The Bionic Eye: A Quarter Century of Retinal Prosthesis Research and Development.


:This article describes the history of visual prostheses, with emphasis on the development of the Argus II retinal prosthesis system (Second Sight Medical Products, Inc., Sylmar, CA). A brief overview of cortical electrical stimulation in the blind is provided, followed by an account of the design and development of retinal stimulation equipment at the Duke Eye Center in the late 1980s; the first human intraoperative tests there and the subsequent 8 years of tests at the Wilmer Eye Institute; the transfer of the project to the Doheny Eye Institute at the University of Southern California and the founding of Second Sight Medical Products; and the development and clinical trials of the Argus I and Argus II systems. In a series of vignettes, we pay tribute to the many colleagues and patient volunteers without whose help the work would not have been possible.






Humayun MS,de Juan E Jr,Dagnelie G




Has Abstract


2016-10-01 00:00:00














  • Capnocytophaga keratitis. A clinicopathologic study of three patients, including electron microscopic observations.

    abstract:BACKGROUND:Histopathologic studies of this unusual keratitis caused by Capnocytophaga species have not been reported previously. METHODS:The authors report the light microscopic and ultrastructural findings of three patients with a distinctive necrotizing keratitis caused by an anaerobic gram-negative bacillus. In thr...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Font RL,Jay V,Misra RP,Jones DB,Wilhelmus KR

    更新日期:1994-12-01 00:00:00

  • Eyelid involvement in multicentric reticulohistiocytosis.

    abstract:CASE REPORT:The authors report the first biopsy-confirmed ocular adnexal involvement by multicentric reticulohistiocytosis. The patient was a 28-year-old black woman with a 15-year history of well-documented multicentric reticulohistiocytosis who had multiple dermal nodules and severe mutilating arthritis that had prod...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Eagle RC Jr,Penne RA,Hneleski IS Jr

    更新日期:1995-03-01 00:00:00

  • Repair of the superior sulcus deformity using autogenous costal cartilage.

    abstract::Superior sulcus deformity is a late sequela of surgical anophthalmos. Many methods have been proposed to treat this difficult problem. A technique using autogenous costal cartilage that has resulted in satisfactory repair is presented. In addition to standard photographs and exophthalmometry measurements to follow the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sutula FC,Thomas O

    更新日期:1982-05-01 00:00:00

  • Relationship of macular microcirculation and retinal thickness with visual acuity in diabetic macular edema.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To assess perifoveal capillary blood flow velocity (BFV), capillary occlusion, and retinal thickness at the central fovea in diabetic patients with or without clinically significant macular edema; to examine the relationships of these variables with visual acuity (VA); and to identify their contributions to vis...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sakata K,Funatsu H,Harino S,Noma H,Hori S

    更新日期:2007-11-01 00:00:00

  • Classification and prediction of the progression of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy by an artificial neural network.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:We have used an artificial neural network in an attempt to classify and predict the progression of thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy (TAO) at the first clinical examination. DESIGN:This retrospective comparative case series included a group of patients examined by the ophthalmologist only once because of the...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salvi M,Dazzi D,Pellistri I,Neri F,Wall JR

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy: natural history of visual outcome.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To investigate systematically the natural history of visual outcome in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION). DESIGN:Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS:Three hundred forty consecutive untreated patients (386 eyes) with NAION, first seen in our clinic from 1973 to 2000. METHODS:At first visit, all...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hayreh SS,Zimmerman MB

    更新日期:2008-02-01 00:00:00

  • Refractive error and visual function difficulty in a Latino population.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To assess the association of correction of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism with self-reported near and distance visual function. DESIGN:Population based, cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS:A random sample of 4272 Latinos older than 40 years of age from Arizona with both ophthalmic examination and questi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sandhu RK,Munoz BE,Swenor BK,West SK

