloroplast genome is transcribed by RpoTp, a nuclear-encoded plastid-targeted RNA polymerase. Here, we describe the positional cloning of the SCABRA3 (SCA3) gene, which was found to encode RpoTp in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). We studied one weak (sca3-1) and...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hricová A,Quesada V,Micol JL

    更新日期:2006-07-01 00:00:00

  • A Functional Unfolded Protein Response Is Required for Normal Vegetative Development.

    abstract::The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in plants in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress and plays an important role in mitigating stress damage. Multiple factors act in the UPR, including the membrane-associated transcription factor, BASIC LEUCINE ZIPPER 17 (bZIP17), and the membrane-associated RNA spli...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bao Y,Bassham DC,Howell SH

    更新日期:2019-04-01 00:00:00

  • Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase expression in Arabidopsis. Regulation in response to development and the environment.

    abstract::Cinnamate-4-hydroxylase (C4H) is the first Cyt P450-dependent monooxygenase of the phenylpropanoid pathway. To study the expression of this gene in Arabidopsis thaliana, a C4H cDNA clone from the Arabidopsis expressed sequence tag database was identified and used to isolate its corresponding genomic clone. The entire ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bell-Lelong DA,Cusumano JC,Meyer K,Chapple C

    更新日期:1997-03-01 00:00:00

  • TOPP4 Regulates the Stability of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR5 during Photomorphogenesis in Arabidopsis.

    abstract::In plants, photoreceptors transfer light signals to phytochrome-interacting factors (PIFs), inducing the rapid phosphorylation and degradation of PIFs to promote photomorphogenesis. However, the phosphatase responsible for PIF dephosphorylation remains unknown. In this study, we identified a type 1 protein phosphatase...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yue J,Qin Q,Meng S,Jing H,Gou X,Li J,Hou S

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Functional analysis of the final steps of the 1-deoxy-D-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) pathway to isoprenoids in plants using virus-induced gene silencing.

    abstract::Isoprenoid biosynthesis in plant plastids occurs via the 1-deoxy-d-xylulose 5-phosphate (DXP) pathway. We used tobacco rattle virus (TRV) to posttranscriptionally silence the expression of the last two enzymes of this pathway, the IspG-encoded (E)-4-hydroxy-3-methylbut-2-enyl diphosphate synthase (HDS) and the IspH-en...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Page JE,Hause G,Raschke M,Gao W,Schmidt J,Zenk MH,Kutchan TM

    更新日期:2004-04-01 00:00:00

  • Two-Dimensional Electrophoretic Mapping of Proteins of Bundle Sheath and Mesophyll Cells of the C(4) Grass Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. (Crabgrass).

    abstract::Two-dimensional electrophoresis was performed on proteins of bundle sheath and mesophyll cells isolated from the C(4) grass Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Two-dimensional maps of these proteins were constructed and ribulose-1,5-biphosphate carboxylase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase were identified. Of the total...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Harrison PA,Black CC

    更新日期:1982-11-01 00:00:00

  • Peridinin-Chlorophyll a Proteins of the Dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae (Plymouth 450).

    abstract::The marine dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae (Plymouth 450) releases several water-soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a proteins after freezethawing. These chromoproteins have a molecular weight of 39.2 x 10(3) and are comprised of noncovalently bound peridinin and chlorophyll a and a nonoligomeric protein. They have dis...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Haxo FT,Kycia JH,Somers GF,Bennett A,Siegelman HW

    更新日期:1976-02-01 00:00:00

  • Control of specific gene expression by gibberellin and brassinosteroid.

    abstract::We identified a recessive, brassinolide-insensitive mutant caused by a deletion allele (bri1-201) of the brassinosteroid (BR) receptor BRI1. The bri1-201 mutant displayed altered expression levels of genes differentially regulated by gibberellin (GA). RNA-blot analysis revealed that BR and GA antagonistically regulate...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bouquin T,Meier C,Foster R,Nielsen ME,Mundy J

    更新日期:2001-10-01 00:00:00

  • Proteolytic Activity in Soybean Root Nodules : Activity in Host Cell Cytosol and Bacteroids throughout Physiological Development and Senescence.

    abstract::Root nodules were harvested from chamber-grown soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill cv Woodworth) plants throughout development. Apparent nitrogenase activity (acetylene reduction) peaked before seeds began to develop, but a significant amount of activity remained as the seeds matured. Nodule senescence was defined as the ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pfeiffer NE,Torres CM,Wagner FW

