Current Management of the Axilla.


:Despite advances in estimating prognosis and predicting response to adjuvant systemic therapy, the status of the axillary lymph nodes remains a critical component in initial surgical planning and in determining therapeutic strategies for patients with breast cancer. Buoyed by evidence from multi-institutional randomized clinical trials, the last 2 decades have witnessed remarkable and practice-changing advances in our approach to the axilla. This review concentrates on the current best practice in axillary management for both node-negative and node-positive patients, with particular focus on the evolving management of the axilla in the era of neoadjuvant systemic therapy.


Clin Obstet Gynecol


McCARTAN D,Gemignani ML




Has Abstract


2016-12-01 00:00:00












  • Surgical approaches to postobstetrical perineal body defects (rectovaginal fistula and chronic third and fourth-degree lacerations).

    abstract::Rectovaginal fistulas and chronic anal sphincter lacerations are uncommon complications that are most often secondary to vaginal delivery, gynecologic surgery, and inflammatory bowel disease. In this chapter, we will review the pertinent anatomy, focusing on the 6 structures that should be considered during the repair...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Delancey JO,Berger MB

    更新日期:2010-03-01 00:00:00

  • Infection control and postexposure prophylaxis for the pregnant healthcare worker.

    abstract::Pregnant health care workers (HCW) may be exposed to pathogens during routine patient care duties. Although they do not seem to be at higher risk for infection compared with nonpregnant HCW, certain infections can be associated with increased maternal morbidity, mortality, and adverse perinatal outcomes. Primary preve...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bazan JA,Mangino JE

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Traditional surgical approaches to uterine fibroids: abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy.

    abstract::Abdominal myomectomy and hysterectomy remain the traditional treatment of large symptomatic uterine myomas. The preoperative indications for abdominal myomectomy or hysterectomy must be clearly evaluated and delineated avoid unnecessary intervention. There appears to be an increasing trend toward expectant management ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Guarnaccia MM,Rein MS

    更新日期:2001-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pathology of the adnexal mass.

    abstract::An "adnexal mass" is a common specimen encountered in the daily pathology practice. Although most are benign, the incidence of malignancy increases with age, and approximately 30% are malignant in postmenopausal females. Herein we describe the salient macroscopic and microscopic features of the most prevalent adnexal ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Bennett JA,Oliva E

    更新日期:2015-03-01 00:00:00

  • Antepartum Care of the Obese Patient.

    abstract::In the United States, roughly half of women are either overweight (24.5%) or obese (21.4%) when they become pregnant. Women who are obese before pregnancy are at increased risk for a number of pregnancy complications relative to normal-weight women. Specifically, obesity is associated with significantly increased mate...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Simhan HN

    更新日期:2016-03-01 00:00:00

  • Ultrasound in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    abstract::The majority of ectopic pregnancies can be diagnosed on transvaginal scan before treatment. Diagnosis should be based on positive visualization of an ectopic pregnancy rather the inability to visualize an intrauterine pregnancy. The majority of ectopic pregnancies will be visible on the initial transvaginal scan perfo...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kirk E

    更新日期:2012-06-01 00:00:00

  • Influenza during pregnancy: a cause of serious infection in obstetrics.

    abstract::Influenza infection during pregnancy imparts disproportionate morbidity and mortality. This has been primarily noted during occasional influenza pandemics but also during seasonal epidemics. The majority of pregnant women who contract influenza appear to have a mild, self-limited course. However, influenza produces a ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Beigi RH

    更新日期:2012-12-01 00:00:00

  • New Developments in Minimally Invasive Gynecologic Oncology Surgery.

    abstract::Minimally invasive surgery continues to transform the field of gynecologic oncology and has now become the standard of care for many early-stage malignancies. The proven benefits of minimally invasive surgery are driving the rapid introduction and dissemination of novel technologies and the increasing ability to perfo...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Stewart KI,Fader AN

    更新日期:2017-06-01 00:00:00

  • Epidemiology and risk factors.

    abstract::HBC is common, accounting for approximately 9% of the total breast cancer burden. Given 142,000 cases of breast cancer expected to occur in 1989, this would represent 12,780 cases of HBC patients. Soberingly, each patient represents a family with a variable number of inordinately high risk patients. HBC's natural hist...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Lynch HT,Watson P,Lynch JF

