Self-administration of small amounts of morphine through glass micropipettes into the ventral tegmental area of the rat.


:A micropipette-system was used to investigate intracranial self-injection of morphine in the rat. The system consisted of a glass micropipette (tip dia 5 microns) connected by flexible tubing and a swivel to a pressure source. Using nose-poking through a hole in one wall of the cage as the operant, rats self-injected quantities as small as 50 ng/5 nl of morphine into the ventral tegmental area. In contrast, rats in the saline-treated group and yoked-control group did not increase their rates of nose-poking behaviour above baseline levels. Intermittent reinforcement in the morphine-treated group resulted in a further increase in the rate of nose-poking. Histological inspection of the site of injection revealed minimal damage to brain tissue and likely confinement of the injected solution to the area around the tip of the pipette.






Welzl H,Kuhn G,Huston JP




Has Abstract


1989-10-01 00:00:00












  • Differential regulation of BDNF, synaptic plasticity and sprouting in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway of male and female rats.

    abstract::Many studies have described potent effects of BDNF, 17β-estradiol or androgen on hippocampal synapses and their plasticity. Far less information is available about the interactions between 17β-estradiol and BDNF in hippocampus, or interactions between androgen and BDNF in hippocampus. Here we review the regulation of ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Scharfman HE,MacLusky NJ

    更新日期:2014-01-01 00:00:00

  • Structural and molecular aspects of betaine-GABA transporter 1 (BGT1) and its relation to brain function.

    abstract::ɣ-aminobutyric-acid (GABA) functions as the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. Imbalances in GABAergic neurotransmission are involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease and stroke. GABA transporters (GATs) facilitate the termi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Kickinger S,Hellsberg E,Frølund B,Schousboe A,Ecker GF,Wellendorph P

    更新日期:2019-12-15 00:00:00

  • Gender moderates the association between 5-HTTLPR and decision-making under ambiguity but not under risk.

    abstract::Decisions made under ambiguity may involve a different genetic architecture than those made under risk. Because gender moderates the effect of genetic polymorphisms on serotonin function and because there are gender differences in decision-making, the present study examined potential gender moderation of associations ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Stoltenberg SF,Vandever JM

    更新日期:2010-02-01 00:00:00

  • The role of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in acquisition and expression of contextual and auditory fear conditioning in rats - a comparison.

    abstract::Glutamatergic neurotransmission in the CNS plays a predominant role in learning and memory. While NMDA receptors have been extensively studied, less is known about the involvement of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in this area. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of mGluR1 and m...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Gravius A,Barberi C,Schäfer D,Schmidt WJ,Danysz W

    更新日期:2006-12-01 00:00:00

  • The interplay between inflammatory cytokines and the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of synaptic transmission.

    abstract::Excessive glutamate-mediated synaptic transmission and secondary excitotoxicity have been proposed as key determinants of neurodegeneration in many neurological diseases. Soluble mediators of inflammation have recently gained attention owing to their ability to enhance glutamate transmission and affect synaptic sensit...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Rossi S,Motta C,Musella A,Centonze D

    更新日期:2015-09-01 00:00:00

  • Hypothesis: cannabinoid therapy for the treatment of gliomas?

    abstract::Gliomas, in particular glioblastoma multiforme or grade IV astrocytoma, are the most frequent class of malignant primary brain tumours and one of the most aggressive forms of cancer. Current therapeutic strategies for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme are usually ineffective or just palliative. During the last ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Velasco G,Galve-Roperh I,Sánchez C,Blázquez C,Guzmán M

    更新日期:2004-09-01 00:00:00

  • Toll-like receptor signalling as a cannabinoid target in Multiple Sclerosis.

    abstract::Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are the sensors of pathogen-associated molecules that trigger tailored innate immune intracellular signalling responses to initiate innate immune reactions. Data from the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model indicates that TLR signalling machinery is a pivotal player in the ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Fitzpatrick JK,Downer EJ