    更新日期:1983-04-01 00:00:00

  • Purification and characterization of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate synthase from apple fruits.

    abstract::1-Aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, a key enzyme in ethylene biosynthesis, was isolated and partially purified from apple (Malus sylvestris Mill.) fruits. Unlike ACC synthase isolated from other sources, apple ACC synthase is associated with the pellet fraction and can be solubilized in active form with ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Yip WK,Dong JG,Yang SF

    更新日期:1991-01-01 00:00:00

  • A wound- and methyl jasmonate-inducible transcript coding for a myrosinase-associated protein with similarities to an early nodulin.

    abstract::Myrosinase is regarded as a defense-related enzyme in the Brassicaceae and is capable of hydrolyzing glucosinolates into various compounds, some of which are toxic. Several myrosinase isoenzymes exist, and some of them have been found in association with nonmyrosinase proteins. One of these associated proteins, myrosi...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Taipalensuu J,Falk A,Rask L

    更新日期:1996-02-01 00:00:00

  • Starch Phosphorylation in Potato Tubers Proceeds Concurrently with de Novo Biosynthesis of Starch.

    abstract::The in vivo phosphorylation of starch was studied in Solanum tuberosum cv Dianella and Posmo. Small starch granules contain 25% more ester-bound phosphate per glucose residue than large starch granules. The degree of phosphorylation was found to be almost constant during tuber development. Isolated tuber discs synthes...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nielsen TH,Wischmann B,Enevoldsen K,Moller BL

    更新日期:1994-05-01 00:00:00

  • Stomatal Response and Leaf Injury of Pisum sativum L. with SO(2) and O(3) Exposures : I. INFLUENCE OF POLLUTANT LEVEL AND LEAF MATURITY.

    abstract::Plants of Pisum sativum L. ;Alsweet' were grown under a controlled environment and exposed to SO(2) and O(3) to determine whether changes in stomatal aperture during exposure were related to subsequent leaf injury. Stomata consistently closed with injurious levels of SO(2) and O(3). Measurements with diffusion poromet...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Olszyk DM,Tibbitts TW

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Characterization of Sucrolysis via the Uridine Diphosphate and Pyrophosphate-Dependent Sucrose Synthase Pathway.

    abstract::The breakdown of sucrose to feed both hexoses into glycolytic carbon flow can occur by the sucrose synthase pathway. This uridine diphosphate (UDP) and pyrophosphate (PPi)-dependent pathway was biochemically characterized using soluble extracts from several plants. The sucrolysis process required the simultaneous pres...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Xu DP,Sung SJ,Loboda T,Kormanik PP,Black CC

    更新日期:1989-06-01 00:00:00

  • In VivoP NMR Spectroscopic Studies of Soybean Bradyrhizobium Symbiosis: I. Optimization of Parameters.

    abstract::(31)P NMR spectroscopy was used to study in vivo the symbiotic state established between soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Williams) and Bradyrhizobium japonicum (USDA 110 and 138). Different experimental conditions were used to maintain perfused, respiring detached or attached nodules in an NMR magnet. The pH of the...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rolin DB,Boswell RT,Sloger C,Tu SI,Pfeffer PE

    更新日期:1989-04-01 00:00:00

  • Arabidopsis seed development and germination is associated with temporally distinct metabolic switches.

    abstract::While the metabolic networks in developing seeds during the period of reserve accumulation have been extensively characterized, much less is known about those present during seed desiccation and subsequent germination. Here we utilized metabolite profiling, in conjunction with selective mRNA and physiological profilin...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fait A,Angelovici R,Less H,Ohad I,Urbanczyk-Wochniak E,Fernie AR,Galili G

    更新日期:2006-11-01 00:00:00

  • Multiple forms of plant cytochromes p-450.

    abstract::Accumulating evidence indicates that there is a multiplicity of cytochrome P-450 enzymes in plants. These monooxygenases are implicated in the metabolism of sterols, terpenes, gibberellins, isoflavonoids, and xenobiotics. Evidence that cytochromes P-450 are involved in the detoxification of herbicides (chlorotoluron, ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Donaldson RP,Luster DG