    更新日期:2012-09-01 00:00:00

  • Monthly versus as-needed ranibizumab injections in patients with retinal vein occlusion: the SHORE study.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare pro re nata (PRN) and monthly injections of 0.5 mg ranibizumab in retinal vein occlusion (RVO) patients stabilized by monthly injections. DESIGN:Randomized, open-label, vision-examiner masked, 15-month study. PARTICIPANTS:Subjects with macular edema secondary to branch or central RVO. METHODS:Su...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Campochiaro PA,Wykoff CC,Singer M,Johnson R,Marcus D,Yau L,Sternberg G

    更新日期:2014-12-01 00:00:00

  • Retinal arteriovenous shunt at the arteriovenous crossing.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:The purpose of the study was to demonstrate that the arteriovenous shunt at the arteriovenous crossing could occur in major retinal vascular diseases other than Takayasu disease. DESIGN:Clinical review of consecutive case series. PARTICIPANTS:The authors studied 1885 eyes with retinal vascular diseases such...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanaka T,Muraoka K,Tokui K

    更新日期:1998-07-01 00:00:00

  • Visual-evoked potential evidence of chiasmal hypoplasia.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To show that chiasmal hypoplasia or aplasia need not be an isolated developmental anomaly and to examine the spectrum of associated clinical findings to explore the possibility that these patients may represent a phenotypic manifestation of a developmental gene anomaly. DESIGN:An observational case series. PA...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Thompson DA,Kriss A,Chong K,Harris C,Russell-Eggitt I,Shawkat F,Neville BG,Aclimandos W,Taylor DS

    更新日期:1999-12-01 00:00:00

  • Cytogenetic Abnormalities in Uveal Melanoma Based on Tumor Features and Size in 1059 Patients: The 2016 W. Richard Green Lecture.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To determine the risks for altered cytogenetic profile based on melanoma features and size. DESIGN:Retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1059 patients with uveal melanoma. METHODS:Fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of tumor for DNA amplification and whole genome array-based assay. MAIN OUTCOM...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Shields CL,Say EAT,Hasanreisoglu M,Saktanasate J,Lawson BM,Landy JE,Badami AU,Sivalingam MD,Mashayekhi A,Shields JA,Ganguly A

    更新日期:2017-05-01 00:00:00

  • Bilateral orbital involvement in fatal giant cell polymyositis.

    abstract::The case of a young woman with giant cell polymyositis is described. She had bilateral, severe, midly painful proptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Extensive pharyngeal, laryngeal, and cardiac muscle involvement occurred 18 months later coincident with fatal cardiac arrhythmia. At autopsy, extensive muscle necrosis and giant...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Kattah JC,Zimmerman LE,Kolsky MP,Chrousos G,Chavis R,Jaffe G,Manz HJ

    更新日期:1990-04-01 00:00:00

  • A clinical study of slow-releasing artificial tears.

    abstract::The slow-releasing artificial tear (SR-AT) is a soluble polymer in solid form. Placed in the inferior cul-de-sac and allowed to dissolve, it is used to treat dry-eye patients. The SR-AT was studied in two phases. The short-term cross-over study of 40 patients was completed in October 1976. The long-term open study is ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Lamberts DW,Langston DP,Chu W

    更新日期:1978-08-01 00:00:00

  • Gaze-evoked amaurosis produced by intraorbital buckshot pellet.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To report the first case of gaze-evoked amaurosis secondary to an intraocular foreign body and to highlight the characteristic clinical findings of patients with this symptom. DESIGN:Case report and review of the literature. METHODS:Case review, clinical history, electrophysiologic testing, and follow-up. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Danesh-Meyer HV,Savino PJ,Bilyk JR,Sergott RC,Kubis K

    更新日期:2001-01-01 00:00:00

  • Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (retinal anlage tumor).

    abstract::Six cases of the melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy, including light and electron microscopic findings, are presented. The tumor, now believed to originate from neural crest, is usually cured by wide excision; however, malignant cases have been reported. Histopathologically, this lesion resembles neural retina...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Lamping KA,Albert DM,Lack E,Dickersin GR,Chapman PH,Walton DS