    更新日期:2017-02-01 00:00:00

  • Galanin regulates spatial memory but not visual recognition memory or synaptic plasticity in perirhinal cortex.

    abstract::It has previously been shown that the neuropeptide galanin plays a role in the age-dependent regulation of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory. Here, we further extend these studies by demonstrating that galanin knockout mice also have deficits in an object-in-place spatial memory task. In contrast howe...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Massey PV,Warburton EC,Wynick D,Brown MW,Bashir ZI

    更新日期:2003-01-01 00:00:00

  • Pharmacoresistance - Epidemiology, mechanisms, and impact on epilepsy treatment.

    abstract::Understanding the natural history of and factors associated with pharmacoresistant epilepsy provides the foundation for formulating mechanistic hypotheses that can be evaluated to drive the development of novel treatments. This article reviews the modern definition of drug-resistant epilepsy, its prevalence and incide...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: Janmohamed M,Brodie MJ,Kwan P

    更新日期:2020-05-15 00:00:00

  • Platelet-activating factor antagonists protect amyloid-beta damaged neurons from microglia-mediated death.

    abstract::Neurons treated with sub-lethal concentrations of amyloid-beta1-42 developed phenotypic changes and selectively bound a CD14-IgG chimera; in co-cultures, microglia recognised and killed these amyloid-beta1-42 -damaged neurons. Pre-treatment with the platelet-activating factor (PAF) antagonists (Hexa-PAF, CV6209 or gin...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Bate C,Kempster S,Williams A

    更新日期:2006-08-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioural phenotype of histamine H4 receptor knockout mice: Focus on central neuronal functions.

    abstract::The functional expression of H4 receptors (H4R) within neurons of the central nervous system has been recently reported, but their role is poorly understood. The present study aims to elucidate the role of neuronal H4R by providing the first description of the behavioural phenotype of H4R-deficient (H4R knockout, H4R-...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Sanna MD,Ghelardini C,Thurmond RL,Masini E,Galeotti N

    更新日期:2017-03-01 00:00:00

  • Chronic nicotine differentially alters cocaine-induced locomotor activity in adolescent vs. adult male and female rats.

    abstract::Tobacco use is prevalent in the adolescent population. It is a major concern because tobacco is highly addictive and has also been linked to illicit drug use. There is not much research, however, on the interaction between nicotine and other stimulant drugs in animal models of early adolescence. This study examined th...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Collins SL,Izenwasser S

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • The influence of subunit composition on the interaction of neurosteroids with GABA(A) receptors.

    abstract::The influence of the subunit composition of human GABA(A) receptors upon the GABA-modulatory properties of 5alpha-pregnan-3alpha-ol-20-one (5alpha,3alpha) has been examined using the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and the two electrode voltage-clamp technique. Steroid potency (EC(50)) is modestly influenced b...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Belelli D,Casula A,Ling A,Lambert JJ

    更新日期:2002-09-01 00:00:00

  • The effects of propofol on mitochondrial dysfunction following focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion in rats.

    abstract::Propofol has been shown to attenuate brain injury in experimental ischemia models, but few studies have focused on the direct effect of propofol on mitochondrial dysfunction. In this study, we observed the effects of propofol on multiple aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction by studying the mitochondria isolated from r...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Li J,Yu W,Li XT,Qi SH,Li B

    更新日期:2014-02-01 00:00:00

  • Selective and differential interactions of BNN27, a novel C17-spiroepoxy steroid derivative, with TrkA receptors, regulating neuronal survival and differentiation.

    abstract::Nerve growth factor (NGF) holds a pivotal role in brain development and maintenance, been also involved in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we provide evidence that a novel C17-spiroepoxy steroid derivative, BNN27, specifically interacts with and activates the TrkA receptor of NGF, inducing pho...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Pediaditakis I,Efstathopoulos P,Prousis KC,Zervou M,Arévalo JC,Alexaki VI,Nikoletopoulou V,Karagianni E,Potamitis C,Tavernarakis N,Chavakis T,Margioris AN,Venihaki M,Calogeropoulou T,Charalampopoulos I,Gravanis A