    更新日期:1991-07-01 00:00:00

  • A cross-polarization, magic-angle-spinning, 13C-nuclear-magnetic-resonance study of polysaccharides in sugar beet cell walls

    abstract::Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation experiments were used to study the rigidity and spatial proximity of polymers in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) cell walls. Proton T1rho decay and cross-polarization patterns were consistent with the presence of rigid, crystalline cellulose microfibrils with a diameter of ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Renard CM,Jarvis MC

    更新日期:1999-04-01 00:00:00

  • Depolarization-Activated K+ Channel in Chara Droplets.

    abstract::A novel potassium channel was characterized in the droplet membrane of Chara gymnophylla. This channel has a conductance of about 90 pS (in symmetrical 0.15 M KCl), which is lower compared to the 170-pS K+ channel predominant in this preparation. In contrast to the large conductance K+ channel, the novel channel opene...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pottosin II,Andjus PR

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase: Identification of New Sites of Promoter Activity in Transgenic Poplar.

    abstract::Stem sections from poplar that were stably transformed with a eucalypt cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase promoter-[beta]-glucuronidase construct were prepared by using either a technique routinely used in herbaceous species or a technique designed to take into account the particular anatomy of woody plants. Although both...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hawkins S,Samaj J,Lauvergeat V,Boudet A,Grima-Pettenati J

    更新日期:1997-02-01 00:00:00

  • A sensitive technique for the rapid measurement of carbon dioxide concentrations.

    abstract::A method has been developed to measure concentrations of CO(2) in gases rapidly. A gas sample is injected into a flowing carrier gas that passes through an infrared CO(2) analyzer. A strip chart recorded peak response is obtained which is proportional to the CO(2) concentration. A resolution of better than 2 microlite...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Clegg MD,Sullivan CY,Eastin JD

    更新日期:1978-12-01 00:00:00

  • Calcium Levels Affect the Ability to Immunolocalize Calmodulin to Cortical Microtubules.

    abstract::Calcium affects the stability of cortical microtubules (MTs) in lysed protoplasts. This calmodulin (CaM)-mediated interaction may provide a mechanism that serves to integrate cellular behavior with MT function. To test the hypothesis that CaM associates with these MTs, monoclonal antibodies were produced against CaM, ...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fisher DD,Cyr RJ

    更新日期:1993-10-01 00:00:00

  • Immunocytolocalization of polygalacturonase in ripening tomato fruit.

    abstract::Using tissue blotting and immunocytolocalization, we have investigated the appearance and accumulation of polygalacturonase (PG) during tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) fruit ripening. Results show that PG first appears in the collumella region followed by sequential appearance in the exopericarp and endopericar...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tieman DM,Handa AK

    更新日期:1989-05-01 00:00:00

  • Modification of the Cellular Heat Sensitivity of Cucumber by Growth under Supplemental Ultraviolet-B Radiation.

    abstract::The effect of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation on the thermal sensitivity of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) was studied using UV-B-sensitive cv Poinsett 76 and UV-B-resistant cv Ashley grown under control and elevated (300 mW m-2) UV-B radiation levels. Using both cotyledon and leaf discs, the ability of the tissue to re...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Caldwell CR

    更新日期:1994-02-01 00:00:00

  • Strigolactone acts downstream of auxin to regulate bud outgrowth in pea and Arabidopsis.

    abstract::During the last century, two key hypotheses have been proposed to explain apical dominance in plants: auxin promotes the production of a second messenger that moves up into buds to repress their outgrowth, and auxin saturation in the stem inhibits auxin transport from buds, thereby inhibiting bud outgrowth. The recent...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Brewer PB,Dun EA,Ferguson BJ,Rameau C,Beveridge CA

    更新日期:2009-05-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of low temperature and calcium on survival and membrane properties of isolated winter wheat cells.

    abstract::Isolated cells obtained by enzymic digestion of young primary leaves of cold-hardened, dark-grown Kharkov winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were exposed to various low temperature stresses. The initial uptake of (86)Rb was generally decreased by increasing concentrations of Ca(2+), but after longer periods of incuba...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pomeroy MK,Andrews CJ

    更新日期:1985-07-01 00:00:00

  • A Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Study of Water in Cold-acclimating Cereals.

    abstract::Continuous wave nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies indicated that the line width of the water absorption peak (Deltav(1/2)) from crowns of winter and spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) increased during cold acclimation. There was a negative correlation between Deltav(1/2) and crown water content, and both of th...

    journal_title:Plant physiology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gusta LV,Fowler DB,Chen P

    更新日期:1979-04-01 00:00:00