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • The heritability and sibling risk of angle closure in Asians.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To describe the heritability and sibling risk for angle closure. DESIGN:Prospective clinical study. PARTICIPANTS:Probands with primary angle closure (PAC) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) and their first-degree relatives. METHODS:One hundred probands with PAC and PACG and their first-degree relative...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Amerasinghe N,Zhang J,Thalamuthu A,He M,Vithana EN,Viswanathan A,Wong TY,Foster PJ,Aung T

    更新日期:2011-03-01 00:00:00

  • Preoperative antibiotic soaking of silicone sponges. Does it make a difference?

    abstract::A prospective randomized trial was carried out during the years 1974 to 1981 to determine whether preoperative antibiotic soaking of silicone sponges used in retinal detachment surgery would reduce the incidence of postoperative infection and extrusion. During this period 2972 consecutive primary scleral buckles were ...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章


    authors: Arribas NP,Olk RJ,Schertzer M,Okun E,Johnston GP,Boniuk I,Escoffery RF,Grand MG,Burgess DB

    更新日期:1984-12-01 00:00:00

  • Uveal metastasis from lung cancer: clinical features, treatment, and outcome in 194 patients.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To evaluate the clinical features, treatment, and prognosis of patients with uveal metastasis from lung cancer. DESIGN:Retrospective chart review. PARTICIPANTS:There were 194 patients with a diagnosis of uveal metastasis from lung cancer. INTERVENTION:Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, enucleation, or observation. ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,多中心研究


    authors: Shah SU,Mashayekhi A,Shields CL,Walia HS,Hubbard GB 3rd,Zhang J,Shields JA

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Long-term outcomes of intraoperative 5-fluorouracil versus intraoperative mitomycin C in primary trabeculectomy surgery.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To compare the long-term efficacy of intraoperative 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and mitomycin C (MMC) in primary trabeculectomy. DESIGN:Comparative case series and extension of a prospective, randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS:One hundred fifteen eyes of 103 subjects undergoing primary trabeculectomy with ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Palanca-Capistrano AM,Hall J,Cantor LB,Morgan L,Hoop J,WuDunn D

    更新日期:2009-02-01 00:00:00

  • Diabetic dense premacular hemorrhage. A possible indication for prompt vitrectomy.

    abstract::A review was undertaken of nine eyes of nine patients who suffered tightly bound dense premacular hemorrhage as a complication of proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Patients who did not receive vitrectomy within four weeks of the onset of the hemorrhage all progressed to late macular traction and visual acuity no bet...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: O'Hanley GP,Canny CL

    更新日期:1985-04-01 00:00:00

  • Prophylactic timolol for the prevention of high intraocular pressure after cataract extraction. A randomized, prospective, double-blind trial.

    abstract::Eyes undergoing routine intracapsular cataract extraction (without alpha-chymotrypsin) often experience marked ocular hypertension in the first six hours after surgery. We conducted a randomized, prospective, double-blind study to determine if timolol maleate would prevent this increase in pressure. Thirty-five eyes u...


    pub_type: 临床试验,杂志文章,随机对照试验


    authors: Haimann MH,Phelps CD

    更新日期:1981-03-01 00:00:00

  • Flicker sensitivity in treated ocular hypertension.

    abstract::Reductions in flicker sensitivity in ocular hypertension are thought to precede manifest glaucomatous damage, but the proportion of patients with ocular hypertension reported to have losses in flicker sensitivity (50-90%) is far out of step with the proportion of ocular hypertensive patients in whom clinically defined...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tytla ME,Trope GE,Buncic JR

    更新日期:1990-01-01 00:00:00

  • Experiments on the absorption of argon and krypton laser by blood.