    更新日期:2016-12-01 00:00:00

  • Behavioral syndrome induced by allylnitrile, crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile in rats.

    abstract::A single oral administration of allylnitrile, crotononitrile or 2-pentenenitrile in rats induced behavioral abnormalities, such as head-twitching, head weaving, hindlimb abduction, backward pedaling and pivoting. The head-twitching, which was most consistently observed, was suppressed by serotonin (5-HT) antagonists, ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Tanii H,Hayashi M,Hashimoto K

    更新日期:1991-08-01 00:00:00

  • Neuroprotective effect of YM-39558 in focal cerebral ischemia in cats.

    abstract::We studied the effect of YM-39558, orotic acid ethylester, in a focal cerebral ischemia model in anesthetized cats. YM-39558 has good permeability across the blood brain barrier, and in the brain is hydrolyzed to orotic acid, the main active substance. Cats were subjected to permanent occlusion of the middle cerebral ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Akiho H,Iwai A,Tsukamoto S,Koshiya K,Yamaguchi T

    更新日期:1998-01-01 00:00:00

  • GABA(B) receptor activation inhibits dopamine D1 receptor-mediated facilitation of [(3)H]GABA release in substantia nigra pars reticulata.

    abstract::GABA(B) receptors inhibit and dopamine D1 receptors stimulate the release of GABA from striatal terminals in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra. Here we have studied the interaction between both classes of receptors by exploring the effect of GABA(B) receptors upon the stimulation of depolarization-induced [(...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Nava-Asbell C,Paz-Bermudez F,Erlij D,Aceves J,Florán B

    更新日期:2007-10-01 00:00:00

  • Function of mGlu1 receptors in the modulation of nociceptive processing in the thalamus.

    abstract::As postsynaptic metabotropic subtype 1 (mGlu1) receptors are present in the thalamus, we have investigated the effect of potentiating and antagonising mGlu1 receptors on responses of thalamic neurones to noxious sensory stimulation. Extracellular recordings were made in vivo with multi-barrel iontophoretic electrodes ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Salt TE,Jones HE,Copeland CS,Sillito AM

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • Schizophrenia and tobacco smoking comorbidity: nAChR agonists in the treatment of schizophrenia-associated cognitive deficits.

    abstract::Tobacco smoking is a preventable cause of morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Very high rates of tobacco smoking are seen in patients with schizophrenia. Importantly, smokers with schizophrenia generally have higher nicotine dependence scores, experience more severe withdrawal symptoms upon smoking cessation...


    pub_type: 杂志文章,评审


    authors: D'Souza MS,Markou A

    更新日期:2012-03-01 00:00:00

  • Differences in toxicity of the catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitors, tolcapone and entacapone to cultured human neuroblastoma cells.

    abstract::Tolcapone and entacapone are catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors used as adjuncts to levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD). The use of tolcapone has been limited by its hepatotoxicity, the cause of which remains uncertain. Tolcapone compound is an uncoupler of mitochondrial respiration in is...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Korlipara LV,Cooper JM,Schapira AH

    更新日期:2004-03-01 00:00:00

  • Neurochemical and behavioral effects of acute and chronic treatment with apomorphine in rats.

    abstract::In three experiments, rats were injected once daily with 5.0 mg/kg apomorphine or vehicle and tested for locomotor activity for 10-14 days. In each experiment, apomorphine produced behavioral sensitization, characterized by a progressively greater increase in locomotor activity with each succeeding injection. On day 1...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Rowlett JK,Mattingly BA,Bardo MT

    更新日期:1991-02-01 00:00:00

  • miR-132/212 is induced by stress and its dysregulation triggers anxiety-related behavior.

    abstract::miR-132 and miR-212 are structurally-related microRNAs that are expressed from the same non-coding transcript. Accumulating evidence has shown that the dysregulation of these microRNAs contributes to aberrant neuronal plasticity and gene expression in the mammalian brain. Consistent with this, altered expression of mi...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Aten S,Page CE,Kalidindi A,Wheaton K,Niraula A,Godbout JP,Hoyt KR,Obrietan K