    更新日期:1989-12-01 00:00:00

  • A View From the UK: The UK and Ireland Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths and Morbidity.

    abstract::The UK Confidential Enquiry into Maternal Deaths has been in operation for more than 60 years, during which time maternal mortality rates have fallen 10-fold. The program includes two aspects, surveillance and confidential case review, providing different information to aid quality improvement in maternity care. The e...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Knight M,Tuffnell D

    更新日期:2018-06-01 00:00:00

  • Management of Preinvasive Lesions.

    abstract::Serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma is considered the precursor lesion of high-grade serous carcinoma, and found in both low-risk and high-risk populations. Isolated serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas in patients with BRCA1/2 mutations are detected in ∼2% of patients undergoing risk-reducing bilateral salpingo...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Patrono MG,Corzo C,Iniesta M,Ramirez PT

    更新日期:2017-12-01 00:00:00

  • Office hysteroscopy.

    abstract::Most operative office surgery can be done easily. If, midway through a procedure in the office, the operator finds that a myoma is too large or deep to resect safely in the office, the procedure can be terminated and rescheduled for the operating room. Polyps, retained products, and the lost intrauterine device all ca...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Gimpelson RJ

    更新日期:1992-06-01 00:00:00

  • Norgestimate.

    abstract::Norgestimate (NGM) is one of a class of newer, more selective progestins. The authors describe its structure and biologic activity, contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, metabolic effects, carbohydrate metabolism, coagulation factors, and clinical side effects. NGM-containing oral contraceptives (OC), either a...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Corson SL

    更新日期:1995-12-01 00:00:00

  • Toxicity of chemotherapy and radiation on female reproduction.

    abstract::One of the most devastating consequences of cancer treatment in the young female population is ovarian damage, resulting in diminished fertility potential. The extent of damage is related to age, chemotherapeutic regimen, and dose of pelvic radiation received. It is crucial that physicians know the impact each of thes...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Meirow D,Biederman H,Anderson RA,Wallace WH

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Bacterial vaginitis.

    abstract::Bacterial vaginitis is responsible for approximately 10 million office visits per year. This condition may disrupt marriages and cause psychologic stress that may be reflected in the individual's work and social life. Bacterial vaginitis also has been thought to lead to postpartum endometritis, pelvic cellulitis, pelv...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Faro S

    更新日期:1991-09-01 00:00:00

  • Life-threatening infections in pregnancy.

    abstract::Infection remains a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. Those entities that are most likely to threaten the life of the pregnant woman have been reviewed. Although intrapartum and postpartum pelvic infections consitute the majority such serious infections in pregnancy, attention has also been called to se...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Schwarz RH,Fruiterman JP

    更新日期:1976-09-01 00:00:00

  • Weight gain and energy intake during pregnancy.

    abstract::The ideal weight gain or energy intake for an individual woman cannot be determined from research studies. Current guidelines for maternal gain, however, combined with individualized assessment and follow-up, can provide the clinician and the pregnant women with a meaningful target and plan for achieving a healthy wei...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Abrams B

    更新日期:1994-09-01 00:00:00

  • Viral infections in pregnancy.

    abstract::The responsibility of the physician for viral infections in pregnancy has changed dramatically in the last 15 years. Genital herpes infections have become much more frequent, and the recognition of these infections in women near term is particularly important. Cytomegaloviruses have been found to be the most commom ca...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sever JL

    更新日期:1978-06-01 00:00:00

  • Use of Cervical Pessary in the Management of Cervical Insufficiency.

    abstract::Prevention of spontaneous preterm birth is an important public health priority. Pessary may be a potential therapy in cases of cervical insufficiency, in singleton and multiple gestations. Availability of transvaginal sonography for accurate assessment of cervical length is allowing for the tailoring of therapy to a m...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Timofeev J

    更新日期:2016-06-01 00:00:00

  • Pruritus in pregnancy.

    abstract::Diagnosis of the cause of pruritus in a pregnant patient should be approached systematically, beginning with a detailed history (especially drug exposure) and physical examination. Systemic diseases must be excluded. Liver function tests and hepatitis screen are in order if symptoms suggest liver dysfunction. Stool ex...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Dacus JV