    abstract::Experiments were performed to determine the absorption by and transmission through blood of argon blue-green (ABG) and green (AG) and krypton red (KR) laser light. Krypton was transmitted better through intact erythrocytes than argon. The difference between krypton and argon was greater if the erythrocytes contained o...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Folk JC,Shortt SG,Kleiber PD

    更新日期:1985-01-01 00:00:00

  • Treatment of congenital ptosis by maximal levator resection.

    abstract::The treatment of severe congenital ptosis may include frontalis suspension or maximal levator resection. A previous study of 145 consecutive frontalis suspensions for congenital ptosis showed a fairly high recurrence rate, frequent granuloma formation, and significant brow scars. In 28 patients undergoing 32 maximal l...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Mauriello JA,Wagner RS,Caputo AR,Natale B,Lister M

    更新日期:1986-04-01 00:00:00

  • Bilateral retinal artery and choriocapillaris occlusion following the injection of long-acting corticosteroid suspensions in combination with other drugs: II. Animal experimental studies.

    abstract::An experimental dog model was used to reproduce the clinical picture of bilateral arteriole and choriocapillaris occlusion from a unilateral intracarotid injection of long-acting corticosteroids combined with other drugs including lidocaine, epinephrine, and penicillin. All five known long-acting corticosteroids, when...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Wilson RS,McGrew RN,White HJ

    更新日期:1978-09-01 00:00:00

  • Nonmechanical excimer laser penetrating keratoplasty for perforated or predescemetal corneal ulcers.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To review the authors' results using nonmechanical excimer laser trephination in penetrating keratoplasty for perforated or predescemetal corneal ulcers. DESIGN:Noncomparative, consecutive, interventional case series. PARTICIPANTS:Thirty-two patients with perforated (17) or deep (15) corneal ulcers (9 bacte...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Küchle M,Seitz B,Langenbucher A,Naumann GO

    更新日期:1999-11-01 00:00:00

  • Scleral buckling in 2 1/2- to 11-month-old premature infants with retinal detachment associated with acute retrolental fibroplasia.

    abstract::The authors' experience over the past five years in the cryosurgical management of retinal detachment in ten eyes of eight premature infants with retrolental fibroplasia, whose ages at the time of detachment surgery ranged from 2 1/2 months to 11 months with an average of 5 1/2 months, is reported. Postoperative follo...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: McPherson A,Hittner HM

    更新日期:1979-05-01 00:00:00

  • Driving cessation and driving limitation in glaucoma: the Salisbury Eye Evaluation Project.

    abstract:OBJECTIVE:To determine if glaucoma is associated with driving limitation or cessation. DESIGN:Cross-sectional analysis within a longitudinal, population-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS AND CONTROLS:One thousand one hundred thirty-five ever-drivers between 73 and 93, including 70 subjects with unilateral and 68 subje...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Ramulu PY,West SK,Munoz B,Jampel HD,Friedman DS

    更新日期:2009-10-01 00:00:00

  • Acute multifocal hemorrhagic retinal vasculitis.

    abstract::The authors present a series of seven patients with acute visual loss associated with mild anterior uveitis, multifocal retinal vasculitis, retinal capillary nonperfusion, retinal hemorrhage, disc swelling, and vitreitis. Oral prednisone was of some benefit in these patients and oral acyclovir was generally ineffectiv...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Blumenkranz MS,Kaplan HJ,Clarkson JG,Culbertson WW,Williams GA,Kleiner RC,Meissner RH

    更新日期:1988-12-01 00:00:00

  • Optic nerve head circulation in nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy and optic neuritis.

    abstract:PURPOSE:To quantify optic nerve head circulatory abnormalities in patients with unilateral nonarteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION) or optic neuritis (ON), and to assess the potential of such measurements to differentiate NAION from ON. DESIGN:Prospective, cross-sectional, observational study. PARTICIP...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collignon-Robe NJ,Feke GT,Rizzo JF 3rd

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00