    更新日期:2019-01-01 00:00:00

  • Effect of acute and repeated treatment with desipramine or methylphenidate on serial reversal learning in rats.

    abstract::Administration of stimulant and non-stimulant drugs that inhibit monoamine reuptake is known to improve cognitive and behavioral symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Although this may reflect acute actions of these drugs, clinical observations suggest that prolonged treatment with these agents ...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Seu E,Jentsch JD

    更新日期:2009-12-01 00:00:00

  • Crebinostat: a novel cognitive enhancer that inhibits histone deacetylase activity and modulates chromatin-mediated neuroplasticity.

    abstract::Long-term memory formation is known to be critically dependent upon de novo gene expression in the brain. As a consequence, pharmacological enhancement of the transcriptional processes mediating long-term memory formation provides a potential therapeutic strategy for cognitive disorders involving aberrant neuroplastic...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fass DM,Reis SA,Ghosh B,Hennig KM,Joseph NF,Zhao WN,Nieland TJ,Guan JS,Kuhnle CE,Tang W,Barker DD,Mazitschek R,Schreiber SL,Tsai LH,Haggarty SJ

    更新日期:2013-01-01 00:00:00

  • Induction of Fos proteins in regions of the nucleus accumbens and ventrolateral striatum correlates with catalepsy and stereotypic behaviours induced by morphine.

    abstract::A history of intermittent exposures to drugs of abuse can cause long-term changes in acute behavioural responses to a subsequent drug exposure. In drug-naive rats, morphine can elicit intermittent cataleptic postures followed by sustained increases in locomotor activity. Chronic intermittent morphine treatment can red...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Hamlin AS,McNally GP,Westbrook RF,Osborne PB

    更新日期:2009-03-01 00:00:00

  • Long-lasting glutamatergic modulation induced by neonatal GABA enhancement in mice.

    abstract::A subgroup of anticonvulsant and neuroleptic drugs acts through the potentiation of GABA pathways. The regulatory role of GABA in neuronal circuit formation is related to its depolarizing action that supports activity-dependent synaptogenesis. We hypothesized that elevated levels of GABA in the immature brain modify s...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Melamed O,Levav-Rabkin T,Zukerman C,Clarke G,Cryan JF,Dinan TG,Grossman Y,Golan HM

    更新日期:2014-04-01 00:00:00

  • The THIP-induced model of bilateral synchronous spike and wave in rodents.

    abstract::Intraperitoneal administration of 5-10 mg/kg of THIP (4,5,6,7 tetrahydroxyisoxazolo (4,5,c) pyridine 3-ol) induced a transient, reliable model of bilaterally synchronous spikes and waves in rats. The paroxysmal bursts elicited by THIP had similar topographical distribution to the spontaneously-occurring spike and wave...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Fariello RG,Golden GT

    更新日期:1987-02-01 00:00:00

  • Cholecystokinin octapeptide, caerulein and caerulein analogues: effects on thermoregulation in the mouse.

    abstract::Cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8), caerulein and seven out of ten analogues of caerulein produced in mice, after subcutaneous administration, a dose-dependent drop in rectal temperature. For the hypothermic effect, i.e. a decrease in temperature by at least 1.5 degree C, ED50's were estimated with these peptides and...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Zetler G

    更新日期:1982-08-01 00:00:00

  • Proconflict effect of GABA receptor complex antagonists. Reversal by diazepam.

    abstract::The effect of drugs which down-regulate the function of GABA at the level of the GABA/benzodiazepine receptor complex was studied on the conflict test in the rat. The GABA receptor antagonist, bicuculline, and the blockers of the GABA-receptor-coupled chloride channel, picrotoxin and pentylenetetrazol, produced a dose...


    pub_type: 杂志文章


    authors: Corda MG,Biggio G

    更新日期:1986-05-01 00:00:00