    更新日期:1990-12-01 00:00:00

  • Critical anatomic concepts for safe surgical mesh.

    abstract::A comprehensive knowledge of the boundaries, contents, and interactions between surgical spaces is essential to safely and effectively perform mesh-augmented prolapse repairs and anti-incontinence procedures. This knowledge is also critical when managing intraoperative and postoperative complications such as bleeding,...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Corton MM

    更新日期:2013-06-01 00:00:00

  • Prolonged pregnancy: when should we intervene?

    abstract::The timely onset of labor and birth is an important determinant of perinatal outcome. Prolonged (postterm) pregnancy--defined as delivery at or beyond 42 weeks' gestation--complicates 10% of all gestations and is associated with increased risks to both fetus (stillbirth, macrosomia, birth injury, meconium aspiration s...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Norwitz ER,Snegovskikh VV,Caughey AB

    更新日期:2007-06-01 00:00:00

  • Saving mother's lives: programs that work.

    abstract::Maternal mortality is a complex problem requiring complex responses. Nevertheless, every intervention must operate through one of 3 pathways: preventing pregnancy, preventing complications, or preventing death when obstetric complications occur. We describe interventions following each pathway and assess their evidenc...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fortney JA,Leong M

    更新日期:2009-06-01 00:00:00

  • The Utilization of Interventional Radiologic Procedures in the Surgical Management of Placenta Accreta Syndrome.

    abstract::The role of Interventional radiologic procedures for the management of suspected placenta accreta spectrum (PAS) has evolved considerably over last 3 decades. In this article, the authors describe the various techniques of vascular occlusion for the management of PAS and provide a brief review of the literature examin...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Shrivastava VK,Nageotte MP

    更新日期:2018-12-01 00:00:00

  • Subclinical thyroid dysfunction during pregnancy.

    abstract::There is compelling data and a rationale for embarking on screening to identify pregnant women with some of the multiple classes of subclinical thyroid dysfunction. However, the evidence to support such screening and treatment is lacking. Several important trials are underway or undergoing peer review that may provide...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Casey BM

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • Cervical assessment.

    abstract::The relationship between the clinical state of the cervix and spontaneous onset of labor has long been known. The cervix can be characterized by evaluating five parameters: effacement, dilatation, firmness, position, and level of the presenting part. The relative associations between successful labor induction and the...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fuentes A,Williams M

    更新日期:1995-06-01 00:00:00

  • Robotic-assisted surgery for the community gynecologist: can it be adopted?

    abstract::The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Association of Gynecologic Laparoscopists confirm advantages of conventional minimally invasive surgery over laparotomy for benign gynecological procedures; however, adoption remains low for the general gynecologist. A systematic search for gynec...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Payne TN,Pitter MC

    更新日期:2011-09-01 00:00:00

  • New horizons in Doppler ultrasound technology: relevance for obstetrical applications.

    abstract::Technologic advances and clinical research have been extending the scope of Doppler sonography and have resulted in the emergence of new diagnostic tools that show significant promise in clinical applications. This article aims to review some of these developments that are relevant for obstetrical practice. One of the...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Maulik D,Heitmann E,Maulik D

    更新日期:2010-12-01 00:00:00

  • Controversies in the Management of Endometrioma: To Cure Sometimes, to Treat Often, to Comfort Always?

    abstract::Endometriomas are common in reproductive-aged women, but controversy exists regarding their management. PubMed was searched to identify pertinent studies on outcomes of medical and surgical management of endometrioma, with focus on randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Surgical excision is more effective tha...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Johnstone EB,Link MH

    更新日期:2015-12-01 00:00:00

  • Antibiotics in pregnancy.

    abstract::Because it is known that antibiotics given to the mother may reach and affect the fetus, when prescribing antibiotics during pregnancy, one must take into consideration both maternal and fetal well-being. Therapy should be directed toward the maternal disease but also be safe for the fetus. The volume of distribution ...

    journal_title:Clinical obstetrics and gynecology

    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hedstrom S,Martens MG

    更新日期:1993-12-01 00:00:00