Unsupervised Learning for Robust Respiratory Signal Estimation From X-Ray Fluoroscopy.


:Respiratory signals are required for image gating and motion compensation in minimally invasive interventions. In X-ray fluoroscopy, extraction of a respiratory signal can be challenging due to characteristics of interventional imaging, in particular injection of contrast agent and automatic exposure control. We present a novel method for respiratory signal extraction based on dimensionality reduction that can tolerate these events. Images are divided into patches of multiple sizes. Low-dimensional embeddings are generated for each patch using illumination-invariant kernel PCA. Patches with respiratory information are selected automatically by agglomerative clustering. The signals from this respiratory cluster are combined robustly to a single respiratory signal. In the experiments, we evaluate our method on a variety of scenarios. If the diaphragm is visible, we track its superior-inferior motion as ground truth. Our method has a correlation coefficient of more than 91% with the ground truth irrespective of whether or not contrast agent injection or automatic exposure control occur. Additionally, we show that very similar signals are estimated from biplane sequences and from sequences without visible diaphragm. Since all these cases are handled automatically, the method is robust enough to be considered for use in a clinical setting.


IEEE Trans Med Imaging


Fischer P,Pohl T,Faranesh A,Maier A,Hornegger J




Has Abstract


2017-04-01 00:00:00












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